Born Mahesh Das
present-day Uttar Pradesh, India
Died 1586 (aged 57–58)
Swat valley, present-day Pakistan
Occupation Courtier and advisor in the Mughal court of Emperor Akbar

Birbal IPA:  (born Mahesh Das; 1528–1586), or Raja Birbal, was an advisor in the court of the Mughal Emperor Akbar. He is mostly known in the Indian subcontinent for the folk tales which focus on his wit. Birbal was appointed by Akbar as a poet and singer in around 1556–1562. He had a close association with the Emperor, being part of his group of courtiers called the navaratna or nine jewels. In 1586, Birbal led an army to crush an unrest in the north-west Indian subcontinent, which failed tragically when he was killed along with many troops, in an ambush by the rebel tribe. No evidence is present that Birbal, like how he is shown in the folk tales, influenced Akbar by his witticism.

By the end of Akbar's reign, local folk tales emerged involving his interactions with Akbar, portraying him as being extremely clever and witty. As the tales gained popularity in India, he became even more of a legendary figure across India and neighbouring countries surrounding it. These tales involve him outsmarting rival courtiers and sometimes even Akbar, using only his intelligence and cunning, often with giving witty and humorous responses and impressing Akbar. By the twentieth century onwards, plays, films and books based on these folk tales were made, some of these are in children's comics and school textbooks.


  • Early life 1
  • At the imperial court 2
    • Titles and name origin 2.1
    • Position and association with Akbar 2.2
  • Death 3
  • Folklore and legacy 4
    • Origins 4.1
    • Historic role versus folklore 4.2
    • In popular culture 4.3
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • Further reading 7

Early life

Birbal was born as Mahesh Das in 1528,in a village near Kalpi, present-day Uttar Pradesh, India;[1] according to folklore, it was at Tikawanpur near the banks of river Yamuna.[2] His father was Ganga Das and mother, Anabha Davito. He was the third son of a Hindu Brahmin family which had a previous association with poetry and literature.[3][4]

Educated in the Hindi, Sanskrit and Persian, Birbal wrote prose, specialised in music and poetry in the Braj language, thus gaining fame.[5] He served at the Rajput court of Raja Ram Chandra of Reva, under the name "Brahma Kavi". Birbal's economic and social status improved when he married the daughter of a respected and rich family, contrary to the notion that he was on poor economic terms before his appointment at Mughal Emperor Akbar's imperial court.[5]

At the imperial court

Titles and name origin

Akbar was known to give his Hindu courtiers titles based on their cultural background.

The details and year of his first meeting with Akbar and his employment at the court are disputed to be between 1556 and 1562.[6] He became the "Kavi Rai" (poet laureate) of the Emperor within a few years of his appointment.[6] Akbar bestowed upon him the name 'Birbal' with the title "Raja", by which he was known from then on.[5]

Birbal comes from Bir Bar or Vir Var which means courageous and great, quite contrary for him since he was not known for his bravery or for his military skill. Akbar gave titles to his Hindu subjects according to their traditions and S. H. Hodivala writes that it could have been taken from a character in the folk tale Vetal Panchvinshati. This featured a courtier called Vir Var who showed great loyalty to his king. Akbar was also fond of literature, having works of Sanskrit and other local languages translated into Persian.[7]

Position and association with Akbar

His growing reputation led him to be part of Akbar's nine advisers, known as the navaratna or nine jewels, some of them being: Todar Mal, Man Singh, Bhagwan Das, Rajahs Bhar. Soon Birbal played the role of a religious advisor, military figure and close friend of the Emperor, serving him for 30 years.[8][9] In 1572, he was among a large army sent to aid Husain Quli Khan against an attack from the Akbar's brother, Hakim Mirza, which was his first military role. He later accompanied the Emperor during his Gujarat campaigns. Despite having no military background, he often participated in Akbar's campaigns and was given leadership positions, like Todar Mal, who was an advisor in economic matters.[10]

Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak and Abdul Qadir Badayuni were historians of the court. While Fazl respected him, listed him as having twenty five honorific titles and rank of a commander of two thousand; Badayuni distrusted Birbal because he was a Hindu, calling him a "bastard" and in contempt, writing how he, as a Brahman musician, was getting favour and becoming the king's "confidant", but at the same time acknowledging his talent.[6] Akbar's other orthodox Muslim advisers were known to dislike Birbal.[9]

Birbal's house at Fatehpur Sikri, he was the only courtier to get a special place near Akbar's palace.

Akbar had started a religion called Din-i-Ilahi, which acknowledged him as God's representative on earth and had a combination of Hindu and Muslim beliefs. In the Ain-i-Akbari (The Institutes of Akbar), it is mentioned that Birbal was one of the few people other than Akbar who were its followers, besides being the only Hindu.[11] He had a close association with Akbar, despite being fourteen years elder than him; of the nine ratnas, Birbal was often called the brightest jewel.[7] Badaoni referred to this in sarcasm, as "a case of 'thy flesh is my flesh and thy blood my blood'".[6] Akbar is reported to have saved Birbal's life in two instances.[1]

The painting Akbari Nao Ratna in Victoria hall, Kolkata depicts Birbal having a prominent position right next to Akbar. The Emperor found him entertaining at the start but in later years, sent him on important missions. Birbal was said to have received a two-storey house in Fatehpur Sikri within the palace complex,[5][12] built close to Akbar's own chambers. He was said to enjoy having Birbal by his side and he was the only courtier to reside within the palace complex.[6] One of the seven gates is known as "Birbal's gate".[6]


The Yousafzai tribes of Afghanistan had started a rebellion along the east bank of river Indus against the Mughal rule. After troops sent to crush the unrest suffered losses, Akbar sent Birbal with reinforcements from his new fort at Attock, to help the commander Zain Khan in 1586. Birbal and the army advanced into a narrow pass in Swat valley (present-day Pakistan) where the Afghans were waiting in prepared positions in the hills.[13] In the ensuing heavy defeat, Birbal and over 8000 soldiers were killed and his body was never found.[14] This was one of the largest military losses for Akbar.[5] He was said to have expressed his grief over the loss his favourite courtier and not taken food or drink for two days.[6] He was anguished since his body could not be found for Hindu cremation.[7] He proclaimed that it was his greatest tragedy since his coming to the throne.[7]

Badayuni writes,[10]

His majesty cared for the death of no grandee more than for that of Bir Bar. He said, 'Alas! they could not even get his body out of the pass, that it might have been burned"; but at last, he consoled himself with the thought that Bir Bar was now free and independent of all earthly fetters, and as the rays of the sun were sufficient for him, there was no necessity that he should be cleansed by fire.

Folklore and legacy


Akbar-Birbal folk tales were passed on mainly by oral tradition.[15] They focus on how Birbal manages to outsmart envious courtiers who try to trap and portray him in poor light in front of Akbar, often in a humorous manner with him shown giving sharp and intelligent responses. Others show his interactions with the Emperor which involve him trying to test Birbal's wit and Birbal making him realise his folly, which always ends with Akbar getting amused and impressed. He occasionally challenges Birbal by giving him a line of poetry which Birbal has to complete. Some of the other stories are simple humorous anecdotes. Getting an advantage in a seemingly impossible situation and making his challengers look silly are usual occurrences in these tales.[6]

The origins of these tales can be traced to a hundred years after Akbar's reign where one of the first such works were found. In Ma'athir al-Umara, a biography of Mughal nobles, Birbal is mentioned as having a rising a fortune in the court for his poetry and wit, and his wit is praised indicating that it became popular in north India at that time when the Mughal rule had become stable because of Akbar's reign. Similarly, stories involving a king and his quick witted minister are common in Indian folklore like Tenali Ramakrishna with the Vijaynagara Emperor Krishnadevaraya and Gopal Bhar with the King Krsnachandra of Nadiya.[1] Stories based on Birbal are told in versions involving these other witty courtiers, including one in The Arabian Nights. In the later years, a third character, Mullah Do Pyaza began to appear. He was fictional and written by Muslim writers in the 1900s, loosely based on a Persian who existed before Akbar. He was portrayed as Birbal's Muslim counterpart and like a proponent of orthodox Islam. He is shown getting the better of both Birbal and Akbar in some tales but there are others which portray him negatively.[1]

C. M. Naim writes that these folk tales should not be viewed as an historical commentary but they contribute to the understanding of political history, "Akbar and Birbal" stories show a bias of a Hindu narrator for a Mughal ruler. Akbar is shown in a slightly negative way and his Hindu courtier, Birbal, always outmatches him. In each case, there is a powerful ruler who had a powerful reign at his time, who is paired with a jester-like minister whose wit is just as sharp with a legendary reputation. These jokes and stories make each powerful ruler including Akbar, because he inspired the people, seem more human-like and flawed for them. Naim further states Birbal was chosen and not the other courtiers because he was a Brahmin fitting the old Indian tradition: a powerful Kshatriya king ruling with an equally powerful Brahmin advisor and in this case, an indication of Hindu subversion over Islam.[1]

Historic role versus folklore

In the folk tales, he is always portrayed as a pious Hindu, being younger than Akbar, and being morally strict in the midst of opposing Muslim courtiers, who are shown plotting against him; his success was only because of his skill and he convinces the Emperor to favour Hinduism over Islam. He is thus depicted as acquiring religious, political and personal influence over Akbar, using his intelligence and sharp tongue and never resorting to violence. However, historically he never played such a role.[1][7]

Badayuni mistrusted him but did mention that he was "having a considerable amount of capacity and genius".[1] The Braj language poet, Rai Hol, praised Akbar and his nine jewels, having a special emphasis on Birbal for his generosity. Abul Fazl respected him by emphasising on his spiritual excellence and position as a confidant of the Emperor rather than on his wit or poetry.[1]

Modern Hindu scholars assert that he made Akbar make bold decisions and the orthodox Muslims in the court despised him, since he made Akbar renounce Islam. But no evidence is present that he influenced Akbar's beliefs.[7] Though sources suggest he influenced Akbar's policies to some extent. It was Akbar's affection for him, his religious tolerance and social liberalism which was the reason for this and Birbal was not the cause. Historically, he was more of a supporter of Akbar's religious policy and his religion, Din-i-Ilahi. Ain-i-Akbari mentions an incident involving prostitutes, where Akbar wanted to punish him, contrary to how he is portrayed as a deeply religious man.[1]

In popular culture

Akbar and Birbal folk tales are featured in Amar Chitra Katha and Chandamama[16] children's comics and many books are available containing these collections.[17][18] There are various paperback editions, films, textbooks, booklets and plays with his character as the lead.[19] The television channel Cartoon Network in India, has two featured animated series based on him, Chota Birbal and Akbar & Birbal.[20] Salman Rushdie's novel The Enchantress of Florence has the character of Birbal.[21] Akbar Birbal is a 2014 historical comedy broadcast by Big Magic.[22]

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Meenakshi Khanna (2007). "Section 1: Kingship and Court Mixing the Classic with the Folk". Cultural History of Medieval India. Berghahn Books.  
  2. ^ Neela Subramaniam. Birbal Stories (32 pp). Sura Books. p. 2.  
  3. ^ Robert Watson Frazer (1898). A Literary History of India. T.F. Unwin. p. 359. Retrieved 29 June 2013. 
  4. ^ Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (1834). Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. p. 698. Retrieved 29 June 2013. 
  5. ^ a b c d e Reddy (1 December 2006). Indian Hist (Opt). Tata McGraw-Hill Education. pp. B– 207, 236, D– 13.  
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Beatrice K. Otto (1 April 2001). Fools Are Everywhere: The Court Jester Around the World. University of Chicago Press.  
  7. ^ a b c d e f Vicki K. Janik, Editor. (1 January 1998). Fools and Jesters in Literature, Art, and History: A Bio-Bibliographical Sourcebook. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 91–96.  
  8. ^ S.R. Sharma (1 January 1999). Mughal Empire in India: A Systematic Study Including Source Material. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. p. 787.  
  9. ^ a b G. George Bruce Malleson (2001). Akbar and the Rise of the Mughal Empire. Cosmo Publications. pp. 131, 160, 161.  
  10. ^ a b Mehta J L. Advanced Study in the History of Medieval India-Ii. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. pp. 264, 305, 321, 335.  
  11. ^ Radhey Shyam Chaurasia (1 January 2002). History of Medieval India: From 1000 A.D. to 1707 A.D. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. pp. 204–221.  
  12. ^ A. Srivathsan. "City of Victory". The Hindu. Retrieved 3 July 2013. 
  13. ^ Amita Sarin (21 March 2005). Akbar and Birbal. Penguin Books Limited. p. 64.  
  14. ^  
  15. ^ E. B. Havell (1 August 2006). A Handbook to Agra and the Taj. Echo Library. p. 49.  
  16. ^ "Chandamama Website is Revamped". techtree. 13 December 2007. Retrieved 3 July 2013. 
  17. ^ Lawrence A. Babb; Susan S. Wadley (1 January 1998). Media and the Transformation of Religion in South Asia. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 107.  
  18. ^ Shashi Tharoor (1 April 2012). Bookless in Baghdad: Reflections on Writing and Writers. Skyhorse Publishing Inc. pp. 13, 14.  
  19. ^ Amaresh Datta (1988). Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature: devraj to jyoti. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 1080, 1319, 1364, 1607.  
  20. ^ Sangeeta Barooah Pisharoty. "Time now for Birbal and company". The Hindu. Retrieved 3 July 2013. 
  21. ^ "Love among the Mughals". The Daily Star. 8 January 2011. Retrieved 3 July 2013. 
  22. ^ "When Delnaz Irani felt like a queen". Hindustan Times. 22 March 2014. Retrieved 25 April 2014. 

Further reading

  • 50 Wittiest Tales of Birbal (ISBN 81-7806-050-7) by Clifford Sawhney (Publishers: Pustak Mahal, Delhi)