List of monarchies

List of monarchies

There are and have been throughout recorded history a great many monarchies in the world. A monarchical form of government can be combined with many different kinds of political and economic systems, from absolute monarchy to constitutional monarchy and from a market economy to a planned economy. Some examples for certain forms of monarchy are:

Extant monarchies are listed in bold type.


  • Antiquity 1
  • Middle Ages and Renaissance 2
  • Enlightenment and later 3
    • Constitutional monarchies 3.1
      • Unitary constitutional monarchies 3.1.1
      • Federal constitutional monarchies 3.1.2
      • Elected constitutional monarchies 3.1.3
    • Absolute monarchies 3.2
      • Unitary absolute monarchies 3.2.1
      • Elected absolute monarchies 3.2.2
  • Subnational monarchies 4
  • Shared monarchies 5


Middle Ages and Renaissance

Enlightenment and later

Dates of the latest abolitions of monarchies in Europe and the territories nearby. A green rectangle indicates that the monarchy was restored afterwards and is currently functioning. If a country has no date, it means that either it has never had a monarchical government (e.g. Switzerland) or it has been functioning throughout the country's modern history (e.g. Sweden, Denmark and Norway). Note that the dates do not necessarily mark the end of the national independent monarchy but the territory it covered (e.g. Ukraine).

Constitutional monarchies

A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchical government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state.

Unitary constitutional monarchies

Unitary constitutional monarchies are unitary states which are governed constitutionally as one single unit, with a single constitutionally created legislature;

Federal constitutional monarchies

Federal constitutional monarchies are federal states in which a number of federated entities are unified under a federal government and a single monarch, who acts as ceremonial head of state.

Elected constitutional monarchies

Absolute monarchies

An absolute monarchy is a monarchical form of government where the ruler has the power to rule his or her land or country and its citizens freely, with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition in force.

Unitary absolute monarchies

Unitary absolute monarchies are unitary states which are governed as one single unit by a single hereditary or elected leader. Some had or have a single legislature, which may or may not be constitutionally created.

Elected absolute monarchies

  • Holy See (Vatican City) (c. 756 A.D., Pepin, father of Charlemagne granted the Pope control of area which became the Papal States - present; absolute monarchy)

Subnational monarchies

A subnational monarchy is a territory governed by a hereditary leader, but which is subordinate to a higher national government, either monarchical or republican in form.

  • Ankole (1901–1966; abolished; 1993–present; within Uganda)
  • Buganda (1961–1966; abolished; 1993–present; within Uganda)
  • Busoga (1961–1966; abolished; 1993–present; within Uganda)

Shared monarchies

A monarch may reign over multiple kingdoms, dominions or realms in various forms of political, dynastic, personal union or association.