Cumulus oophorus

Cumulus oophorus

Cumulus oophorus
Section of vesicular ovarian follicle of cat. X 50. (Discus proligerus labeled at lower left.)
Details
Latin Cumulus oophorus
Discus proliger
Identifiers
Gray's p.1256
Dorlands
/Elsevier
c_66/12271425
Anatomical terminology

The cumulus oophorus (Latin cumulus=heap, Greek oo=egg + phor=carrier; Latinized ending "-us"), also called discus proligerus, is a cluster of cells (called cumulus cells) that surround the oocyte both in the ovarian follicle and after ovulation. In the antral follicle, it may be regarded as an extension of the membrana granulosa. The innermost layer of these cells is the corona radiata.[1]

This layer of cells must be penetrated by spermatozoa in order for fertilization to occur.

Contents

  • Functions 1
  • Gene expression profiling 2
  • References 3
  • External links 4

Functions

Functions of the cumulus oophorus include coordination of follicular development and oocyte maturation.[2] Mechanisms of the latter include stimulation of amino acid transport and sterol biosynthesis and regulation of oocyte gene transcription.[2]

It also provides energy substrates for oocyte meiotic resumption and promotes glycolysis.[2]

In addition, it provides protection for the oocyte.[2]

Gene expression profiling

As a part of the process of in vitro fertilization, gene expression profiling of cumulus cells can be performed to estimate oocyte quality and the efficiency of an ovarian hyperstimulation protocol, and may indirectly predict oocyte aneuploidy, embryo development and pregnancy outcomes.[2] Increased knowledge in these aspects is useful in, for example, embryo selection.[2]

In gene expression profiling of cumulus cells, genes where increased expression is correlated with higher oocyte competence or better pregnancy outcomes include: HAS2, GREM1 and PTGS2.[2]

In contrast, genes where increased expression is correlated with lower oocyte competence or worse pregnancy outcomes include: BDNF, CCND2, CXCR4, GPX3, HSPB1, DVL3, DHCR7, CTNND1, TRIM28, STAR, AREG, CX43, PTGS2, SCD1 and SCD5.[2]

References

  1. ^ Gilbert, Scott F. Developmental Biology (Ninth ed.). Sinauer Associates, Inc. p. 126.  
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h The Evian Annual Reproduction (EVAR) Workshop Group 2010; Fauser, B. C. J. M.; Diedrich, K.; Bouchard, P.; Domínguez, F.; Matzuk, M.; Franks, S.; Hamamah, S.; Simón, C.; Devroey, P.; Ezcurra, D.; Howles, C. M. (2011). "Contemporary genetic technologies and female reproduction". Human Reproduction Update 17 (6): 829–847.  

External links

  • Anatomy photo: Reproductive/mammal/ovary5/ovary3 - Comparative Organology at University of California, Davis - "Mammal, bovine ovary (LM, Medium)"
  • repro/reproov[ ] at the Memorial University of Newfoundland
  • Swiss embryology (from UL, UB, and UF) dbefruchtung/objectbefru01
  • UIUC Histology Subject 366
  • Histology image: 18404loa - Histology Learning System at Boston University - "Female Reproductive System: ovary, cumulus oophorus"

This article incorporates text from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy.