2001 Mars Odyssey
Conceptual drawing of Mars Odyssey over Mars.
|Mission type||Mars orbiter|
|Operator||NASA / JPL|
13 years, 9 months and 14 days from launch
13 years, 2 months and 28 days at Mars (4708 sols)
En route: 6 months, 17 days
Primary mission: 32 months (1007 sols)
Extended mission: 10 years, 4 months and 27 days (3699 sols) elapsed
|Launch mass||376 kilograms (829 lb)|
|Start of mission|
|Launch date||7 April 2001, 15:02:22UTC|
|Rocket||Delta II 7925-9.5|
|Launch site||Cape Canaveral SLC-17A|
|Semi-major axis||3,785 kilometers (2,352 mi)|
24 October 2001, 02:18:00 UTC
MSD 45435 12:21 AMT
2001 Mars Odyssey is a robotic spacecraft orbiting the planet Mars. The project was developed by NASA, and contracted out to Lockheed Martin, with an expected cost for the entire mission of US$297 million. Its mission is to use spectrometers and electronic imagers to detect evidence of past or present water and volcanic activity on Mars. It is hoped that the data Odyssey obtains will help answer the question of whether life has ever existed on Mars. It also acts as a relay for communications between the Mars Exploration Rovers, Mars Science Laboratory, and the Phoenix lander to Earth. The mission was named as a tribute to Arthur C. Clarke, evoking the name of 2001: A Space Odyssey.
Odyssey was launched April 7, 2001 on a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, and reached Mars orbit on October 24, 2001, at 02:30 UTC (October 23, 19:30 PDT, 22:30 EDT). The spacecraft's main engine fired in order to brake the spacecraft's speed, which allowed it to be captured into orbit around Mars. Odyssey used a technique called "aerobraking" that gradually brought the spacecraft closer to Mars with each orbit. By using the atmosphere of Mars to slow down the spacecraft in its orbit, rather than firing its engine or thrusters, Odyssey was able to save more than 200 kilograms (440 lb) of propellant. Aerobraking ended in January, and Odyssey began its science mapping mission on February 19, 2002. It is currently in a polar orbit around Mars with an altitude of about 3,800 km or 2,400 miles.
By December 15, 2010 it broke the record for longest serving spacecraft at Mars, with 3,340 days of operation, claiming the title from NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. It currently holds the record for the longest-surviving continually active spacecraft in orbit around a planet other than Earth at 13 years, 2 months and 28 days.
Mars Odyssey was originally a component of the Mars Surveyor 2001 program, and was named the Mars Surveyor 2001 Orbiter. It was intended to have a companion spacecraft known as Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander, but the lander mission was canceled in May 2000 following the failures of Mars Climate Orbiter and Mars Polar Lander in late 1999. Subsequently, the name 2001 Mars Odyssey was selected for the orbiter as a specific tribute to the vision of space exploration shown in works by Arthur C. Clarke, including 2001: A Space Odyssey. The music from Mythodea by Greek composer Vangelis was used as the theme music for the mission.
The three primary instruments Odyssey uses are the:
- Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS), includes the High Energy Neutron Detector (HEND), provided by Russia.
On May 28, 2002 (sol 210), NASA reported that Odyssey's GRS had detected large amounts of hydrogen, a sign that there must be ice lying within a meter of the planet's surface. GRS is a collaboration between University of Arizona's Lunar and Planetary Lab., the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Russia's Space Research Institute.
Odyssey has served as the primary means of communications for NASA’s Mars surface explorers in the past decade, up to the Curiosity rover. About 85% of images and other data from NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, have reached Earth via communications relay by Odyssey. Odyssey continues to receive transmissions from the surviving rover, Opportunity, every day. The orbiter helped analyze potential landing sites for the rovers and performed the same task for NASA's Phoenix mission, which landed on Mars in May, 2008. Odyssey aided NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, which reached Mars in March 2006, by monitoring atmospheric conditions during months when the newly arrived orbiter used aerobraking to alter its orbit into the desired shape.
Odyssey is in a sun-synchronous orbit, meaning it passes over most points on Mars' surface twice per day. On September 30, 2008 (sol 2465) the spacecraft altered its orbit to gain better sensitivity for its infrared mapping of Martian minerals. The new orbit eliminated the use of the gamma ray detector, due to the potential for overheating the instrument at the new orbit.
NASA has approved a fourth two-year extended mission, through August 2012, to allow for the observation of year-to-year differences in phenomena like polar ice, clouds, and dust storms, as well as a much more sensitive mapping of Martian minerals. A fifth extended mission (to July 2014) is considered likely in light of Curiosity's successful August 2012 landing. The orbiter contains enough propellant to operate at least until 2015. In 2010, a spokesman for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory stated that Odyssey could continue operating until at least about 2016 and "perhaps even well beyond".
The payload's MARIE radiation experiment stopped taking measurements after a large solar event bombarded the Odyssey spacecraft on October 28, 2003. Engineers believe the most likely cause is that a computer chip was damaged by a solar particle smashing into the MARIE computer board.
One of the orbiter's three flywheels failed in June 2012. However, Odyssey's design included a fourth flywheel, a spare carried against exactly this eventuality. The spare was spun up and successfully brought into service. Since July 2012, Odyssey has been back in full, nominal operation mode following three weeks of 'safe' mode on remote maintenance.
In February 11, 2014, mission control accelerated Odyssey's drift toward a morning-daylight orbit to "enable observation of changing ground temperatures after sunrise and after sunset in thousands of places on Mars". The desired change will occur gradually until the intended orbit geometry is reached in November 2015 and another manoeuvre halts the drift. Those observations could yield insight about the composition of the ground and about temperature-driven processes, such as warm-season flows observed on some slopes, and geysers fed by spring thawing of carbon dioxide (CO2) ice near Mars' poles.
Water on Mars
On July 31, 2008, NASA announced that the Phoenix lander confirmed the presence of water on Mars, as predicted in 2002 based on data from the Odyssey orbiter. The science team is trying to determine whether the water ice ever thaws enough to be available for microscopic life, and if carbon-containing chemicals and other raw materials for life are present.
Odyssey and Curiosity
Mars Odyssey's THEMIS instrument was used to help select a landing site for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). Several days before MSL's landing in August 2012, Odyssey's orbit was altered to ensure that it would be able to capture signals from the rover during its first few minutes on the Martian surface. Odyssey now acts as a relay for UHF radio signals from the (MSL) rover Curiosity. Because Odyssey is in a sun-synchronous orbit, it consistently passes over Curiosity's location at the same two times every day, allowing for convenient scheduling of contact with Earth.
- "Mars Odyssey: Overview". JPL, CIT. Archived from the original on 2011-09-19.
- Beatty, J. Kelly (2012-05-24). "Mars Odyssey Arrives". Sky and Telescope. Sky Publishing. Archived from the original on 2014-02-26.
- "NASA's Odyssey Spacecraft Sets Exploration Record on Mars". Press Releases. JPL, NASA. 2010-12-15. Archived from the original on 2011-04-25.
- Webster, Guy; Brown, Dwayne (October 19, 2014). "NASA's Mars Odyssey Orbiter Watches Comet Fly Near".
- Webster, Guy; Brown, Dwayne (October 19, 2014). "NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Studies Comet Flyby".
- Jones, Nancy; Steigerwald, Bill; Webster, Guy; Brown, Dwayne (October 19, 2014). "NASA's MAVEN Studies Passing Comet and Its Effects".
- Webster, Guy; Brown, Dwayne; Jones, Nancy; Steigerwald, Bill (October 19, 2014). "All Three NASA Mars Orbiters Healthy After Comet Flyby".
- France-Presse, Agence (October 19, 2014). "A Comet’s Brush With Mars".
- Christensen, P. R.; Jakosky, B. M.; Kieffer, H. H.; Malin, M. C.; McSween Jr., H. Y.; Nealson, K.; Mehall, G. L.; Silverman, S. H.; Ferry, S.; Caplinger, M.; Ravine, M. (2004). "The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) for the Mars 2001 Odyssey Mission". Space Science Reviews 110 (1–2): 85.
- Boynton, W.V.; Feldman, W.C.; Mitrofanov, I.G.; Evans, L.G.; Reedy, R.C.; Squyres, S.W.; Starr, R.; Trombka, J.I.; d'Uston, C.; Arnold, J.R.; Englert,, P.A.J.; Metzger, A.E.; Wänke, H.; Brückner, J.; Drake, D.M.; Shinohara, C.; Fellows, C.; Hamara, D.K.; Harshman, K.; Kerry, K.; Turner, C.; Ward1, M.; Barthe, H.; Fuller, K.R.; Storms, S.A.; Thornton, G.W.; Longmire, J.L.; Litvak, M.L.; Ton'chev, A.K. (2004). "The Mars Odyssey Gamma-Ray Spectrometer Instrument Suite". Space Science Reviews 110 (1–2): 37.
- Kremer, Ken (2010-12-13). "The Longest Martian Odyssey Ever". Universe Today. Archived from the original on 2010-12-20.
- "Longest-Lived Mars Orbiter Is Back in Service". Status Reports. JPL. 2012-06-27. Archived from the original on 2012-07-03.
- Staff (2014-02-12). "NASA Moves Longest-Serving Mars Spacecraft for New Observations". Press Releases (Jet Propulsion Laboratory). Archived from the original on 2014-02-26.
- "Confirmation of Water on Mars". Phoenix Mars Lander. NASA. 2008-06-20. Archived from the original on 2008-07-01.
- "THEMIS Support for MSL Landing Site Selection". THEMIS. Arizona State University. 2006-07-28. Archived from the original on 2006-08-14.
- Gold, Scott (2012-08-07). "'"Curiosity's perilous landing? 'Cleaner than any of our tests. Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 2012-08-09.
- The Mars Odyssey site
- Mars 2001 Odyssey Mission Profile by NASA's Solar System Exploration
- Sky & Telescope: Mars Odyssey Pays Early Dividends
- BBC News story on Mars Odyssey observations of apparent ice deposits