Arithmetica (Greek: Ἀριθμητικά) is an Ancient Greek text on mathematics written by the mathematician Diophantus in the 3rd century AD. It is a collection of 130 algebraic problems giving numerical solutions of determinate equations (those with a unique solution) and indeterminate equations.
Equations in the book are called Diophantine equations. The method for solving these equations is known as Diophantine analysis. Most of the Arithmetica problems lead to quadratic equations. It was these equations which inspired Pierre de Fermat to propose Fermat's Last Theorem, scrawled in the margins of Fermat's copy of Arithmetica, which states that the equation x^n+y^n=z^n, where x, y, z and n are non-zero integers, has no solution with n greater than 2.
In Book 3, Diophantus solves problems of finding values which make two linear expressions simultaneously into squares or cubes. In book 4, he finds rational powers between given numbers. He also noticed that numbers of the form 4n + 3 cannot be the sum of two squares. Diophantus also appears to know that every number can be written as the sum of four squares. If he did know this result (in the sense of having proved it as opposed to merely conjectured it), his doing so would be truly remarkable: even Fermat, who stated the result, failed to provide a proof of it and it was not settled until Joseph Louis Lagrange proved it using results due to Leonhard Euler.
Arithmetica was originally written in thirteen books, but the Greek manuscripts that survived to the present contain no more than six books. In 1968, Fuat Sezgin found four previously unknown books of Arithmetica at the shrine of Imam Rezā in the holy Islamic city of Mashhad in northeastern Iran. The four books are thought to have been translated from Greek to Arabic by Qusta ibn Luqa (820–912). Norbert Schappacher has written:
[The four missing books] resurfaced around 1971 in the Astan Quds Library in Meshed (Iran) in a copy from 1198 AD. It was not catalogued under the name of Diophantus (but under that of Qust¸a ibn Luqa) because the librarian was apparently not able to read the main line of the cover page where Diophantus’s name appears in geometric Kufi calligraphy.
- "Diophantus of Alexandria (Greek mathematician)". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- Magill, Frank N., ed. (1998). Dictionary of World Biography 1.
- Schappacher, Norbert (April 2005). "Diophantus of Alexandria : a Text and its History" (PDF). p. 18. Retrieved 2015-10-09.
Diophantus Alexandrinus, Pierre de Fermat, Claude Gaspard Bachet de Meziriac, Diophanti Alexandrini Arithmeticorum libri 6, et De numeris multangulis liber unus. Cum comm. C(laude) G(aspar) Bacheti et observationibus P(ierre) de Fermat. Acc. doctrinae analyticae inventum novum, coll. ex variis eiu. Tolosae 1670, doi:10.3931/e-rara-9423.