Pandanaceae

Pandanaceae

Pandanaceae
Pandanus tectorius
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
Order: Pandanales
Family: Pandanaceae
R.Br.[1]
Genera

Benstonea Callm. & Buerki
Freycinetia Gaudich.
Martellidendron (Pic.Serm.) Callm. & Chassot
Pandanus Parkinson
Sararanga Hemsl.

Pandanaceae is a family of flowering plants native to the tropics and subtropics of the Old World, from West Africa through the Pacific. It contains over 1000 species[2] in five genera,[3] of which the type genus, Pandanus, is the most important. It is an ancient family dating from the early to mid-Cretaceous.[4]

Characteristics

Pandanaceae includes trees, shrubs, lianas, vines, epiphytes, and perennial herbs.[5] Stems may be simple or bifurcately branched, and may have aerial prop roots. The stems bear prominent leaf scars. The leaves are very long and narrow, sheathing, simple, undivided, with parallel veins; the leaf margins and abaxial midribs are often prickly.[6]

The plants are dioecious. The inflorescences are terminally borne racemes, spikes or umbels, with subtended spathes, which may be brightly colored. The flowers are minute and lack perianths. Male flowers contain numerous stamens with free or fused filaments. Female flowers have a superior ovary, usually of many carpels in a ring, but may be reduced to a row of carpels or a single carpel. Fruits are berries or drupes,[5] usually multiple.[7]

Genera

Pandanaceae includes five genera: Benstonea, Freycinetia, Martellidendron, Pandanus, and Sararanga.[3] Benstonea (as subgenus "Acrostigma")[8] and Martellidendron[4] were formerly considered subgenera of Pandanus, but were recognized as distinct genera based on DNA sequencing.[8][4]

References

  1. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161 (2): 105–121.  
  2. ^ Pandanaceae—The Plant List
  3. ^ a b NCBI Taxonomy Browser
  4. ^ a b c , and its biogeographic implicationsPandanaceae, a new genus of Martellidendroningentaconnect: Recognition of
  5. ^ a b eFloras.org: Pandanaceae in Monocot families (USDA)
  6. ^ eFloras.org: Pandanaceae in Flora of China
  7. ^ L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz. The families of flowering plants: Pandanaceae
  8. ^ a b (Pandanaceae): When a visionary taxonomist foresees phylogenetic relationshipsBenstoneaUpdate on the systematics of  PDF (50 KB)