Interleukin 9

Interleukin 9

Interleukin 9
Symbols  ; HP40; IL-9; P40
External IDs GeneCards:
RNA expression pattern
Species Human Mouse
RefSeq (mRNA)
RefSeq (protein)
Location (UCSC)
PubMed search

Interleukin 9, also known as IL-9, is a cytokine (cell signalling molecule) belonging to the group of interleukins.[1]


The protein encoded by this gene is a cytokine produced by T-cells and specifically by CD4+ helper cells that acts as a regulator of a variety of hematopoietic cells. This cytokine stimulates cell proliferation and prevents apoptosis. It functions through the interleukin-9 receptor (IL9R), which activates different signal transducer and activator (STAT) proteins and thus connects this cytokine to various biological processes. The gene encoding this cytokine has been identified as a candidate gene for asthma. Genetic studies on a mouse model of asthma demonstrated that this cytokine is a determining factor in the pathogenesis of bronchial hyperresponsiveness.[1]

Interleukin-9 has also shown to inhibit melanoma growth in mice.[2]


  1. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: IL9 interleukin 9". 
  2. ^ Purwar R, Schlapbach C, Xiao S, Kang HS, Elyaman W, Jiang X, Jetten AM, Khoury SJ, Fuhlbrigge RC, Kuchroo VK, Clark RA, Kupper TS (July 2012). "Robust tumor immunity to melanoma mediated by interleukin-9-producing T cells". Nat. Med. 18 (8): 1248–53.  

Further reading

  • Renauld JC, Houssiau F, Louahed J, et al. (1993). "Interleukin-9". Adv. Immunol. Advances in Immunology 54: 79–97.  
  • Knoops L, Renauld JC (2005). "IL-9 and its receptor: from signal transduction to tumorigenesis". Growth Factors 22 (4): 207–15.  
  • Modi WS, Pollock DD, Mock BA, et al. (1991). "Regional localization of the human glutaminase (GLS) and interleukin-9 (IL9) genes by in situ hybridization". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 57 (2–3): 114–6.  
  • Kelleher K, Bean K, Clark SC, et al. (1991). "Human interleukin-9: genomic sequence, chromosomal location, and sequences essential for its expression in human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV)-I-transformed human T cells". Blood 77 (7): 1436–41.  
  • Holbrook ST, Ohls RK, Schibler KR, et al. (1991). "Effect of interleukin-9 on clonogenic maturation and cell-cycle status of fetal and adult hematopoietic progenitors". Blood 77 (10): 2129–34.  
  • Merz H, Houssiau FA, Orscheschek K, et al. (1991). "Interleukin-9 expression in human malignant lymphomas: unique association with Hodgkin's disease and large cell anaplastic lymphoma". Blood 78 (5): 1311–7.  
  • Renauld JC, Goethals A, Houssiau F, et al. (1990). "Human P40/IL-9. Expression in activated CD4+ T cells, genomic organization, and comparison with the mouse gene". J. Immunol. 144 (11): 4235–41.  
  • Renauld JC, Goethals A, Houssiau F, et al. (1991). "Cloning and expression of a cDNA for the human homolog of mouse T cell and mast cell growth factor P40". Cytokine 2 (1): 9–12.  
  • Yang YC, Ricciardi S, Ciarletta A, et al. (1989). "Expression cloning of cDNA encoding a novel human hematopoietic growth factor: human homologue of murine T-cell growth factor P40". Blood 74 (6): 1880–4.  
  • Yin T, Keller SR, Quelle FW, et al. (1995). "Interleukin-9 induces tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 via JAK tyrosine kinases". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (35): 20497–502.  
  • Postma DS, Bleecker ER, Amelung PJ, et al. (1995). "Genetic susceptibility to asthma--bronchial hyperresponsiveness coinherited with a major gene for atopy". N. Engl. J. Med. 333 (14): 894–900.  
  • Le Beau MM, Espinosa R, Neuman WL, et al. (1993). "Cytogenetic and molecular delineation of the smallest commonly deleted region of chromosome 5 in malignant myeloid diseases". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90 (12): 5484–8.  
  • Demoulin JB, Uyttenhove C, Van Roost E, et al. (1996). "A single tyrosine of the interleukin-9 (IL-9) receptor is required for STAT activation, antiapoptotic activity, and growth regulation by IL-9". Mol. Cell. Biol. 16 (9): 4710–6.  
  • Nicolaides NC, Holroyd KJ, Ewart SL, et al. (1998). "Interleukin 9: A candidate gene for asthma". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94 (24): 13175–80.  
  • Demoulin JB, Van Roost E, Stevens M, et al. (1999). "Distinct roles for STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5 in differentiation gene induction and apoptosis inhibition by interleukin-9". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (36): 25855–61.  
  • Lejeune D, Demoulin JB, Renauld JC (2001). "Interleukin 9 induces expression of three cytokine signal inhibitors: cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein, suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS)-2 and SOCS-3, but only SOCS-3 overexpression suppresses interleukin 9 signalling". Biochem. J. 353 (Pt 1): 109–116.  
  • Little FF, Cruikshank WW, Center DM (2001). "Il-9 stimulates release of chemotactic factors from human bronchial epithelial cells". Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 25 (3): 347–52.  
  • Toda M, Tulic MK, Levitt RC, Hamid Q (2002). "A calcium-activated chloride channel (HCLCA1) is strongly related to IL-9 expression and mucus production in bronchial epithelium of patients with asthma". J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 109 (2): 246–50.  
  • Pilette C, Ouadrhiri Y, Van Snick J, et al. (2002). "IL-9 inhibits oxidative burst and TNF-alpha release in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human monocytes through TGF-beta". J. Immunol. 168 (8): 4103–11.