Republic of Benin
République du Bénin (French)
Location of (dark blue)
– in (light blue & dark grey)
|Ethnic groups (2002)|
|-||from France||August 1, 1960|
114,763 km2 (101st)
43,484 sq mi
|-||July 2013 estimate||10,323,000 (85th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2012 estimate|
|GDP (nominal)||2012 estimate|
low · 165th
|Currency||West African CFA franc (XOF)|
|Time zone||WAT (UTC+1)|
|-||Summer (DST)||not observed (UTC+1)|
|Drives on the||right|
|ISO 3166 code||BJ|
|a.||Cotonou is the seat of government.|
|Population estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected.|
Benin (, ; French: Bénin, formerly Dahomey), officially the Republic of Benin (French: République du Bénin), is a country in West Africa. It is bordered by Togo to the west, by Nigeria to the east and by Burkina Faso and Niger to the north. A majority of the population live on its small southern coastline on the Bight of Benin, part of the Gulf of Guinea in the northernmost tropical portion of the Atlantic Ocean. The capital of Benin is Porto-Novo, but the seat of government is in Cotonou, the country's largest city and economic capital. Benin covers an area of approximately 115,000 square kilometers (42,000 sq mi), with a population of approximately 9.98 million. Benin is a tropical, sub-Saharan nation, highly dependent on agriculture, with substantial employment and income arising from subsistence farming.
From the 17th to the 19th century, the main political entities in the area were the Kingdom of Dahomey along with the city-state of Porto-Novo and a large area with many different tribes to the north. This region was referred to as the Slave Coast from as early as the 17th century due to the large number of slaves shipped to the New World during the Trans-Atlantic slave trade. After slavery was abolished, France took over the country and renamed it French Dahomey. In 1960, Dahomey gained full independence from France, and had a tumultuous period with many different democratic governments, many military coups and military governments.
- Etymology 1
- Precolonial history 2.1
- Colonial period (1900 until 1958) 2.2
- Post-colonial period 2.3
- Politics 3
- Departments and communes 4
- Geography 5
- Economy 6
- Largest cities 7.1
- Health 8
- Arts 9.1
- Customary names 9.2
- Language 9.3
- Religion 9.4
- Education 9.5
- Cuisine 9.6
- See also 10
- References 11
- Further reading 12
- External links 13
During the colonial period and at independence, the country was known as Dahomey. It was renamed on November 30, 1975, to Benin, after the body of water on which the country lies – the Bight of Benin – which, in turn, had been named after the Benin Empire. The country of Benin has no connection to Benin City in modern Nigeria, nor to the Benin bronzes.
The new name, Benin, was chosen for its neutrality. Dahomey was the name of the former
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- Benin Education Fund (BEF) (provides educational support and scholarships).
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- News media
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- Article on the traditional dwelling called a tata-somba
- Butler, S., Benin (Bradt Travel Guides) (Bradt Travel Guides, 2006).
- Caulfield, Annie, Show Me the Magic: Travels Round Benin by Taxi (Penguin Books Ltd., 2003).
- Kraus, Erika and Reid, Felice, Benin (Other Places Travel Guide) (Other Places Publishing, 2010).
- Seely, Jennifer, The Legacies of Transition Governments in Africa: The Cases of Benin and Togo (Palgrave Macmillan, 2009).
- "Benin". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 2013-04-17.
- "Distribution of family income – Gini index". The World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved 2009-09-01.
- "2014 Human Development Report Summary". United Nations Development Programme. 2014. pp. 21–25. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
- R. H. Hughes, J. S. Hughes. A directory of African wetlands, p. 301. IUCN, 1992. ISBN 2-88032-949-3
- "Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations". United Nations, June 29th, 2010
- "Benin – International Cooperation". Nation Encyclopedia (2010-06-29).
- Ibp Usa. Global Logistics Assessments Reports Handbook: Strategic Transportation and Customs Information for Selected Countries, p. 85. Int'l Business Publications, 2008. ISBN 0-7397-6603-1
- Annamarie Rowe. A political chronology of Africa, p. 33. Taylor & Francis, 2001. ISBN 1-85743-116-2
- Bonnie G. Smith. The Oxford encyclopedia of women in world history, Volume 1, p. 535. Oxford University Press, 2008. ISBN 0-19-514890-8
- Bay, Edna (1998). Wives of the Leopard: Gender, Politics, and Culture in the Kingdom of Dahomey. University of Virigina Press.
- Akinjogbin, I.A. (1967). Dahomey and Its Neighbors: 1708-1818. Cambridge University Press.
- Law, Robin (1986). "Dahomey and the Slave Trade: Reflections on the Historiography of the Rise of Dahomey". The Journal of African History 27 (2): 237–267.
- Creevey, Lucy; Ngomo, Paul; Vengroff, Richard (2005). "Party Politics and Different Paths to Democratic Transitions: A Comparison of Benin and Senegal". Party Politics 11 (4): 471–493.
- Robert Harms. The Diligent: Worlds Of The Slave Trade, p. 172. Basic Books, 2002. ISBN 0-465-02872-1
- Stanley B. Alpern. Amazons of Black Sparta: the women warriors of Dahomey, p. 37. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 1998. ISBN 1-85065-362-3
- African Ambassador Apologizes for Slavery Role. FOXNews.com. July 10, 2003.
- African Slave Owners. the story of South Africa | BBC World Service.
- Manning, Patrick (1982). Slavery, Colonialism and Economic Growth in Dahomey, 1640-1960. London: Cambridge University Press.
- Jamie Stokes. Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East: L to Z, p. 229. Infobase Publishing, 2009. ISBN 0-8160-7158-6
- Ana Lucia Araujo. Public memory of slavery: victims and perpetrators in the South Atlantic, p. 111. Cambria Press, 2010. ISBN 1-60497-714-0
- J. Tyler Dickovick (9 August 2012). Africa 2012. Stryker Post. pp. 69–.
- Mathurin C Houngnikpo; Samuel Decalo (14 December 2012). Historical Dictionary of Benin. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 33–.
- Martha Kneib. Benin. pp. 22–25.
- "A short history of the People's Republic of Benin (1974–1990)". Socialist.net. 2008-08-27. Retrieved 2010-05-02.
- "Benin". Flagspot.net. Retrieved 2010-05-02.
- "Ending the Slavery Blame-Game". The New York Times. April 22, 2010.
- Corruption by country at NationMaster
- "Background Note: Benin". U.S. Department of State (June 2008). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- Henschel, P.; Coad, L.; Burton, C.; Chataigner, B.; Dunn, A.; MacDonald, D.; Saidu, Y.; Hunter, L. T. B. (2014). Hayward, Matt, ed. "The Lion in West Africa is Critically Endangered".
- C. Michael Hogan. 2009. , GlobalTwitcher.com, ed. N. StrombergPainted Hunting Dog: Lycaon pictus
- "Background Note: Benin". State.gov. 2010-02-03. Retrieved 2010-05-02.
- Benin: Financial Sector profile at the Wayback Machine (archived May 13, 2011). MFW4A.org
- Benin at Millennium Challenge Corporation
- "Serious violations of core labour standards in Benin, Burkina Faso and Mali". ICFTU Online. Retrieved 2007-07-30.
- "OHADA.com: The business law portal in Africa". Retrieved 2009-03-22.
- Human Development Indices, Table 3: Human and income poverty, p. 35. undp.org. Retrieved on 1 June 2009
- "Bamako Initiative revitalizes primary health care in Benin". WHO.int. Retrieved 2006-12-28.
- UNICEF 2013, p. 27.
- "Implementation of the Bamako Initiative: strategies in Benin and Guinea". NIH.gov. Retrieved 2006-12-28.
- Benin Surveys, measuredhs.com
- "Benin". Retrieved 2007-09-30.
- Akwamu – Encyclopedia Article and More from. Merriam-Webster (2010-08-13). Retrieved on 2012-08-15.
- International Religious Freedom Report 2007: Benin. United States Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor (September 14, 2007). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- "Benin". Country Reports on Human Rights Practices. United States Department of State. February 23, 2001. Retrieved 2010-09-17.
- "Benin". United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Retrieved 2010-09-17.
Meat is usually quite expensive, and meals are generally light on meat and generous on vegetable fat. Frying in palm or peanut oil is the most common meat preparation, and smoked fish is commonly prepared in Benin. Grinders are used to prepare corn flour, which is made into a dough and served with sauces. "Chicken on the spit" is a traditional recipe in which chicken is roasted over fire on wooden sticks. Palm roots are sometimes soaked in a jar with saltwater and sliced garlic to tenderize them, then used in dishes. Many people have outdoor mud stoves for cooking.
Beninese cuisine is known in Africa for its exotic ingredients and flavorful dishes. Beninese cuisine involves lots of fresh meals served with a variety of key sauces. In southern Benin cuisine, the most common ingredient is corn, often used to prepare dough which is mainly served with peanut- or tomato-based sauces. Fish and chicken are the most common meats used in southern Beninese cuisine, but beef, goat, and bush rat are also consumed. The main staple in northern Benin is yams, often served with sauces mentioned above. The population in the northern provinces use beef and pork meat which is fried in palm or peanut oil or cooked in sauces. Cheese is used in some dishes. Couscous, rice, and beans are commonly eaten, along with fruits such as mangoes, oranges, avocados, bananas, kiwi fruit, and pineapples.
Although at one time the education system was not free, Benin has abolished school fees and is carrying out the recommendations of its 2007 Educational Forum.
The literacy rate in Benin is among the lowest in the world: in 2010 it was estimated to be 42.4% (55.2% for males and 30.3% for females).
The major introduced religions are Christianity, followed throughout the south and center of Benin and in Donga provinces, as well as among the Yoruba (who also follow Christianity). Many, however, continue to hold Vodun and Orisha beliefs and have incorporated the pantheon of Vodun and Orisha into Christianity. The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, a sect originating in the 19th century is also present, in a significant minority.
Indigenous religions include local animistic religions in the Atakora (Atakora and Donga provinces) and Vodun and Orisha or Orisa veneration among the Yoruba and Tado peoples in the center and south of the country. The town of Ouidah on the central coast is the spiritual center of Beninese Vodun.
In the 2002 census, 42.8% of the population of Benin were Christian (27.1% Roman Catholic, 5% Celestial Church of Christ, 3.2% Methodist, 7.5% other Christian denominations), 24.4% were Muslim, 17.3% practiced Vodun, 6% other traditional local religious groups, 1.9% other religious groups, and 6.5% claim no religious affiliation.
Local languages are used as the languages of instruction in elementary schools, with French only introduced after several years. In wealthier cities, however, French is usually taught at an earlier age. Beninese languages are generally transcribed with a separate letter for each speech sound (phoneme), rather than using diacritics as in French or digraphs as in English. This includes Beninese Yoruba, which in Nigeria is written with both diacritics and digraphs. For instance, the mid vowels written é è, ô, o in French are written e, ɛ, o, ɔ in Beninese languages, whereas the consonants written ng and sh or ch in English are written ŋ and c. However, digraphs are used for nasal vowels and the labial-velar consonants kp and gb, as in the name of the Fon language Fon gbe /fõ ɡ͡be/, and diacritics are used as tone marks. In French-language publications, a mixture of French and Beninese orthographies may be seen.
Biennale Benin, continuing the projects of several organizations and artists started in the country in 2010 as a collaborative event called "Regard Benin". In 2012, the project become a Biennial coordinated by the Consortium, a federation of local associations. The international exhibition and artistic program of the 2012 Biennale Benin is curated by Abdellah Karroum and the Curatorial Delegation.
Singer Angélique Kidjo and actor Djimon Hounsou were both born in Cotonou, Benin. Filmmaker and actor Didier Chabi was born in Kandi, Benin. Composer Wally Badarou and singer Gnonnas Pedro are also of Beninese descent.
Post-independence, the country was home to a vibrant and innovative music scene, where native folk music combined with Ghanaian highlife, French cabaret, American rock, funk and soul, and Congolese rumba.
During the 1980s, less than 30% of the population had access to primary health care services. Benin had one of the highest death rates for children under the age of five in the world. Its infant mortality rate stood at 203 deaths for every 1000 live births. Only one in three mothers had access to child health care services. The Bamako Initiative changed that dramatically by introducing community-based health care reform, resulting in more efficient and equitable provision of services. As of 2010, Benin had the 34th highest rate of maternal mortality in the world. According to a 2013 UNICEF report, 13% of women had undergone female genital mutilation. A comprehensive approach strategy was extended to all areas of health care, with subsequent improvement in the health care indicators and improvement in health care efficiency and cost. Demographic and Health Surveys has completed three surveys in Benin since 1996.
The HIV/AIDS rate in Benin was estimated in 2012 at 1.10% of adults aged 15-49 years. Malaria is a problem in Benin, being a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children younger than five years.
Largest cities or towns of Benin
Woman from Kobli, Atakora.
Children in Benin
Recent migrations have brought other African nationals to Benin that include Nigerians, Togolese, and Malians. The foreign community also includes many Lebanese and Indians involved in trade and commerce. The personnel of the many European embassies and foreign aid missions and of nongovernmental organizations and various missionary groups account for a large part of the 5500 European population. A small part of the European population consists of Beninese citizens of French ancestry, whose ancestors ruled Benin and left after independence.
The majority of Benin's population lives in the south. The population is young, with a life expectancy of 59 years. About 42 African ethnic groups live in this country; these various groups settled in Benin at different times and also migrated within the country. Ethnic groups include the Yoruba in the southeast (migrated from Nigeria in the 12th century); the Dendi in the north-central area (who came from Mali in the 16th century); the Bariba and the Fula (French: Peul or Peulh; Fula: Fulɓe) in the northeast; the Betammaribe and the Somba in the Atacora Range; the Fon in the area around Abomey in the South Central and the Mina, Xueda, and Aja (who came from Togo) on the coast.
Currently, about a third of the population live below the international poverty line of US$1.25 per day.
Cotonou harbors the country's only seaport and international airport. A new port is currently under construction between Cotonou and Porto Novo. Benin is connected by two-lane asphalted roads to its neighboring countries (Togo, Burkina Faso, Niger, and Nigeria). Mobile telephone service is available across the country through various operators. ADSL connections are available in some areas. Benin is connected to the Internet by way of satellite connections (since 1998) and a single submarine cable SAT-3/WASC (since 2001), keeping the price of data extremely high. Relief is expected with initiation of the Africa Coast to Europe cable in 2011.
Benin is a member of the OHADA).
Although trade unions in Benin represent up to 75% of the formal workforce, the large informal economy has been noted by the International Trade Union Confederation (ITCU) to contain ongoing problems, including a lack of women's wage equality, the use of child labour, and the continuing issue of forced labour.
The Paris Club and bilateral creditors have eased the external debt situation, with Benin benefiting from a G8 debt reduction announced in July 2005, while pressing for more rapid structural reforms. An insufficient electrical supply continues to adversely affect Benin's economic growth though the government recently has taken steps to increase domestic power production.
In order to raise growth still further, Benin plans to attract more foreign investment, place more emphasis on tourism, facilitate the development of new food processing systems and agricultural products, and encourage new information and communication technology. Projects to improve the business climate by reforms to the land tenure system, the commercial justice system, and the financial sector were included in Benin's US$307 million Millennium Challenge Account grant signed in February 2006.
Benin’s economy has continued to strengthen over the past years, with real GDP growth estimated at 5.1 and 5.7 percent in 2008 and 2009, respectively. The main driver of growth is the agricultural sector, with cotton being the country’s main export, while services continue to contribute the largest part of GDP largely because of Benin’s geographical location, enabling trade, transportation, transit and tourism activities with its neighbouring states.
The economy of Benin is dependent on subsistence agriculture, cotton production, and regional trade. Cotton accounts for 40 percent of GDP and roughly 80 percent of official export receipts. Growth in real output has averaged around 5 percent in the past seven years, but rapid population growth has offset much of this increase. Inflation has subsided over the past several years. Benin uses the CFA franc, which is pegged to the euro.
Atakora, one of Benin's two northernmost departments.
The Pendjari National Park in Benin is one of the most important reserves for the West African lion and other large animals of West Africa
Variations in temperature increase when moving north through a savanna and plateau toward the Sahel. A dry wind from the Sahara called the Harmattan blows from December to March, during which grass dries up, the vegetation turns reddish brown, and a veil of fine dust hangs over the country, causing the skies to be overcast. It also is the season when farmers burn brush in the fields.
Benin's climate is hot and humid. Annual rainfall in the coastal area averages 1300 mm or about 51 inches. Benin has two rainy and two dry seasons per year. The principal rainy season is from April to late July, with a shorter less intense rainy period from late September to November. The main dry season is from December to April, with a short cooler dry season from late July to early September. Temperatures and humidity are high along the tropical coast. In Cotonou, the average maximum temperature is 31 °C (87.8 °F); the minimum is 24 °C (75.2 °F).
Benin has fields of lying fallow, mangroves, and remnants of large sacred forests. In the rest of the country, the savanna is covered with thorny scrubs and dotted with huge baobab trees. Some forests line the banks of rivers. In the north and the northwest of Benin the Reserve du W du Niger and Pendjari National Park attract tourists eager to see elephants, lions, antelopes, hippos, and monkeys. Pendjari National Park together with the bordering Parks Arli and W in Burkina Faso and Niger is one of the most important strongholds for the endangered West African lion. With an estimated 356 (range: 246–466) lions, W-Arli-Pendjari harbours the largest remaining population of lions in West Africa. Historically Benin has served as habitat for the endangered Painted Hunting Dog, Lycaon pictus; however, this canid is thought to have been locally extirpated.
Then an area of flat lands dotted with rocky hills whose altitude seldom reaches 400 m (1,312 ft) extends around Nikki and Save. Finally, a range of mountains extends along the northwest border and into Togo; this is the Atacora, with the highest point, Mont Sokbaro, at 658 m (2,159 ft).
Benin shows little variation in elevation and can be divided into four areas from the south to the north, starting with the low-lying, sandy, coastal plain (highest elevation 10 m (32.8 ft)) which is, at most, 10 km (6.2 mi) wide. It is marshy and dotted with lakes and lagoons communicating with the ocean. Behind the coast lies the Guinean forest-savanna mosaic-covered plateaus of southern Benin (altitude between 20 and 200 m (66 and 656 ft)), which are split by valleys running north to south along the Couffo, Zou, and Oueme Rivers.
It is one of the smaller countries in West Africa, one-eighth the size of Nigeria, its neighbor to the east. It is, however, twice as large as Togo, its neighbor to the west.
With an area of 112,622 km2 (43,484 sq mi), Benin extends from the Niger River in the north to the Atlantic Ocean in the south, a distance of 650 km (404 mi). Although the coastline measures 121 km (75 mi) the country measures about 325 km (202 mi) at its widest point.
Benin, a narrow, north–south strip of land in west Africa, lies between the Equator and the Tropic of Cancer. Benin lies between latitudes 6° and 13°N, and longitudes 0° and 4°E. Benin is bounded by Togo to the west, Burkina Faso and Niger to the north, Nigeria to the east, and the Bight of Benin to the south.
Benin is divided into twelve departments (French: départements) which, in turn, are subdivided into 77 communes. In 1999, the previous six departments were each split into two halves, forming the current twelve. The six new departments have not yet been assigned official capitals.
Departments and communes
Benin has been rated equal-88th out of 159 countries in a 2005 analysis of police, business and political corruption.
In its 2007 Worldwide Press Freedom Index, Reporters Without Borders ranked Benin 53rd out of 169 countries.
Benin scored highly in the 2013 Ibrahim Index of African Governance, which comprehensively measures the state of governance across the continent. Benin was ranked 13th out of 52 African countries, and scored particularly well in the categories of Safety & Rule of Law and Participation & Human Rights.
Benin's politics take place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, where the President of Benin is both head of state and head of government, within a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the legislature. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. The political system is derived from the 1990 Constitution of Benin and the subsequent transition to democracy in 1991.
1793 map of the Kingdom of Dahomey
Dahomey Amazons with the King at their head, going to war, 1793
Yayi Boni's 2006 presidential inauguration
The flag of the People's Republic of Benin.
On March 5, 2006, an election was held that was considered free and fair. It resulted in a runoff between Yayi Boni and Adrien Houngbédji. The runoff election was held on March 19, and was won by Boni, who assumed office on April 6. The success of the fair multi-party elections in Benin won praise internationally. Boni was reelected in 2011, taking 53.18% of the vote in the first round—enough to avoid a runoff election, becoming the first president to win an election without a runoff since the restoration of democracy in 1991.
Kérékou and former president Soglo did not run in the 2006 elections, as both were barred by the constitution's restrictions on age and total terms of candidates.
In 1999, Kérékou issued a national apology for the central role Africans played in the Atlantic slave trade.
In 1991, Kérékou was defeated by Nicéphore Soglo, and became the first black African president to step down after an election. Kérékou returned to power after winning the 1996 vote. In 2001, a closely fought election resulted in Kérékou winning another term, after which his opponents claimed election irregularities.
The name of the country was officially changed to the Republic of Benin on March 1, 1990, once the newly formed country's constitution was complete.
In 1989, riots broke out after the regime did not have money to pay its army. The banking system collapsed. Eventually Kérékou renounced Marxism and a convention forced Kérékou to release political prisoners and arrange elections. Marxism-Leninism was also abolished as the nation's form of government.
In 1979, the CNR was dissolved, and Kérékou arranged exodus of teachers, along with a large number of other professionals. The regime financed itself by contracting to take nuclear waste first from the Soviet Union and later from France.
On May 7, 1972, Maga turned over power to Ahomadegbe. On October 26, 1972, Lt. Col. Mathieu Kérékou overthrew the ruling triumvirate, becoming president and stating that the country will not "burden itself by copying foreign ideology, and wants neither Capitalism, Communism, nor Socialism". On November 30, however, he announced that the country was officially Marxist, under the control of the Military Council of the Revolution (CNR), which nationalized the petroleum industry and banks. On November 30, 1975, he renamed the country to the People's Republic of Benin.
For the next twelve years, ethnic strife contributed to a period of turbulence. There were several coups and regime changes, with four figures dominating—Hubert Maga, Sourou Apithy, Justin Ahomadegbé, and Emile Derlin Zinsou—the first three each representing a different area and ethnicity of the country. These three agreed to form a Presidential Council after violence marred the 1970 elections.
By the middle of the nineteenth century, Dahomey started to lose its status as the regional power. This enabled the French to take over the area in 1892. In 1899, the French included the land called French Dahomey within the French West Africa colony. In 1958, France granted autonomy to the Republic of Dahomey, and full independence as of August 1, 1960. The president who led them to independence was Hubert Maga.
Colonial period (1900 until 1958)
The kings of Dahomey sold their war captives into transatlantic slavery; otherwise the captives would have been killed in a ceremony known as the Annual Customs. By about 1750, the King of Dahomey was earning an estimated £250,000 per year by selling Africans to the European slave-traders. Though the leaders of Dahomey appeared initially to resist the slave trade, it flourished in the region of Dahomey for almost three hundred years (beginning in 1472 with a trade agreement with Portuguese merchants), leading to the area being named "the Slave Coast". Court protocols, which demanded that a portion of war captives from the kingdom's many battles be decapitated, decreased the number of enslaved people exported from the area. The number went from 102,000 people per decade in the 1780s to 24,000 per decade by the 1860s. The decline was partly due to the banning of the trans-Atlantic slave trade by Britain and other countries. This decline continued until 1885, when the last slave ship departed from the coast of the present-day Benin Republic bound for Brazil.
The Dahomey Kingdom was known for its culture and traditions. Young boys were often apprenticed to older soldiers, and taught the kingdom's military customs until they were old enough to join the army. Dahomey was also famous for instituting an elite female soldier corps, called Ahosi i.e. the king's wives or Mino, "our mothers" in the Fon language Fongbe, and known by many Europeans as the Dahomean Amazons. This emphasis on military preparation and achievement earned Dahomey the nickname of "black Sparta" from European observers and 19th century explorers like Sir Richard Burton.
The capital's name Porto-Novo is of Portuguese origin meaning "New Port." It was originally developed as a port for the slave trade. The current country of Benin combines three areas which had different political and ethnic systems prior to French colonial control. Before 1700, there were a few important city states along the coast (primarily of the Aja ethnic group, but also including Yoruba and Gbe peoples) and a mass of tribal regions inland (composed of Bariba, Mahi, Gedevi, and Kabye peoples). The Oyo Empire, located primarily to the east of modern Benin, was the most significant large-scale military force in the region and it would regularly conduct raids and exact tribute from the coastal kingdoms and the tribal regions. The situation changed in the 1600s and early 1700s as the Kingdom of Dahomey, which was of the Fon ethnicity, was founded on the Abomey plateau and began taking over areas along the coast. By 1727, king Agaja of the Kingdom of Dahomey had conquered the coastal cities of Allada and Whydah, but it had become a tributary of the Oyo empire and did not directly attack the Oyo allied city-state of Porto-Novo. The rise of the kingdom of Dahomey, the rivalry between the kingdom and the city of Porto-Novo, and the continued tribal politics of the northern region. This ethnic and political division persisted into the colonial and post-colonial periods.
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