Bergen County, New Jersey
|Bergen County, New Jersey|
Location in the state of New Jersey
New Jersey's location in the U.S.
|• Total||246.671 sq mi (638.875 km2)|
|• Land||233.009 sq mi (603.490 km2)|
|• Water||13.662 sq mi (35.385 km2), 5.54%|
|• (2010)||905,116 (1st in state)|
|• Density||4,006.6/sq mi (1,547.0/km²)|
|Congressional districts||5th, 8th, 9th|
|Time zone||Eastern: UTC-5/-4|
Range in altitude:
Highest elevation: 1,152 ft/351 m (Bald Mountain, in the Ramapo Mountains, in Mahwah).
Lowest elevation: 0 ft/0 m (sea level), at the Hudson River.
Bergen County is the Manhattan.
Bergen County's population resides among 70 municipalities – but no large cities – as its most populous place, with 43,010 residents at the time of the 2010 Census, is Hackensack, also its county seat. In 2010, Mahwah covered the largest total area of any municipality, at 26.19 square miles (67.8 km2).
Bergen County is one of the wealthiest counties in the United States, with a median household income of $81,708 per the 2010 Census, increasing to an estimated $84,677 in 2014. The county hosts an extensive park system totaling nearly 9,000 acres (3,600 ha).
- Etymology 1
- History 2
- Geography 3
- Climate 4
- 2010 Census 5.1
- 2000 Census 5.2
Community diversity 5.3
- Italian American 5.3.1
- Latin American 5.3.2
- Western European American 5.3.3
- Jewish American 5.3.4
- Korean American 5.3.5
- Polish American 5.3.6
- African American 5.3.7
- Indian American 5.3.8
- Russian (and other former Soviet) American 5.3.9
- Filipino American 5.3.10
- Chinese American 5.3.11
- Japanese American 5.3.12
- Balkan American 5.3.13
- Muslim American 5.3.14
- Iranian American 5.3.15
- Same-sex couples 5.3.16
- Housing expense 5.4
- Transportation 6
- Education 7
- Arts and culture 8
- Historical municipalities 9.1
- Largest employers 10.1
- Building permits 10.2
- Blue laws 10.3.1
Law and government 11
- County government 11.1
- Highlands protection 11.2
- State representatives 11.3
- Congressional representatives 11.4
- Politics 11.5
Points of interest 12
- Educational and cultural 12.1
- Commercial and entertainment 12.2
- State parks 12.3
- State-owned historical sites 12.4
- County parks 12.5
- County-owned historical sites 12.6
- See also 13
- References 14
- Sources 15
- External links 16
The origin of the name of Bergen County is a matter of debate. It is believed that the county is named for one of the earliest settlements, Bergen, in modern-day Hudson County. However, the origin of the township's name is debated. Several sources attribute the name to Bergen, Norway, while others attribute it to Bergen op Zoom in the Netherlands. Still others attribute it to the Dutch word meaning "hill" or "place of safety". Some sources say that the name is derived from one of the earliest settlers of New Amsterdam (now New York City), Hans Hansen Bergen, a native of Norway, who arrived in New Netherland in 1633.
At the time of first European contact, Bergen County was inhabited by Native American people, particularly the Lenape Nation, whose sub-groups included the Tappan, Hackensack, and Rumachenanck (later called the Haverstraw), as named by the Dutch colonists. Some of their descendants are included among the Ramapough Mountain Indians, recognized as a tribe by the state in 1980. Their ancestors had moved into the mountains to escape encroachment by Dutch and English colonists. Their descendants reside mostly in the northwest of the county, in nearby Passaic County and in Rockland County, New York, tracing their Lenape ancestry to speakers of the Munsee language, one of three major dialects of their language. Over the years, they absorbed other ethnicities by intermarriage.
In the 17th century, the Dutch considered the area comprising today's Bergen and Hudson counties as part of New Netherland, their colonial province of the Dutch Republic. The Dutch claimed it after Henry Hudson (sailing for the Dutch East India Company) explored Newark Bay and anchored his ship at Weehawken Cove in 1609. From an early date, the Dutch began to import African slaves to fill their labor needs. Bergen County eventually was the largest slaveholding county in the state. The African slaves were used for labor at the ports to support shipping, as well as for domestic servants, trades, and farm labor.
Early settlement attempts by the Dutch included Pavonia (1633), Vriessendael (1640), and Achter Col (1642), but the Native Americans repelled these settlements in Kieft's War (1643–1645) and the Peach Tree War (1655–1660). European settlers returned to the western shores of the Hudson River in the 1660 formation of Bergen Township, which would become the first permanent European settlement in the territory of present-day New Jersey.
During the Province of New Jersey in 1665, later splitting the territory into East Jersey and West Jersey in 1674. On November 30, 1675, the settlement Bergen and surrounding plantations and settlements were called Bergen County in an act passed by the province's General Assembly. In 1683, Bergen (along with the three other original counties of East Jersey) was officially recognized as an independent county by the Provincial Assembly.
Initially, Bergen County consisted of only the land between the Hudson River and the Hackensack River, extending north to the border between East Jersey and New York. In January 1709, the boundaries were extended to include all of the current territory of Hudson County (formed in 1840) and portions of the current territory of Passaic County (formed in 1837). The 1709 borders were described as follows:
"Beginning at Constable's Hook, so along the bay and Hudson's River to the partition point between New Jersey and the province of New York; along this line and the line between East and West Jersey† to the Pequaneck River; down the Pequaneck and Passaic Rivers to the sound; and so following the sound to Constable's Hook the place of beginning."
- † The line between East and West Jersey here referred to is not the line finally adopted and known as the Lawrence line, which was run by John Lawrence in September and October 1743. It was the compromise line agreed upon between Governors Daniel Coxe and Robert Barclay in 1682, which ran a little north of Morristown to the Passaic River; thence up the Pequaneck to forty-one degrees of north latitude; and thence by a straight line due east to the New York State line. This line being afterward objected to by the East Jersey proprietors, the latter procured the running of the Lawrence line.
Bergen was the location of several battles and troop movements during the Newark and left Hackensack via Polifly Road. British forces pursued, and Washington continued to retreat across New Jersey. The retreat allowed American forces to escape capture and regroup for subsequent successes against the British elsewhere in New Jersey later that winter. Soon after the Battle of Princeton in January 1777, British forces realized that they couldn't spread themselves thin across New Jersey. Local militia retook Hackensack and the rest of Bergen County. Bergen County saw skirmishes throughout the war as armies from both sides maneuvered across the countryside.
In 1837, Passaic County was formed from parts of Bergen and Essex counties. In 1840, Hudson County was formed from Bergen. These two divisions took roughly 13,000 residents (nearly half of the previous population) from the county's rolls.
In 1852, the Erie Railroad began operating major rail services from Jersey City on the Hudson River to points north and west via leased right-of-way in the county. This became known as the Erie Main Line, and is still in use for passenger service today.
In 1894, state law was changed to allow easy formation of municipalities with the Borough form of government. This led to the "boroughitis" phenomenon, in which many new municipalities were created in a span of a few years. There were 26 boroughs that were formed in the county in 1894 alone, with two more boroughs (and one new township) formed in 1895.
On January 11, 1917, the Kingsland Explosion took place at a munitions factory in what is today Lyndhurst. The explosion is believed to have been an act of sabotage by German agents, as the munitions in question were destined for Russia, part of the U.S.'s effort to supply allies before entrance into World War I. After the U.S. entry into the war in April 1917, Camp Merritt was created in eastern Bergen County for troop staging. Beginning operations in August 1917, it housed 50,000 soldiers at a time, staging them for deployment to Europe via Hoboken. Camp Merritt was decommissioned in November 1919.
The Fort Lee to Manhattan. This connection spurred rapid development in the post-World War II era, developing much of the county to suburban levels. Two lanes were added to the upper level in 1946 and a second deck of traffic on the bridge was completed in 1962, expanding its capacity to 14 lanes.
In 1955, the United States Army created a Nike Missile station at Campgaw Mountain (in the west of the county) for the defense of the New York Metropolitan Area from strategic bombers. In 1959, the site was upgraded to house Nike-Hercules Missiles with increased range, speed, and payload characteristics. The missile site closed in June 1971.
The prospect of property tax relief prompted County Executive Dennis McNerney to call in 2008 for municipalities with populations less than 10,000 in Bergen County to merge, saying "The surest way to significantly lower homeowners' property taxes is to merge small towns and reduce administrative overhead", with 35 of Bergen County's municipalities having less than 10,000 residents each.
Bergen County is located at the northeastern corner of the state of New Jersey and is bordered by Rockland County, New York to the north; by Manhattan and the Bronx in New York City, as well as by Westchester County, New York, across the Hudson River to the east; and within New Jersey, by Hudson County as well as a small border with Essex County to the south, and by Passaic County to the west.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the county had a total area of 246.671 square miles (638.87 km2), of which 233.009 square miles (603.49 km2) (94.5%) was land and 13.662 square miles (35.38 km2) (5.5%) was water.
Bergen County's highest elevation is Bald Mountain near the New York state line in Mahwah, at 1,164 feet (355 m) above sea level. The county's lowest point is sea level, along the Hudson River, which in this region is a tidal estuary.
The sharp cliffs of the New Jersey Palisades lift much of the eastern boundary of the county up from the Hudson River. The relief becomes less pronounced across the middle section of the county, much of it being located in the Hackensack River valley or the Pascack Valley. In the northwestern portion of the county, Bergen County becomes hilly again and shares the Ramapo Mountains with Rockland County, New York.
The damming of the Hackensack River and a tributary, the Pascack Brook, produced three reservoirs in the county, Woodcliff Lake Reservoir (which impounds one billion gallons of water), Lake Tappan (3.5 billion gallons), and Oradell Reservoir, which allows United Water to provide drinking water to 750,000 residents of northern New Jersey, mostly in Bergen and Hudson counties. The Hackensack River drains the eastern portion of the county through the New Jersey Meadowlands, a wetlands area in the southern portion of the county. The central portion is drained by the Saddle River and the western portion is drained by the Ramapo River. Both of these are tributaries of the Passaic River, which forms a section of the southwestern border of the county.
||Rockland County, New York|
|Passaic County, New Jersey||Westchester, The Bronx, and Manhattan in New York, across the Hudson River|
|Essex County and Hudson County, New Jersey|
|Hackensack, New Jersey|
|Climate chart ()|
Bergen County lies at the edge of the humid subtropical climate zone according to the Köppen climate classification because its coldest month (January) averages above 26.6 °F / -3 °C. In part due to Bergen's coastal location, its relatively low elevation, and the partial shielding of the county from colder air by the three ridges of the Watchung Mountains as well as by the higher Appalachians, the climate of Bergen County is milder than in New Jersey counties further inland such as Sussex County. Bergen County has a moderately sunny climate, averaging between 2,400 and 2,800 hours of sunshine annually.
In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Hackensack have ranged from a low of 27 °F (−3 °C) in January to a high of 84 °F (29 °C) in July, although a record low of −15 °F (−26 °C) was recorded in February 1934 and a record high of 106 °F (41 °C) was recorded in July 1936. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 3.21 inches (82 mm) in February to 4.60 inches (117 mm) in July.
Bergen County is the most populous county in New Jersey, with approximately 95,000 more residents than Middlesex County (the second-ranked county in 2010), accounting for 10.3% of the state's population in 2010. The county's Census-estimated population in 2014 was 933,572. In 2010, Bergen County was the 56th most populous county in the United States.
Bergen County's annual property taxes were the highest of any New Jersey county in 2013, averaging $10,642. Within Bergen County, Alpine residents paid the highest average property taxes in 2014, at $20,093, followed by Tenafly ($18,787) and Demarest ($17,391).
At the 2010 United States Census, there were 905,116 people, 335,730 households, and 238,704 families residing in the county. The population density was 3,884.5 per square mile (1,499.8/km2). There were 352,388 housing units at an average density of 1,512.3 per square mile (583.9/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 71.89% (650,703) White, 5.80% (52,473) Black or African American, 0.23% (2,061) Native American, 14.51% (131,329) Asian, 0.03% (229) Pacific Islander, 5.04% (45,611) from other races, and 2.51% (22,710) from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 16.05% (145,281) of the population.
There were 335,730 households, of which 32% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.1% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 28.9% were non-families. 24.6% of all households were made up of individuals, and 10.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.2.
In the county, 22.6% of the population were under the age of 18, 7.4% from 18 to 24, 25.9% from 25 to 44, 29% from 45 to 64, and 15.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41.1 years. For every 100 females there were 92.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.8 males.
As of the 2000 United States Census there were 884,118 people, 330,817 households, and 235,210 families residing in the county. The population density was 3,776 people per square mile (1,458/km²). There were 339,820 housing units at an average density of 1,451 per square mile (560/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 78.41% non-Hispanic white, 10.67% Asian, 5.27% black, 0.15% Native American, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 3.22% from other races, and 2.26% non-Hispanic reporting two or more races. 10.34% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. Among those residents listing their ancestry, 22.0% were of Italian, 15.1% Irish, 11.2% German and 7.4% Polish ancestry according to Census 2000.
There were 330,817 households out of which 32.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.90% were married couples living together, 9.70% had a female householder with no husband present, and 28.90% were non-families. 24.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.20% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.17. The age distribution was 23.00% under the age of 18, 6.60% from 18 to 24, 30.60% from 25 to 44, 24.50% from 45 to 64, and 15.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 92.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.40 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $65,241, and the median income for a family was $78,079. Males had a median income of $51,346 versus $37,295 for females. The per capita income for the county was $33,638. About 3.4% of families and 5.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.9% of those under age 18 and 5.90% of those age 65 or over.
Given its location as a suburban extension of
- Bergen County official website
- Bergen County Historical Society
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Van Valen, James M. (1900). History of Bergen County, New Jersey. p. 48.
The province of East Jersey was not divided into counties until 1682. Although the General Assembly of the whole colony by an Act passed on the 30th of November, 1675 had declared Bergen and the plantations and settlements in its vicinity to be a county, in name Bergen county, though the Act does not say so in so many words.
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In 1833 the Paterson & Hudson River Rail Road was chartered to build between Paterson, N. J., and Jersey City, and the Paterson & Ramapo Railroad north to the New York state line at Suffern. The two lines provided a shortcut between New York City and the New York & Erie at Suffern, even though they did not connect directly – passengers walked the mile between the two. The New York & Erie fought the situation until 1852, when it leased the two railroads, built a connecting track, and made that the main route, supplanting the original line to Piermont.
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- Staff. "FIND GERMAN AGENTS IN MUNITION WORKS; Report Says Teutons Were Employed in Kingsland Plant Before Explosion. TWELVE MEN SUSPECTED Fires in Other Great Plants Believed to Have Been Set by Disloyal Employes.", The New York Times, November 18, 1917. Accessed January 24, 2013.
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- IN NEW JERSEY; PARAMUS BLUE LAWS CRIMP OFFICE LEASING, The New York Times, November 4, 1984. "Officials tried to regulate the effects of the tremendous growth on the borough by insisting that at least one day a week, Paramus be allowed to enjoy some of its former peace and quiet. In 1957, a law was passed banning all worldly employment on Sundays, forcing all the new stores and malls built in the celery fields to close for the day."
- Firschein, Merry. Paramus mayor faces challenge, The Record (Bergen County), October 31, 2006. Accessed December 24, 2013. "Both candidates said they would stand strong against any weakening of the blue laws, which keep most stores closed on Sunday, and would work to keep Paramus' laws the most restrictive in the state."
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- Ensslin, John C.; and O'Neill, James N. "Tedesco upsets Donovan in race for Bergen County executive", The Record (Bergen County), November 4, 2014. Accessed January 7, 2015. "Democrat James Tedesco, in a come-from-behind upset, won a hard-fought race for Bergen County Executive Tuesday, dealing Republican incumbent Kathleen Donovan her first loss at the county level in 25 years."
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- Ensslin, John C. "Tedesco outspent Donovan 2-to-1 in Bergen County Executive race, final tally shows", The Record (Bergen County), December 4, 2014. Accessed January 7, 2015. "Tedesco spent $990,980, compared with $429,213 spent by Donovan in her unsuccessful bid for a second four-year term, reports compiled by the state Election Law Enforcement Commission showed."
- Gartland, Michael. "Donovan leads Republican sweep in Bergen", The Record (Bergen County), November 2, 2010. Accessed October 2, 2013. "In the headline battle, Republican County Clerk Kathleen Donovan unseated incumbent County Executive Dennis McNerney, 116,597 to 103,720 votes, with 547 of 553 precincts reporting ... But the GOP will take control of the board in January, when three new freeholders—Maura DiNicola, John Felice and John Mitchell—are sworn in, giving the GOP a 5–2 majority on the board.A Republican also captured the Bergen County sheriff's post, with Emerson Police Chief Michael Saudino ousting incumbent Leo McGuire."
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- Baylor Massacre site, River Vale
- Camp Merritt, Cresskill
- Campbell-Christie House, River Edge
- Easton Tower, Paramus
- Garretson Farm, Fair Lawn
- Gethsemane Cemetery, Little Ferry
- Washington Spring Garden, Paramus
- Wortendyke Barn, Park Ridge
County-owned historical sites
- Belmont Hill County Park, Garfield
- Campgaw Mountain Reservation, Mahwah
- Dahnert's Lake County Park, Garfield
- Darlington County Park, Mahwah
- McFaul Environmental Center, Wyckoff
- Ramapo Mountain Reservation, Mahwah
- Overpeck County Park, Leonia, Palisades Park, Ridgefield Park
- Riverside County Park, Lyndhurst, North Arlington
- Pascack Brook County Park, Westwood
- Saddle Ridge Riding Area, Franklin Lakes
- Saddle River County Park, Paramus, Glen Rock, Rochelle Park, Saddle Brook, Ridgewood
- Samuel Nelkin County Park, Wallington
- Van Saun County Park, Paramus (Includes the Bergen County Zoological Park, the county's only zoo)
- Wood Dale County Park, Woodcliff Lake
- New Bridge Landing, River Edge, Teaneck and New Milford (Public and Private)
- The Hermitage, Ho-Ho-Kus
- Steuben House, River Edge (at New Bridge Landing)
State-owned historical sites
- Ramapo Mountain State Forest, Mahwah
- Palisades Interstate Park, Fort Lee, Englewood Cliffs, Tenafly, Alpine
- MetLife Stadium, which replaced Giants Stadium, in East Rutherford, is the home of the New York Giants and the New York Jets of the National Football League. At a construction cost of approximately $1.6 billion, it is the most expensive stadium ever built.
- Izod Center, East Rutherford (formerly known as the Continental Airlines Arena and the Brendan Byrne Arena). It was formerly home to the New Jersey Devils, the New Jersey Nets, and the Seton Hall University Pirates men's basketball team.
- Meadowlands Racetrack, East Rutherford
- Westfield Garden State Plaza, Paramus, is one of the largest and highest revenue producing shopping malls in the United States.
- The Shops at Riverside, shopping mall, Hackensack (formerly known as Riverside Square Mall)
- Paramus Park, shopping mall, Paramus
- The Outlets at Bergen Town Center, shopping mall, Paramus (formerly known as the Bergen Mall)
- Fashion Center, shopping mall, Paramus
- The Shoppes on IV, shopping center, Paramus.
- Paramus Place, shopping center, Paramus.
- Paramus Towne Square, shopping center, Paramus.
- H Mart, Korean shopping plaza and supermarket, Ridgefield
- Mitsuwa Marketplace, Japanese shopping plaza and supermarket, Edgewater
- American Dream Meadowlands, to open in Summer 2017, will be one of the largest and most expensive retail and entertainment complexes ever built.
Commercial and entertainment
- New Jersey Naval Museum, Hackensack—There the USS Ling is moored in the Hackensack River and is available for tours as a museum ship.
- Aviation Hall of Fame and Museum of New Jersey, Teterboro Airport
- Bergen Museum of Art & Science, Hackensack
- Meadowlands Environment Center, Lyndhurst
- Tenafly Nature Center, Tenafly
- The Puffin Foundation, Teaneck
- The Maywood Station Museum, Maywood
- The Bergen Performing Arts Center, Englewood
Educational and cultural
Points of interest
In 2014, Robert Menendez, Democratic U.S. Senator representing New Jersey since 2006, shifted his residence from his longtime established base in adjacent Hudson County to Paramus in Bergen County.
In 2010, Republicans were represented by only two Freeholders and one Constitutional Officer. In 2011, the Democrats had two Freeholders and one Constitutional Officer, a complete shift in control of County government. In 2012, Democrats retained their two seats on the Board of Freeholders while moving to two Constitutional Officers as Democrat John Hogan defeated incumbent Elizabeth Randall in the County Clerk race.
In the 2013 gubernatorial election, Republican Chris Christie received 136,178 ballots cast (60.2%), ahead of Democrat Barbara Buono with 87,376 votes (38.7%) and other candidates with 2,515 votes (1.1%), among the 226,069 ballots cast for governor by the county's 527,491 registered voters, yielding a 42.9% turnout. In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Democrat Jon Corzine received 127,386 ballots cast (48.0%) in the county, ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 121,446 votes (45.8%), Independent Chris Daggett with 12,452 votes (4.7%), and other candidates with 1,262 votes (0.5%), among the 265,223 ballots cast by the county's 530,460 registered voters, yielding a 50.0% turnout.
 In the
As of October 31, 2014, there were a total of 555,293 registered voters in Bergen County, of whom 171,471 (30.9%) were registered as Democrats, 111,099 (20.%) were registered as Republicans and 272,261 (49.%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were 462 voters registered to other parties. Among the county's 2010 Census population, 61.4% were registered to vote, including 77.4% of those ages 18 and over.
The county is part of three congressional districts, the 5th District covering the northern portion of the county and the 9th most of the south, with Fairview being in the 8th District. New Jersey's Fifth Congressional District is represented by Scott Garrett (R, Wantage Township). New Jersey's Ninth Congressional District is represented by Bill Pascrell (D, Paterson). New Jersey's Eighth Congressional District is represented by Albio Sires (D, West New York).
|32nd||Nicholas Sacco (D)||
Angelica M. Jimenez (D)
Vincent Prieto (D)
|Edgewater (11,513) and Fairview (13,835). The remainder of the district covers portions of Hudson County.|
|35th||Nellie Pou (D)||
Shavonda E. Sumter (D)
Benjie E. Wimberly (D)
|Elmwood Park (19,403) and Garfield (30,487). The remainder of the district covers portions of Passaic County.|
|36th||Paul Sarlo (D)||
Marlene Caride (D)
Gary Schaer (D)
|Carlstadt (6,127), Cliffside Park (23,594), East Rutherford (8,913), Little Ferry (10,626), Lyndhurst (20,554), Moonachie (2,708), North Arlington (15,392), Ridgefield (11,032), Ridgefield Park (12,729), Rutherford (18,061), South Hackensack (2,378), Teterboro (67), Wallington (11,335) and Wood-Ridge (7,626). The remainder of the district covers portions of Passaic County.|
|37th||Loretta Weinberg (D)||
Valerie Huttle (D)
Gordon M. Johnson (D)
|Alpine (1,849), Bogota (8,187), Cresskill (8,573), Englewood (27,147 Englewood Cliffs (5,281), Fort Lee (35,345), Hackensack (43,010), Leonia (8,937), Northvale (4,640), Palisades Park (19,622), Rockleigh (531), Teaneck (39,776) and Tenafly (14,488).|
|38th||Robert M. Gordon (D)||
Tim Eustace (D)
Joseph Lagana (D)
|Bergenfield (26,764), Fair Lawn (32,457), Glen Rock (11,601), Hasbrouck Heights (11,842), Lodi (24,136), Maywood (9,555), New Milford (16,341), Oradell (7,978), Paramus (26,342), River Edge (11,340), Rochelle Park (5,530), Saddle Brook (13,659). The remainder of the district covers portions of Passaic County.|
|39th||Gerald Cardinale (R)||
Robert Auth (R)
Holly Schepisi (R)
|Closter (8,373), Demarest (4,881), Dumont (17,479), Emerson (7,401), Harrington Park (4,664), Haworth (3,382), Hillsdale (10,219), Mahwah (25,890), Montvale (7,844), Norwood (5,711), Oakland (12,754), Old Tappan (5,750), Park Ridge (8,645), Ramsey (14,473), River Vale (9,659), Saddle River (3,152), Upper Saddle River (8,208), Washington Township (9,102), Westwood (10,908) and Woodcliff Lake (5,730). The remainder of the district covers portions of Passaic County.|
|40th||Kevin J. O'Toole (R)||
Scott Rumana (R)
David C. Russo (R)
|Allendale (6,505), Franklin Lakes (10,590), Ho-Ho-Kus (4,078), Midland Park (7,128), Ridgewood (24,958), Waldwick (9,625) and Wyckoff (16,696). The remainder of the district covers portions of Essex County, Morris County and Passaic County.|
The 70 municipalities of Bergen County are represented by seven separate state legislative districts. The 37th is situated entirely within the county, while all of the others cross county boundaries.
In 2004, the New Jersey Legislature passed the Highlands Water Protection and Planning Act, which regulates the New Jersey Highlands region. A portion of the northwestern area of the county, comprising the municipalities of Oakland and Mahwah, was included in the highlands preservation area and is subject to the rules of the act and the Highlands Water Protection and Planning Council, a division of the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Some of the territory in the protected region is classified as being in the highlands preservation area, and thus subject to additional rules.
In August 2015, a branding campaign was launched to highlight county government services, with its centerpiece being the official seal of Bergen County, depicting a Dutch settler shaking hands with a Native American. The county's contemporaneous executive James Tedesco made an approximately $5,000 private donation to initiate the effort in the form of a nine-foot rendering of this seal woven into the carpet of the county executive's office.
The Bergen County court system consists of a number of municipal courts handling traffic court and other minor matters, plus the Bergen County Superior Court which handles more serious offenses. Law enforcement at the county level includes the Bergen County Sheriff's Office and the Bergen County Prosecutor's Office. Bergen County's first female police chief took office in September 2015, as police chief of Bergenfield.
In November 2010, Republican County Clerk Kathleen Donovan won the race for County Executive, defeating Dennis McNerney in his bid for a third term. Three incumbent Freeholders, Chairman James Carroll, Freeholder Elizabeth Calabrese, and Freeholder John Hogan were all defeated by Republican challengers Franklin Lakes Mayor Maura DeNicola, former River Edge Councilman John Felice and Cliffside Park resident John Mitchell. Incumbent Bergen County Sheriff Leo McGuire also failed in his bid for a third term as he was defeated by Emerson Police Chief Mike Saudino. As a result of the 2010 elections, Republicans controlled Bergen County government for the first time in nearly a decade, with County Executive Kathleen Donovan and a 5–2 majority on the Board of Chosen Freeholders.
In 2014, Freeholder James Tedesco challenged incumbent Kathleen Donovan on a platform that highlighted his own plan to merge the county police department with the sheriff's office, as well as Donovan's connections to recent scandals in the New Jersey state government, including the nationally-reported "Bridgegate" scandal and alleged campaign finance abuse among her staff. Election results showed Tedesco with 54.2% of the vote (107,958), ahead of Donovan with 45.8% (91,299), in a race in which Tedesco's campaign spending nearly $1 million, outspending Donovan by a 2-1 margin.
- County Clerk John S. Hogan (D, Northvale)
- Sheriff Michael Saudino (R)
- Surrogate Michael R. Dressler (D, Cresskill).
Countywide constitutional officials are: 2828
- Freeholder Chairwoman Joan Voss (D, Fort Lee, 2017)
- Freeholder Vice-Chairman Freeholder Steve Tanelli (D, North Arlington, 2015)
- Freeholder Chairman Pro-Tempore John A. Felice (R, River Edge, 2016)
- Freeholder David L. Ganz (D, Fair Lawn, 2017)
- Freeholder Maura DeNicola (R, Franklin Lakes, 2016)
- Freeholder Thomas J. Sullivan Jr., (D, Montvale, 2015; serving the unexpired term of office that had been occupied by James Tedesco before he was sworn in as County Executive)
- Freeholder Tracy Silna Zur (D, Franklin Lakes, 2015)
Bergen has had a County Executive form of government since 1986. The executive oversees the county's business, while the seven-member Board of chosen freeholders retains a legislative and oversight role. The freeholders are elected at-large to three-year terms in office on a staggered basis, with either two or three seats coming up for election each year in a three-year cycle. All members of the governing body are elected at-large on a partisan basis as part of the November general elections. Day-to-day oversight of the operation of the county and its departments is delegated to County Administrator Ed Trawinski.
See also: Blue laws section above.
Law and government
However, repeated attempts by voters to reject the law have failed. A large part of the reason for maintaining the laws has been a desire by many Bergen County residents for relative peace and quiet, with less traffic, on one day of the week. This desire for relative peace is most apparent in Paramus, where most of the county's largest shopping malls are located, along the intersecting highways of Route 4 and Route 17, which are jam-packed on many Saturdays. Paramus has enacted blue laws of its own that are even more restrictive than those enforced by Bergen County, banning all forms of "worldly employment" on Sundays, including white collar workers in office buildings. Despite these strict blue laws, Paramus (07652) has become the top retail zip code in the United States, with the municipality generating over $5 billion in annual retail sales. Local Blue laws in Paramus were first proposed in 1957, while the Bergen Mall and Garden State Plaza were under construction. The legislation was motivated by fears that the two new malls would aggravate the already severe highway congestion caused by local retail businesses along the borough's highways seven days a week and to preserve one day on which the roads were less congested. In November 2012, Governor Chris Christie issued an executive order to temporarily suspend the blue law due to the effects of Hurricane Sandy. The blue law was suspended on November 11 but was back in effect on November 18.
One of the last remaining blue laws in the United States that covers most retail sales, other than food and gasoline (among other limited items), is found in Bergen County. The blue law enforced in the county is actually a state law that each county could reject by voter referendum, with 20 of the state's 21 counties having voted to reject the legal option to enforce the law. Thus one of the largest and most popular commercial shopping cores of the New York metropolitan area is almost completely closed on Sunday (grocery stores, convenience stores, gas stations, hotels, restaurants, pharmacies, and entertainment venues are among the businesses allowed to operate). Furthermore, Bergen County has significant populations of Jewish (2000 estimate of 83,700) and Muslim (2000 estimate of 6,473) residents whose observant members would not be celebrating the Sunday Sabbath with most of their Christian neighbors. The substantial Orthodox Jewish minority is placed in the position of being unable to shop either on Sunday (due to the blue laws) or on Saturday (due to religious observance).
In 2011, Bergen County issued 1,903 new building permits for residential construction, the largest number in New Jersey.
In January 2015, 
- Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack, 8,000
- Valley Health System, Ridgewood, 4,660
- Bio-Reference Laboratories, Inc., Elmwood Park, 2,900
- Medco Health Solutions, Franklin Lakes, 2,800 (no longer an independent company)
- County of Bergen, Hackensack, 2,390
- Quest Diagnostics, Teterboro / Lyndhurst, 2,200
- KPMG, Montvale, 2,100
- Englewood Hospital and Medical Center, Englewood, 2,002
- Englewood Hospital Home Health Care Services, Englewood, 1,985
- Unilever Bestfoods, Englewood Cliffs, 1,900
- Stryker Corporation, Allendale / Mahwah, 1,812
- Bergen Regional Medical Center, Paramus, 1,746
- Holy Name Medical Center, Teaneck, 1,695
- Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, 1,500
- Crestron Electronics, Rockleigh / Cresskill, 1,500
- BMW of North America, Woodcliff Lake, 1,000
According to the Bergen County Economic Development Corporation, the largest employers in Bergen County as of November 2012, as ranked with at least 1,000 employees in the county, were as follows:
Over the history of the county, there have been various municipality secessions, annexations and renamings. The following is a partial list of former municipalities, ordered by year of incorporation.
(with map key)
|Cliffside Park||borough||23,594||10,665||0.96||0.00||0.96||24,508.7||11,078.5||Grantwood (part)|
|Upper Saddle River||borough||8,208||2,776||5.28||0.02||5.26||1,560.0||527.6|
Municipalities in Bergen County (with 2010 Census data for population, housing units and area) are:
In the last decades of the 19th century, Bergen County, to a far greater extent than any other county in the state, began dividing its townships up into incorporated boroughs; this was chiefly due to the "boroughitis" phenomenon, triggered by a number of loopholes in state laws that allowed boroughs to levy lower taxes and send more members to the county's board of freeholders. There was a 10-year period in which many of Bergen County's townships disappeared into the patchwork of boroughs that exist today, before the state laws governing municipal incorporation were changed.
Arts and culture
Bergen has some 45 public high schools and at least 23 private high schools. Three of the top ten municipal high schools out of 339 schools in New Jersey were located in Bergen County, according to a 2014 ranking by New Jersey Monthly magazine, including Northern Highlands Regional High School in Allendale (#3), Pascack Hills High School in Montvale (#7), and Glen Rock High School in Glen Rock (#8). The magazine's list did not include the Bergen County Academies (BCA), which as the county's public magnet high school in Hackensack has continued to be recognized by various rankings as one of the best high schools in the United States. In 2014, BCA had an average HSPA score of 294 out of 300 and an average SAT score of 2103 out of 2400.
- Bergen Community College – Paramus, with other centers in Hackensack and Lyndhurst
- Fairleigh Dickinson University – Teaneck and Hackensack
- Felician College – Lodi and Rutherford
- Ramapo College – Mahwah
- Saint Peter's University – Englewood Cliffs
Bergen County is home to several colleges and universities:
For the main surface-street routes through the county, see List of county routes in Bergen County, New Jersey.
There is one airport in the county, Teterboro Airport in Teterboro, which is operated by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. The three busiest commercial airports in the New York City metropolitan area, namely JFK International Airport, Newark Liberty International Airport, and La Guardia Airport, are all located within 25 miles of Bergen County.
Bus service is available from Bergen BRT (bus rapid transit) system, it has been determined the many malls and other "activity generators" in the vicinity of the intersection of routes 4 and 17 would constitute the core of any system. While no funding has for construction of the project has been identified, a study begun in 2012 will define the optimal routes.
Despite the name, the Hudson-Bergen Light Rail does not yet run into Bergen County, although a northward extension from Hudson County to Englewood Hospital and Medical Center, known as the Northern Branch Corridor Project, has been advanced to the draft environmental impact statement stage by New Jersey Transit. The proposed Passaic-Bergen Rail Line, with two station stops in Hackensack, has not advanced since its 2008 announcement. The Access to the Region's Core rail tunnel project would have allowed many Bergen County railway commuters a one-seat ride into Manhattan but was canceled in October 2010.
Train service is available on three lines from New Jersey Transit: the Bergen County Line, the Erie Main Line, and the Pascack Valley Line. They run north-south to Hoboken Terminal with connections to the PATH train. New Jersey Transit also offers connecting service to New York Penn Station at Secaucus Junction. Connections are also available at the Hoboken Terminal to the Hudson-Bergen Light Rail and New York Waterways ferry service to the World Financial Center and other destinations.
As of May 2010, the county had a total of 2,988.59 miles (4,809.67 km) of roadways, of which 2,402.78 miles (3,866.90 km) are maintained by the municipality, 438.97 miles (706.45 km) by Bergen County, 106.69 miles (171.70 km) by the New Jersey Department of Transportation and 40.15 miles (64.62 km) by the New Jersey Turnpike Authority.
The Fort Lee in Bergen County across the Hudson River to the Upper Manhattan section of New York City, is the world's busiest motor vehicle bridge. Access to New York City is alternatively available for motorists through the Lincoln Tunnel and Holland Tunnel in Hudson County.
Bergen County has a well-developed road network, including the northern termini of the New Jersey Turnpike (a portion of Interstate 95) and the Garden State Parkway, the eastern terminus of Interstate 80, and a portion of Interstate 287. US Highways 1/9, 9W, 46, 202, and New Jersey state highways 3, 4, 17, 120, 208, and the Palisades Interstate Parkway also serve the region. With an average volume of 210,000 vehicles passing through each day, the intersection of Routes 4 and 17 is one of the busiest in the world.
Construction of the first of two 47-story glass-sheathed luxury Manhattan, represented the tallest buildings to be built to date in Bergen County.
In the Forbes magazine 2012 ranking of the Most Expensive ZIP Codes in the United States, Alpine was ranked as the second most expensive in the country, with a median home sale price of $5,745,038. There were a total of 12 county municipalities listed in the top 500, which were Englewood Cliffs (#129; $1,439,115), Saddle River (#133; $1,427,515), Franklin Lakes (#190 - $1,176,229), Tenafly (#286; $913,553), Demarest (#325; $852,010), Cresskill (#362, $794,073), Ho-Ho-Kus (#364; $788,626), Wyckoff (#376; $776,303), Woodcliff Lake (#391; $752,161), Montvale (#455; $640,825) and Allendale (#481; $579,081). In the magazine's 2006 listing, Alpine was ranked as the 15th most expensive in the country, with its median home sale price in 2005 of $1,790,000 ranking as the state's highest. In all, 11 Bergen County municipalities were also represented on the list in addition to Alpine, including Englewood Cliffs (ranked #78; median sale price of $1,112,500), Saddle River (107; $997,000), Franklin Lakes (111; $985,000), Woodcliff Lake (266; $786,000), Haworth (342; $747,500), Demarest (350; $742,000), Ho-Ho-Kus (353; $740,000), Wyckoff (405; $700,000), Closter (452; $684,000) and Ridgewood (470; $675,000).
By national standards, housing is expensive in Bergen County. In May 2015, the median house price in Bergen County was $465,000; however, median figures belie the significant variation noted between more and less affluent towns in the county.
Same-sex couples headed one in 160 households in 2010, prior to the commencement of same-sex marriages in New Jersey on October 21, 2013.
Bergen County also has a moderately sized Muslim population, which numbered 6,473 as of the 2000 census. Its most notable Muslim enclaves are centered in Teaneck and Hackensack, two of the most diverse communities in the entire county. Bergen's Muslim population primarily consists of Arab Americans, South Asians, African Americans, and more recently, Macedonian Americans and Albanian Americans, although it should be noted that many members of these groups practice other faiths. While Arab Americans have not established a significant presence in any particular municipality, in total there are 11,755 county residents who indicated Arab ancestry in the 2000 census. The overwhelming majority of Bergen's Arab American population (64.3%) is constituted by persons of Lebanese (2,576), Syrian (2,568), and Egyptian (2,417) descent. The county's diners provide late-night and pre-dawn dining options during the Islamic holy month of Ramadan.
Greek Americans have had a fairly sizable presence in Bergen for several decades, and according to 2000 census data, the Greek community numbered 13,247 county-wide. Greek restaurants are abundant in Bergen County. The largest concentrations of Greeks by percentage in the county are in Englewood Cliffs (7.2%), Alpine (5.2%), Fort Lee (3.7%), and Palisades Park (3.5%). Macedonian Americans and Albanian Americans have arrived relatively recently in New Jersey but have quickly established Bergen County enclaves, roughly in tandem, in Garfield, Elmwood Park, and Fair Lawn.
The Japanese community, which includes a significant number of Japanese nationals, has long had a presence in Fort Lee, with over a quarter of the county's total Japanese population living in that borough alone. Adjacent Edgewater has also developed an active Japanese American community, particularly after the construction of the largest Japanese-oriented commercial center on the U.S. East Coast in this borough. As of March 2011, about 2,500 Japanese Americans lived in Fort Lee and Edgewater combined; this is the largest concentration of Japanese Americans in New Jersey. The remainder of Bergen County's Japanese residents are concentrated in northern communities, including Ridgewood. The Japanese-American Society of New Jersey is based in Fort Lee.
The Chinese American population is also spread out, with fairly sizable populations in Fort Lee, Paramus, Ridgewood, River Edge, and Englewood Cliffs. Fort Lee and Paramus have the highest total number of Chinese among Bergen municipalities while Englewood Cliffs has the highest percentage (8.42%). Several school districts throughout the county have added Mandarin Chinese to their curriculae.
 in November 2013.the Philippines, which ravaged Typhoon Haiyan Bergen County's culturally active Filipino community repatriated significant financial assistance to victims of  and Bergenfield.
Armenian Genocide are recognized annually at the Bergen County Courthouse in Hackensack.
Russian (and other former Soviet) American
Indian Americans, or Asian Indians, represent a rapidly growing demographic in Bergen County, enumerating over 40,000 individuals in 2013, a significant increase from the 24,973 counted in the 2010 Census, and represent the second largest Asian ethnic group in Bergen County, after Korean Americans. The biggest clusters of Indian Americans are located in Hackensack, Ridgewood, Fair Lawn, Paramus, Teaneck, Mahwah, Bergenfield, Lodi, and Elmwood Park. Within the county's Indian population is America's largest Malayali community, and Kerala-based Kitex Garments, India's largest children's clothing manufacturer, opened its first U.S. office in Montvale in October 2015. Glen Rock resident Gurbir Grewal, a member of Bergen County's growing Indian American Sikh community, was nominated by New Jersey Governor Chris Christie to the position of county prosecutor in September 2013, and an architecturally notable Sikh gurudwara resides in Glen Rock, while a similarly prominent Hindu mandir has been built in Mahwah. The public library in Fair Lawn began a highly attended Hindi language (हिन्दी) storytelling program in October 2013. The affluent municipalities of northern Bergen County are witnessing significant growth in their Indian American communities, including Glen Rock, into which up to 90% of this constituency was estimated by one member in 2014 to have moved within the preceding two-year period alone. In February 2015, the Glen Rock Board of Education voted to designate the Hindu holy day Diwali as an annual school holiday.
The county's African American community is almost entirely concentrated in three municipalities: Englewood (10,215 residents, accounting for 38.98% of the city's total population), Teaneck (11,298; 28.78%), and Hackensack (10,518; 24.65%). Collectively, these three areas account for nearly 70% of the county's total African American population of 46,568, and in fact, blacks have had a presence in these towns since the earliest days of the county. In sharp contrast, African Americans comprise less than 2% of the total in most of Bergen's other municipalities. In Englewood, the African American population is concentrated in the Third and Fourth wards of the western half of the city, while the northeastern section of Teaneck has been an African American enclave for several decades. In 2014, Teaneck selected its first female African-American mayor. Hackensack's long-established African American community is primarily located in the central part of the city, especially in the area near Central Avenue and First Street. Bergen County's black population has declined from 52,473 counted in the 2010 Census to an estimated 50,478 in 2012.
Polish Americans are well represented in western Bergen County and are growing as a community, with 59,294 (6.5%) of residents of Polish descent residing in the county as of the 2013 American Community Survey. The community's cultural and commercial heart has long been centered in Wallington, where 45.5% of the population is of Polish descent; this is the largest concentration among New Jersey municipalities and the seventh-highest in the United States. In recent years, the adjacent city of Garfield has also become a magnet for Polish immigrants, with 22.9% of the population identifying themselves as being of Polish ancestry, the third highest concentration in the state.
 (한글) language, in addition to English and Spanish, given the U.S Census Bureau's directive that Bergen County's Korean population had grown large enough to warrant language assistance during elections.Hangul Beginning in 2012, county election ballots were printed in the Korean  has emerged as a Korean American nexus in western Bergen County.Ridgewood. Virtually all of the municipalities with the highest Korean concentrations are located in the eastern third of the county, near the Hudson River, although Old Tappan, closely followed by Demarest, and Cresskill, Edgewater, Norwood, Englewood Cliffs, Closter including Palisades Park, Leonia, Ridgefield, Fort Lee,  (25.7%)). All of the nation's top ten municipalities by percentage of Korean population in 2010 were located in Bergen County,Ridgefield (26.5%) and Leonia and fourth highest proportion (23.5%, trailing  had the second largest cluster (8,318),Fort Lee while neighboring  of individuals of Korean ancestry among all municipalities in the state, Per the 2010 Census, Palisades Park was home to the highest total number (10,115) at 52% of the population. of any municipality in the United States,highest density and percentage, within Bergen County, is the Palisades Park while the concentration of Koreans in  which is the highest percentage for any county in the United States; to an estimated 63,247 individuals),American Community Survey (increasing to 6.9% by the 2011  As of the 2010 Census, persons of Korean ancestry made up 6.3% of Bergen County's population is the Korean American community, which is concentrated along the  One of the fastest-growing immigrant groups in Bergen County
|1||Palisades Park||Bergen County||New Jersey||51.5%|
|2||Leonia||Bergen County||New Jersey||26.5%|
|3||Ridgefield||Bergen County||New Jersey||25.7%|
|4||Fort Lee||Bergen County||New Jersey||23.5%|
|5||Closter||Bergen County||New Jersey||21.2%|
|6||Englewood Cliffs||Bergen County||New Jersey||20.3%|
|7||Norwood||Bergen County||New Jersey||20.1%|
|8||Edgewater||Bergen County||New Jersey||19.6%|
|9||Cresskill||Bergen County||New Jersey||17.8%|
|10||Demarest||Bergen County||New Jersey||17.3%|
The top ten municipalities in the United States as ranked by Korean American percentage of overall population in 2010 are illustrated in the following table:
Main articles: Koreatown, Palisades Park (벼랑 공원 코리아타운); Koreatown, Fort Lee (포트 리 코리아타운); and List of U.S. cities with significant Korean-American populations
See also: Koreatown, Manhattan; Koreatown, Long Island; and Korean Americans in New York City
Many municipalities in the county are home to a significant number of Jewish Americans, including Fair Lawn, Teaneck, Tenafly, Closter, Englewood, Englewood Cliffs, Fort Lee, Bergenfield, Woodcliff Lake, Paramus, and Franklin Lakes. Teaneck, Fair Lawn, Englewood, and Bergenfield in particular have become havens for Bergen County's growing Orthodox Jewish communities, with a rising number of synagogues as well as supermarkets and restaurants offering kosher foods. The largest Israeli American communities in Bergen County were in Fair Lawn (2.5%), Closter (1.4%), and Tenafly (1.3%) in 2000, representing three of the four largest in the state. Altogether, 83,700 Bergen residents identified themselves as being of Jewish heritage in 2000, a number expected to show an increase per a 2014 survey of Jews in the county.
Irish Americans and German Americans are the next largest individual ethnic groups in Bergen County, numbering 115,914 in 2013 (12.7% of the county's total population) and 80,288 (8.8%) respectively. As is the case with Italian Americans, these two groups developed sizable enclaves long ago and are now well established in all areas of the county.
Western European American
The diverse Hispanic and Latin American population in Bergen is growing in many areas of the county but is especially concentrated in a handful of municipalities, including Fairview (37.1%), Hackensack (25.9%), Ridgefield Park (22.2%), Englewood (21.8%), Bogota (21.3%), Garfield (20.1%), Cliffside Park (18.2%), Lodi (18.0%), and Bergenfield (17.0%). Traditionally, many of the Latino residents were of Colombian and Cuban ancestry, although that has been changing in recent years. Englewood's Colombian community is the largest in Bergen County and among the top ten in the United States (7.17%); Hackensack, Fairview, Bergenfield, Bogota, and Lodi also have notable populations. The Cuban population is largest in Fairview, Ridgefield Park, Ridgefield, and Bogota, although the Cuban community is much bigger in Hudson County to the south. Since 2000, an increasing number of immigrants from other countries have entered the region, including people from Peru, Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Chile, as well as from the U.S. territory of Puerto Rico. The diverse backgrounds of the local Latino community are best exemplified in Fairview, where 10% of the overall population hails from Central America, 7% from South America, and 9% from other Latin American countries, mainly the Caribbean. Overall, Bergen County's Latino population has demonstrated a robust increase from 145,281 in the 2010 census count to an estimated 165,442 in 2013.
To this day, many residents of the Meadowlands communities in the county's south are of Italian descent, most notably in South Hackensack (36.3%), Lyndhurst (33.8%), Carlstadt (31.2%), Wood-Ridge (30.9%) and Hasbrouck Heights (30.8%). Saddle Brook (29.8%), Lodi (29.4%), Moonachie (28.5%), Garfield, Hackensack, and the southeastern Bergen towns were Italian American strongholds for decades, but their Italo-American demographics have diminished in recent years as more recent immigrants have taken their place. At the same time, the Italian American population has grown in many of the affluent communities in the northern half of the county, including Franklin Lakes, Ramsey, Montvale, and Woodcliff Lake.
Italian Americans have long had a significant presence in Bergen County; in fact, Italian is the most commonly identified first ancestry among Bergen residents (18.5%), with 168,974 Bergen residents were recorded as being of Italian heritage in the 2013 American Community Survey.
 Bergen County residents.foreign-born are the three most common nations of birth for India, and Poland, South Korea. domiciliary partnership ambience of its own, demonstrating a robust and growing demographic and cultural diversity with respect to metrics including nationality, religion, race, and cosmopolitan Bergen County has evolved a globally