Buddhist Brahmans have been several in number and have been well known in scriptures and history for their contribution to Buddhism from the time of the Buddha. Some like Sariputra and Maudgalyayana were the Buddha's disciples, while some like Bodhidharma were missionaries spreading Buddhism beyond India. Others like Asvaghosa were poets; others like Chandragomin were grammarians. Both Sramanas and Brahmans (whether Sramana or not) are important in terms of spirituality.
Notable scholars and sages 1
- List of prominent historical Bhikshus 1.1
- Notable Buddhas 1.2
In kingdoms 1.3
- Monarchs 1.3.1
- Ministers and clerics 1.3.2
- Scriptures dedicated to Brahmins 2
Gautama Buddha discussing Brahmins 3
- Admiration of Brahmin traits 3.1
- Brahmins becoming Shramanas 3.2
- Gautama Buddha's Brahmin heritage 4
Buddhism and Vedic scriptures 5
- Buddhism not a nastik doctrine 5.1
- Buddhist interpretation of Vedas 5.2
- Buddhists educated in Vedas 5.3
Legends about Brahmin figures 6
- Deities appearing as Brahmins 6.1
- See also 7
- References 8
Notable scholars and sages
Many of the best-known Buddhists were Brahmins. They include Gautama Buddha's chief disciples Sariputra and Maudgalyayana, Vasubandhu and Mahakasyapa (founders of Mahayana Buddhism); Nagarjuna and Asvaghosa, the reformer of Theravada Buddhism; Buddhaghosa (founder of Vajrayana Buddhism; Padmasambhava, founder of Tibetan Buddhism; Shantideva, author of Bodhicharyavatara (The Way of the Bodhisattva); Bodhidharma, founder of Zen Buddhism and Kung Fu and Kumarajiva, both of whom brought Buddhism to China and beyond; Nagasena, the debater of Milinda Panha; Manjushri, mentor of Ashoka and Radhaswami, the person who brought Ashoka to Buddhism, and scholars of Nalanda such as Aryadeva and Shantarakshita, who taught Buddhism and new doctrines.
People born in Brahmin families feature extensively in Buddhist Tripitakas, and are found among the Buddha's chief disciples. The "Brahmana-Varga" (section on Brahmins) in the Dhammapada lists the Buddha's views on Brahmins. Peter Masefield writes, "The canonical texts show the early Buddhists seeking their sustenance mostly from Brahmin families, and the dhamma-cakkhu (the insight into the Four Truths) that led to liberation was given almost exclusively to men of Brahmin descent." Gurmukh Ram Madan states, "Also brahmans appear to have been taken up; but they were the distinguished representatives of a cultured laity - a secular strata of nobles who formed the majority of Buddha's disciples".
A Buddhist layman, Jayadeva of Bihar, was imprisoned when the Odantapuri Buddhist learning centre was attacked; he advised a group of monks in Nalanda of the Muslim threat, and helped them flee to safety.
Scholar Asim Chatterjee adds,
No one can deny that the Brahmin pupils of Gautama had save the Sangha in its hour of peril. The rebellion of Devadatta was foiled by Sariputta, and after the demise of the teacher, Mahakassapa, by convening the first council, at Rajagrha, practically rescued the entire Buddhist Sangha from sinking into oblivion."
To add to Asim Chatterjee's statement, when Devadatta was making his order's monks believe that Gautama Buddha lives in luxury and abundance, it was Sariputra and Maudgalyayana's preaching that the misinformted monks left and became Buddhist monks.
List of prominent historical Bhikshus
|Name||Birthplace and time period||Sect||Philosophy||Compositions||Accomplishments|
|Abhaya Raja||Built the Mahabouddha temple with his descendants in Patan in 1604.|
|Samarkhand, Central Asia (c. 705–774 CE)||Mahayana||Tantrayana||Ganapati stotra, Ninnō nenju giki, Prajñāpāramitā (translation of original)||Spread Tantrayana Buddhism in China. He was born to a father from North India and a Sogdian mother from Samarkand.|
|Aryadeva||Mahayana||He was the successor of Nagarjuna. He was mentioned as a Bodhisattva in the Catuhsataka.|
|Asanga||Peshawar (Purushapura), NWFP, Pakistan||Mahayana||Yogacara||He founded the Yogacarya and established Buddhism's classical age.|
|Asvaghosa||Sravasti, Central India (2nd century CE)||Mahayana||Buddhacarita, Mahalamkarasastra, Saundarananda||He is considered (with Nagarjuna) a co-founder of Mahayana Buddhism. His philosophy was favored in the court of Emperor Kanishka.|
|Basunaga||Krisnaraja, Andhra Pradesh||Had 500 (or more) followers who accompanied him to Central India in search of Acharya Asanga, requesting him to preach Buddhism to householders in Krishnaraja|
|Bhadra Palita||Odisha (6th century CE)||Mahayana||He was converted by Dignaga, was treasury minister for an Oriya king and founded 16 viharas.|
|Bhataghati||Kashmir (13th century CE)||Wrote four works on history of Buddhist acharyas.|
|Bhitka||Uṣṇīṣa Vijaya Dhāraṇī Sūtra||He wrote the Uṣṇīṣa Vijaya Dhāraṇī Sūtra. He was the Buddha's fifth successor.|
|Buddhabhadra||Kashmir (5th century CE)||Theravada||Samyuktabhidharmavibhasa (translated from original)||He was a missionary.|
|Buddhapala||Kashmir (7th century CE)||Sammatiya||Vinaya-Dvavimsati-Prasannartha-Sastra|
|Buddhaghosa||Magadha (5th century CE)||Theravada||Samantapāsādikā, Visuddhimagga||He led a Theravada revival by preaching Theravada Buddhism amongst non-Buddhists. His Visuddhimagga was the most important Theravada scripture ever written.|
|Buddhapalita||Prasannamula (Tamlaba region), Tamli Nadu (c. 470–550 CE)|
|Buddhasena||Kashmir||Dhyana||Meditation Sūtra||He was sent as a diplomat to China by Kashmir's King Laladitya.|
|Buddhayasas||Kashmir (4th century CE)||Mahayana||Dharmaguptaka||Dharmaguptaka Vinaya, the Dīrgha Āgama, Ākāśagarbha Bodhisattva Sūtra||Became the pupil of a monk at age 13, mastered one million verses at age 19, and age 27 he went to Kashgar to teach Buddhism where crown prince Dharmagupta appreciated his talented and invited him to live in his palace.|
|Cuda Panthaka||Sravasti (near Balrampur), Uttar Pradesh (6th century BCE)||Had 1,600 disciples at one period who he taught on Nemindhara Mountain. Was a disciple of the Buddha.|
|Dharmakirti||Trimalaya (the then Chudamani Kingdom), Andhra Pradesh (in 7th century CE)||Mahayana||Dhyana||Called a "Viprabhiksu" by Bhaskara.|
|Dharmapala||Pataratitta, Kerala (c. 530–60 CE)||Varna-Sutra-Vritti-nama, Aambaba-pratyaya-dhyana-sastravyakhya, Vidyamatra-siddhi-shastra-vyakhya, Satasastra-vaipulya-vyakhy, Vali-tattva-samgraha.||Achieved Presidency of Nalanda in favor of Silabhadra. He wrote a Sanskrit grammatical commentary called Varna-Sutra-Vritti-nama on the original grammar of Chandragomin. He wrote four Buddhistic works in Sanskrit which are all translated into Tibetan.|
|Dharmapala||Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu (c. 530-561 CE)||Vijnana|
|Tamil Nadu (c. 572–727 CE)||Mahayana||Monjushiri Hōhōzō Darani Sutra (translated from original), Ratnamegha (translated from original)||Spread Buddhism in China and Japan. Appointed head of traveling Buddhist community with him of 700 who knew Sanskrit. Translated 53 works into Chinese. Empress Wu-Tso-thien had ordered his name to change from Dharmaruci to another name, and so he chose Bodhiruci.|
|Dharmottara||Kashmir (c. 750-810 CE)|
|Dhitika||He was one of the monks of the Second Council of the Sangha.|
|Dhitika||Ujjayini, Madhya Pradesh||Converted King Minara of Tukhara (modern-day Kashgar), his son Imhasa, the Brahmin Siddha of Kamarupa and the Brahmin Adarpa of Malava. He converted many Brahmins.|
|Dignaga||Simhavakta (near Kanchipuram), Tamil Nadu (5th century CE)||Mahayana||Yogacara||Hetucakra||Is very important in Buddhism, especially Buddhist logic. Wrote several works, including Hetucakra.|
|Gautama Dharmaprajna||Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh (5th century CE)||Theravada||Went to China to preach the dharma; appointed governor of Yan-sen district.|
|Divakaramitra||(7th century CE)||Theravada||Headed an ashram in the Vindhya mountains where followers of all schools (e.g., Charvakas, Jains, Vaishnavas) lived in harmony and debated. His ashram is where Rajyasri, the unfortunate sister of king Harsa was rescued from self-immolation.|
|Harita||Harita Dharmasutra||Wrote the Harita Dharmasutra.|
(Indian name NA)
|China (c. 676–703 CE)||He was a Brahmin born in China.|
|Jaya||He built a Buddhist temple at Varanasi.|
|Jayasri||He was in Nepal and refused to be a convert to Shankara Acharya's doctrine. He has a statue dedicated to him in the Carumati Vihara.|
|Jivaka||Mahayana||Mahayana sage who restored the status of the Buddha.|
|Jnanasrimitra||Vajrayana-dvau-antau-vikasana||Wrote the Vajrayana-dvau-antau-vikasana.|
|Kalyana||He built the Mahabodhi Temple at Bodh Gaya.|
|Kucha, Kashgar (c. 334–413 CE)||Mahayana||Madhyamika||Spread Buddhism in China; imprisoned for his work.|
|Padmasambhava||Vajrayana||He was the founder of Vajrayana.|
(Indian name NA)
|Lampaka (Lamghan), Afghanistan (7th century CE)||He translated a dharani from Amoghapasa.|
|Maksika||Odisha||After being converted by Vasubandhu, he converted several people to Buddhism.|
|Manjushri||Theravada||Another mentor of Asoka that guided the emperor to convert to Buddhism.|
|Manjusrimitra||Bodh Gaya, Bihar (55 CE)||Vajrayana|
|Malitavamba Thera||Bharuch (Bharukaccha), Gujarat||Joined Buddha's order during the Buddha's lifetime.|
|Manomati||Kashmir||Garland of Flowers||Wrote Garland of Flowers.|
|Matrceta||A non-Buddhist sage, he defeated several Buddhist sages in debate until he was defeated by the Brahmin Aryadeva and converted. He wrote poems praising the Buddha, which became popular amongst Buddhists throughout India.|
|Nagabodhi||Vidharba, Maharashtra||Mahayana||Shunyata||He was a disciple of Nagarjuna.|
|Nagarjuna||Mahayana||Shunyata||He is considered (together with Asvaghosa) to have founded the Mahayana school.|
|Nagasena||Mahayana||He was the guru of the Emperor Milinda Panha.|
|Namobuddha||He helped reconstruct a Buddhist temple made by King Suryaghosha.|
(also Naropa, Mahapandita Abhayakirti)
|Kashmir (11th century CE)||He was a disciple of Tilopa.|
|Pingala-Koccha||Preached to the Buddha the Culasaropama Sutta, after which he became a dedicated student of the Buddha.|
|Punyatrata||Kashmir||He was a missionary and friend of Kumarajiva.|
|Radhasvami||Theravada||Another mentor of Asoka that guided the emperor to convert to Buddhism.|
(also Rahularuci, Sarojavajra, Padmavajra)
|Odisha||Converted King Ratnapala and his Brahmin minister to Buddhism|
|He was the master of Tilopa, and is one of the 84 Mahasiddhas.|
|Sakyamitra||Kosalalankara||He was a "Brahmin physician" from South India and a missionary to China.|
|Samghadasa||Built 24 centres in Vajrasana, and 2 viharas in Kashmir. He was invited to Kashmir by King Turuska Mahasammata.|
|Shankarananda||Wrote several scriptural commentaries.|
|Shilabhadra||Comilla (Samatata Kingdom), West Bengal (c. 529–645 CE)||Son of the Samatata Kingdom.|
|Sujaya||He built a Buddhist temple in Venuvana, Rajgir.|
|Suvishnu||Mahayana||Built 108 centres at Sri Nalendra to preserve the Abhidharma of Hinayana and Mahayana.|
(Indian name NA)
|Discovered the Chinese translation of Kasyapa Parivarta and Mahasanghika Vinaya at Pataliputra.|
|Tilopa||Chatigava, Bangladesh||Mahayana||Mahamudra Upadesha, Ganges Maha||A Mahasiddha.|
|Vajrabodhi||(c. 671–741 CE)||Sarvatathdgatatattvasagraha (translated from original)||He was a missionary that preached the religion in China, Lanka, and Indonesia.|
|Vag Bhatt||Kashmir||He was a well-known Ayurveda acarya.|
|Vasubandhu||Peshawar (Purushapura), NWFP, Pakistan||Mahayana||Vaibhashika||Built a total of 654 Mahayana Buddhist centres. He was one of the founders of the Yogacara philosophy and is the only historical Buddhist to be called the "second Buddha".|
|Varahadeva||Constructed the Ajanta caves Nos. XVI and XVII during the reign of Vakataka King Harisena. He was the king's minister.|
|Vatsiputra||Sinhha-vaktra (Kanchipuram), Tamil Nadu||Theravada||Vatsiputriya||Founded the Vatsiputriya school.|
|Vimalaksa||Kashmir (5th century CE)||He was a missionary and friend of Kumarajiva.|
|Vinitaruchi||South India (570 CE)||Dhyana||Went to China and Vietnam to spread Buddhism.|
From the Jatakas that mention the twenty-eight Buddhas prior to the Gautama Buddha, it is clear noted clearly that seven are Brahmins. They are Dipankara (the first Buddha), Mangala, Revata, Anomadassi, Kakusandha, Konagamana, and Kasyapa.
Historically Buddhism was prominent in Kapilavastu before the birth of Gautama Buddha. This is evident by the worship of Buddhas in the time of Gautama Buddha these Buddhas were Krakuchchanda, Kanaka Muni, and Kasyapa, and were all of Brahmin lineage. According to the Jatakas, several disciples of Buddhas prior to Gautama Buddha were Gautama's previous births. Many of them were Brahmin. The name Kapilavastu itself is from the Samkhya Brahmin hermit Kapila, whom is said in some Jatakas to be a previous birth of Gautama Buddha.
There have also been Brahmin Buddhists monarchs, including Brahmin-family dynasties which were almost exclusively Buddhist:
- Boudh Dynasty of Odisa, as the name indicated was devoutly Buddhist although gave royal to support to other sects too. Gandhamardan Dev was the last king of this dynasty and adopted Ananga Bhanja of Keonjhar Bhanja royal family, which in its span gave support to Buddhism too. The Parimalagiri inscriptions in the Gandhamardan Hills might have been built by him as the hill is named after the king. Parimalagiri was a university for Buddhist monks. It is even said that this site in the country of South Kosala was visited by Hiuen-Tsang and spoken highly of the popularity of Buddhism in this region.
- Chandra Dynasty of Bengal are given references of Puranchandra and Subarnachandra adopting Buddhism, but more to their successors Trailokyachandra and Srichandra who ruled Harikel and Chandradwip (Barisal.)
- Kadamba Dynasty
- Khadga Dynasty of Bengal that ruled a part of the-then Bengal, were a Buddhist dynasty that carried the surname Bhatt. They made several temples and monasteries. For example, Raja Bhatta was a very committed Mahayanist Buddhist.
- Kandy Dynasty's Ehelepola Maha Adigar of Sri Lanka was the Dissava of Sabaragamuwa, to Kandy for tyrannically King Rajasingha (whom he overthrew later), converting many to Buddhism.
- Samatata Dynasty was a Brahmin Buddhist dynasty.
- Sunga Empire had several devout Buddhists, and a stupa was dedicated to the Buddha at Bharhut. The existence of Buddhism in Bengal in the Sunga period can also be inferred from a terracotta tablet that was found at Tamralipti and is on exhibit at the Asutosh Museum, University of Calcutta. A Mahabodhi Temple inscription records help from the wives of King Brahmamitra and Indragnimitra in the temple construction.
- Vakataka Dynasty of the Basim branch or western branch of the empire were Buddhist, even supporting the Ajanta caves.
- Vishnukundin Dynasty of Andhradesa were originally a Buddhist dynasty and made several Buddhist monuments and gave contributions to monks. For example, kings Govindavarman I, Madhav Varma II and Vikramendrabhattaraka were great supporters. Madhav Varma II patronized Buddha-worship. Govinda Varma I was hailed as the Buddhist and builder of stupas and Viharas. His wife Parama Bhattari Kama Devi also patronized Buddhism and built a monastery. Vikramendra Varma II, made liberal grants to the same Mahadevi's Buddhist vihara.
In the Buddha's own times there were some monarchs that accepted his doctrine. In the Vinaya Pitaka (I, 3), the Buddha is meditating in a forest shortly after his enlightenment when a storm arises; the Naga King Mucalinda shelters the Buddha from the storm by covering his head with his seven snake heads. The king then assumes the form of a young Brahmin, and gives homage to the Buddha.
Ministers and clerics
There were many ministers of dynasties throughout India and abroad that made it their mission to propagate Buddhism. In Cambodia there is an edict stating that King Jayavarman and his son Rudravarman built a monument dedicated to the Buddha, and appointed a Brahmin to protect it.
- Bhadra Palita was converted by Dignaga, was treasury minister for an Oriya king and founded 16 viharas.
- Dhitika converted King Minara of Tukhara (modern-day Kashgar)
- Nagasena in 120 BC, the Indo-Greek King Milinda converted to Buddhism.
- Varahadeva was Vakataka King Harisena's minister
Scriptures dedicated to Brahmins
Several Buddhist texts have been written on the subject of Brahmins:
- Annatara Brahmana Sutta: To a Brahmin
- Aññatra Sutta: To a certain Brahman (SN XII.46); to Unnabha the Brahman
- Cankii Sutta: To the Brahmin Cankii
- Esukaari Sutta: To the Brahmin Esukari
- Janussoni Brahmana Sutta: To the Brahmin Janussoni
- Ganakamoggallaanasuttam B: To the Brahmin Ganakamoggallaana
- Paccha-bhumika Sutta: To Brahmins of the Western Land (SN XLII.6)
- Saleyyaka Sutta A: The Brahmins of Sela
- Saleyyaka Sutta B: The Brahmans of Salahar
Gautama Buddha discussing Brahmins
The Buddha gives a sermon on who a true Brahman is, written in the "Brahmana-Varga" chapter of the Dhammapada. Being Buddhist and of the Brahmin caste the, Buddhist Brahmins proved themselves as Brahman by deeds, as did many non-Buddhists.
Admiration of Brahmin traits
Early Buddhist scriptures describe orthodox Srauta Brahmins as different from the Sramana philosophies by practices such as sacrifices, although Gautama Buddha admires the five key attributes that were mandatory for Brahmins.
Five attributes of Brahmins from the Majjhima Nikaya:
- The Truth (Sacca or Satya)
- Austerities (Tapas)
- Chastity (Brahmacariya)
- Study of Vedic lore (Ajjhena or Adhyayana)
- Munificence (Caga or Tyaga)
These five are mentioned in the Taittiriya Upanishad 1.9-11.
Brahmins becoming Shramanas
Although the orthodox (but not all) Brahmin and Sramana philosophers of the Buddha's time were opposed to each other there were Brahmins that left the orthodoxy and became Sramanas. The Aganna Sutta distinguishes the orthodox Brahmin and Sramana beliefs and practices but describes that a Brahmin can become a Sramana.
When Santati (the minister of Koasala's King Pasenadi) died, some Buddhist monks debated whether Santati should be considered a Brahman or a Sramana. The Buddha declared that he is both:
- Even though a man be richly adorned, if he walk in peace,
- If he be quiet, subdued, restrained and chaste,
- And if he refrain from injuring any living being,
- That man is a Brahman...a Sramana...a monk.
While at the same time it is possible to be of the Brahmin-caste and Sramana, it is also possible to be Brahman (by actions) and a Sramana. The Maha-Assapura Sutta illustrates that it is possible to be both of Brahmin caste and a Sramana. In this sermon (originally preached in Assapura, Anga), the Shramana tradition is explored; followers should be conscientious, scrupulous, pure in deed, word, and thought, guarding the senses, moderate in eating, vigilant, mindful, self-possessed, striving to put off nivarana and cultivating Dhyana. According to the scripture, such a person may be called a nahataka, vedagu, sotthiya, ariya, arhat, Shramana or Brahmana.
Gautama Buddha's Brahmin heritage
Lord Buddha is said to be a descendant of Sage Angirasa in many Buddhist texts. Scholars like Dr. Eitel connects it to the Rishi Gautama. There too were Kshatiryas of other clans to whom members descend from Angirasa, to fulfill a childless king's wish. Angirasa is also a sage whom Buddha honors in the Mahavagga.
Some scriptures refer to Buddha as a Brahman by his merit. An example is given in Nagasena's Milinda Pañha wherein Nagasena tells a story of Buddha claiming to be a Brahman and a king.
Buddhism and Vedic scriptures
Buddhism not a nastik doctrine
According to Buddhist texts, Astikavada (Astika Path) is also known as Sabbathikavada.
Although Buddhists have been branded by orthodox or mainstream Hinduism as Nastika, the Buddhists themselves denied that status. For example, the Madhyamika philosopher Chandrakirti, who was accused of being a nastik, wrote in his Prasannapada that emptiness is a method of affirming neither being nor non-being and that nihilists are actually naive realists because they assume that things of this world have self-existent natures, whereas Madhyamikas view all things as arising dependently within the context of casual conditions. Bhavaviveka declares that Buddhists are not nastika by refuting the nihilists annihilation of 'karmaphalasambandha' and demonstrating the transmigration of sentient beings.
There were also Buddhists that were accused of believing in ideas outside of the Buddha's teachings, and they were called nastika in the "Bodhisattvabhumi" (a section of the Yogacarabhumi by Asanga) and the scripture also declared they should be subject to isolation so their views do not infect the rest of the Buddhist community. Like the Manusmriti, the "Bodhisattvabhumi" also criticizes the nastika for reliance on logic only.
Some Buddhist scholars went against nastik doctrines. For example, Nagarjuna wrote in his Ratnavali, that nastikya (nihilism) leads to hell while astikya (affirmation) leads to heaven. According to the Sallekha Sutta, belief leading to evil conduct is of three kinds, and natthika ditthi (nastikavada or nihilism), is one of them (the others being ahetuka ditthi or accidentalism and akiriya ditthi or the view of inaction).
Buddhist interpretation of Vedas
In the Buddhist Vinaya Pitaka of the Mahavagga (I.245) section the Buddha pays respect to Angiras by declaring that the Veda in its true form was declared to the Vedic rishis "Atthako, Vâmako, Vâmadevo, Vessâmitto, Yamataggi, Angiraso, Bhâradvâjo, Vâsettho, Kassapo, and Bhagu" and because that true Veda was altered by some priests he refused to pay homage to the altered version.
According to Gautama Buddha (Vinaya 1.23-35), the Fire Sermon or "Adittapariyaya", the true fire sacrifice ('agnihotra') is internal and insists on removing the three fires of passion, hate, and delusion within oneself to succeed in this penance. Buddhist scholar Tadeusz Skorupski linkens this to the three metaphorical fires to other allegorical ones in the Manu Smriti (2.231) wherein "Tradition holds that one's father is in fact the garhapatya fire, one's mother the daksina, one's teacher the ahavaniyal that triad of fires is the most important."
Buddhists educated in Vedas
As there were several Brahmins in history after Gautama Buddha that were Vedic scholars and accepted Buddhism, according to Jatakas and other Buddhist literature, there were Buddhists that were educated in Vedas.
Legends about Brahmin figures
Deities appearing as Brahmins
Brahmin King Mucalinda sheltering Gautama Buddha at Wat Phrathat Doi Suthep in Chiang Mai, Thailand
Among the notable nagas of Buddhist tradition is Mucalinda, protector of the Buddha. In the Vinaya Sutra (I, 3) the Buddha shortly after his enlightenment is meditating in a forest when a great storm arises, but graciously Naga King Mucalinda gives shelter to the Buddha from the storm by covering the Buddha's head with his 7 snake heads. Then the king takes the form of a young Brahmin and renders the Buddha homage.
One of the seven female forms of Avalokitesvara will be of a Brahmin woman.
Lord Indra took the avatar of a Brahmin to test whether Bodhisattva Sadaprarudita was pure enough to become a Buddha. Indra also took the form of an old Brahmin to save Queen Maddi from being married to Prince Vessantara.
On the advice of a Naga king called Suvarnaprabhasa, Nagaraja Elapattra assumed the form of a Brahmin and went round the cities of India promising a lakh of gold to anyone to who could interpret the enigma pronounced by the Buddha.
- Campbell, W. L. Ed. and trans. 1919. The Tree of Wisdom: Being the Tibetan text with English translation of Nagarjuna's gnomic verse treatise called the Prajñadanda. Calcutta University. Reprint: Sonam T. Kazi, Gangtok. 1975.
- Brahmanavagga - The Holy Man
- Divine Revelation in Pali Buddhism by Peter Masefield
- Western sociologists on Indian society: Marx, Spencer, Weber, Durkheim, Pareto By Gurmukh Ram Madan
- P. 563 Encyclopaedia of Buddhism, Volume 4 By Front Cover Buddhist Council of Ceylon, Ceylon. Ministry of Cultural Affairs, Sri Lanka. Bauddha Ka?ayutu Departamentuva
- P. 41 A comprehensive history of Indian Buddhism By Asim Kumar Chatterjee
- P. 66 Buddha and Buddhist Synods in India and Abroad By Amarnath Thakur
- Four Illusions: Candrakirti's Advice for Travelers on the Bodhisattva Path: By Candrakirti
- P. 221 Journal and proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Volume 1 by Asiatic Society (Calcutta, India), Asiatic Society of Bengal
- P. 307 Zen: The Religion of the Samurai: A Study of Zen Philosophy and Discipline in China and Japan By Kaiten Nukariya
- P. 86 Theravada Buddhism: Continuity, Diversity, and Identity By Kate Crosby
- P. 32 Pilgrimages and Spiritual Quests in Japan edited by Peter Ackermann, Dolores Martinez, Maria Rodriguez del Alisal
- P. 136 The Buddha and His Teachings By Tarthang Tlku, Elizabeth Cook
- P. 212 Translating Buddhist Medicine in Medieval China By C. Pierce Salguero
- P. 41 Taranatha's History of Buddhism in India By Taranatha, Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya, Alaka Chattopadhyaya
- P. 892 The Cultural Heritage of India: The arts, Volume 7, Part 1 By Kapila Vatsyayan
- P. 67 A Companion to Tantra By S.C. Banerji
- P. 14 Saints and Sages of Kashmir By T.N. Dhar Kundan
- P. 381 Philosopher, Practitioner, Politician: The Many Lives of Fazang (643-712) By Jinhua Chen
- P. 67 Cultural Heritage of Ancient India By Sachindra Kumar Maity
- P. 5 Buddhist Councils and Development of Buddhism By Sumangal Barua
- P. The Culture of Secrecy in Japanese Religion edited by Bernhard Scheid, Mark Teeuwen
- P. 130 The Emergence of Buddhism: Classical Traditions in Contemporary Perspective By Jacob N. Kinnard
- P. 127 Greater India By Arun Bhattacharjee
- P. 187 The Pilgrimage of Fa Hian By Faxian, Abel Rémusat, Julius von Klaproth, Ernest Augustin Xavier Clerc de Landresse
- P. 514 Dictionary of Pali Proper Names, Volume 1 By G.P. Malalasekera
- Boudh district history
- P. 22 European Trade and Colonial Conquest: Volume 1
- P. 261 Early Advaita Vedanta and Buddhism: The Mahayana Context of the Gau?apadiya By Richard King
- Ehelepola Adikaram
- P. 110 Si-Yu-Ki: Buddhist records of the western world By Samuel Beal
- The inscription reads, "The gift of Nagadevi the wife of King Brahmamitra." Barua, B.M., 'Old Buddhist Shrines at Bodh-Gaya Inscriptions'
- P. 325 Three Mountains and Seven Rivers: Prof. Musashi Tachikawa's Felicitation Volume edited by Musashi Tachikawa, Shoun Hino, Toshihiro Wada
- P. 92 A History of India By Hermann Kulke, Dietmar Rothermund
- P. 5 Perspectives of archaeology, art, and culture in early Andhra Desa K. Ramamohan Rao
- P. 72 How Buddhism Began: The Conditioned Genesis of the Early Teachings By Richard Francis Gombrich
- Sutta Links From The Pali at the Wayback Machine (archived March 24, 2006)
- P. 82 The Two Sources Of Indian Asceticism By Johannes Bronkhorst
- P. 180 Early Buddhist Theory Of Knowledge By Kulatissa Nanda Jayatilleke
- P. 81 The Two Sources Of Indian Asceticism
- P. 463 Dictionary of Pali proper names By G.P. Malalasekera
- The Life of Buddha as Legend and History, by Edward Joseph Thomas
- P. 95 A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms By James Legge
- P. 17 Classical Dictionary of Hindu Mythology and Religion, Geography, History and Literature By John Dowson
- The Debate of King Milinda: An Abridgement of the Milinda Pañha edited by Bhikkhu Pesala
- P. 187 Zen and the Art of Postmodern Philosophy: Two Paths of Liberation from the Representation Mode of Thinking By Carl Olson
- P. 227 Studies in the Buddhist epistemological tradition: proceedings of the Second International Dharmakīrti Conference, Vienna, June 11–16, 1989
- P. 174 Unifying Hinduism: philosophy and identity in Indian intellectual history By Andrew J. Nicholson
- P. 101 A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy By Chandradhar Sharma
- P. 123 Sallekha Sutta: A Discourse on the Refinement of Character By Mahasi Sayadaw, Sobhana
- P. 494 The Pali-English dictionary By Thomas William Rhys Davids, William Stede
- P. 245 The Vinaya pi?aka?: one of the principle Buddhist holy scriptures ..., Volume 1 edited by Hermann Oldenberg
- The Vinaya Pitaka's section Anguttara Nikaya: Panchaka Nipata, P. 44 The legends and theories of the Buddhists, compared with history and science By Robert Spence Hardy
- P. 16 The Buddhist Forum edited by Tadeusz Skorupski
- P. 16 The Buddhist Forum edited by Tadeusz Skorupski
- P. 259 Women in Buddhism: Images of the Feminine in the Mahayana Tradition
- P. 119 Women in Buddhism: Images of the Feminine in the Mahayana Tradition
- Rediscovering the Buddha : The Legends and Their Interpretations: By Emeritus Dartmouth College Hans H Penner John Philips Professor of Religion
- P. 106 Indian Serpent Lore Or the Nagas in Hindu Legend And Art By J. Vogel