Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus
|Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (CST)|
|छत्रपती शिवाजी टर्मिनस (सी.एस.टी)|
Chatrapati Shivaji Terminus
Location within Mumbai
|Town or city||Mumbai, Maharashtra|
|Construction started||May 1878|
|Cost||₹1614000 (US$24,000)(at that time) Now, ₹2013.4 million (US$30 million)|
|Design and construction|
|Architect||Frederick William Stevens, Axel Haig|
Chatrapati Shivaji Terminus
|Designated||2004 (28th session)|
|Owned by||Indian Railways|
|Operated by||Central Railways|
|Zone(s)||Central Railways (headquarters)|
Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (CST) is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and an historic railway station in Mumbai Maharashtra, India which serves as the headquarters of the Central Railways. Designed by Frederick William Stevens with influences from Victorian Italianate Gothic Revival architecture and traditional Mughal buildings, the station was built in 1887 in the Bori Bunder area of Mumbai to commemorate the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria. The new railway station was built on the location of the Bori Bunder Station and is one of the busiest railway stations in India, serving as a terminal for both long-distance trains and commuter trains of the Mumbai Suburban Railway. The station's name was changed to its present one in March 1996 and it is now known simply as CST (or CSTM).
- Construction 1.1
- Opening and growth as Victoria & Bombay Terminus 1.2
- Renaming 1.3
- Structure 2
- Platforms 3
Trains network 4
- Complete departure list 4.1
- Suburban network 5
- Dormitories 6
- In popular culture 7
- 2008 Mumbai attacks 8
- See also 9
- References 10
- External links 11
Bori Bunder (alternatively "Bori Bandar") was one of the areas along the Eastern shore line of Mumbai, India which was used as a storehouse for goods imported and exported from Mumbai. In the area's name, 'Bori' means sack and 'Bandar' means port or haven (in Persian); So Bori Bunder literally means a place where sacks are stored. In the 1850s, the Great Indian Peninsular Railway built its railway terminus in this area and the station took its name as Bori Bunder. On 16 April 1853 the Great Indian Peninsula Railway operated the historic first passenger train in India from Bori Bunder to Thane covering a distance of 34 km (21 mi), formally heralding the birth of the Indian Railways. The train between Bori Bunder and Thane took 57 minutes at a distance of 35 km (22 mi) apart.
The station was eventually rebuilt as the Victoria Terminus, named after the then reigning Queen, and has been subsequently renamed Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (CSTM) after the 17th-century king. The shortened name is now CST.
The station was designed by the consulting British architect Frederick William Stevens (1848-1900). Work began in 1878. He received ₹1614000 (US$24,000) as the payment for his services. Stevens earned the commission to construct the station after a masterpiece watercolour sketch by draughtsman Axel Haig. The final design bears some resemblance to the St Pancras railway station in London. GG Scott's plans for Berlin's parliament building had been published four years before, and also has marked similarities to the station's design. Crawford market is also located near CSTM.
Opening and growth as Victoria & Bombay Terminus
The station took ten years to complete, the longest for any building of that era in Bombay. This famous architectural landmark in a Gothic-revival style was built as the headquarters of the Great Indian Peninsular Railway. Since then, the station came to be known as Bombay VT.(Railway code-BBVT)
Originally intended only to house the main station and the administrative offices of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, a number of ancillary buildings have been added subsequently, all designed so as to harmonise with the main structure. A new station to handle main line traffic was erected in 1929. The original building is still in use to handle suburban traffic and is used by over three million commuters daily. It is also the administrative headquarters of the Central Railway.
In 2008, the station was featured prominently in the Academy Award winning film, Slumdog Millionaire. In 1956, the station was also featured in the film C.I.D. during the song 'Yei Hai Bombay Meri Jaan'.
The station building is designed in the High Victorian Gothic style of architecture. The building exhibits a fusion of influences from Victorian Italianate Gothic Revival architecture and traditional Indian architecture. The skyline, turrets, pointed arches, and eccentric ground plan are close to traditional Indian palace architecture. Externally, the wood carving, tiles, ornamental iron and brass railings, grills for the ticket offices, the balustrades for the grand staircases and other ornaments were the work of students at the Sir Jamsetjee Jeejebhoy School of Art. The station stands as an example of 19th century railway architectural marvels for its advanced structural and technical solutions.
The CST was constructed using high level of engineering both in terms of railway engineering and civil engineering. It is one of the first and is considered as one of the finest products of the use of industrial revolution technology merged with revival of the Gothic Revival style In India . The centrally domed office structure has a 330 feet long platform connected to a 1,200 feet long train shed, and its outline provides the skeleton plan for building. CST's dome of dovetailed ribs, built without centering, was considered as a novel achievement of the era. The interior of the building was conceived as a series of large rooms with high ceilings. It is a utilitarian building and has had various changes required by the users, not always sympathetic. It has a C-shaped plan which is symmetrical on an east-west axis. All the sides of the building are given equal value in the design. It is crowned by a high central dome, which acts as the focal point. The dome is an octagonal ribbed structure with a colossal female figure symbolizing Progress, holding a torch pointing upwards in her right hand and a spoked wheel in her left hand. The side wings enclose the courtyard, which opens on to the street. The wings are anchored by monumental turrets at each of their four corners, which balance and frame the central dome. The façades present the appearance of well proportioned rows of windows and arches. The ornamentation in the form of statuary, bas-reliefs, and friezes is exuberant yet well controlled. The columns of the entrance gates are crowned by figures of a lion (representing Great Britain) and a tiger (representing India). The main structure is built from a blend of India sandstone and limestone, while high-quality Italian marble was used for the key decorative elements. The main interiors are also decorated: the ground floor of the North Wing, known as the Star Chamber, which is still used as the booking office, is embellished with Italian marble and polished Indian blue stone. The stone arches are covered with carved foliage and grotesques.
Internally, the ceiling of the booking hall was originally painted blue, gold and strong red on a ground of rich blue with gold stars. Its walls were lined with glazed tiles made by Maw & Co of Britain. Outside, there are statues representing Commerce, Agriculture, Engineering and Science, with a statue representing Progress on the central dome of the station. A statue of Queen Victoria beneath the central dome has been removed.
CST has 18 bay platforms: 7 are for local suburban trains on the west side of the station and 11 are for long distance out-station trains on the east side of the station. Platforms 1-13 open directly into the central concourse. The newer Platforms 14-18 are located on the Carnac bunder side with a covered pathway from the bay ends of the platforms to the central concourse.
Platforms 1-2 handle 9 coach Harbour line trains, Platforms 3-6 handle 12 coach Main line trains and Platform 7 handles both 12 & 15 coach trains. All suburban platforms are aligned in such a manner that each local train discharges passengers on either side. Plans to extend Harbour line platforms to accommodate 12 coach trains have been sactioned though actual work has not yet begun (as of Oct-15).
Platforms 8-16 handles Out-station trains. Platform 8-9 handles <=17 coach trains. Platform 10-11 & Platform 12-13 handles <=19 coach trains. Platform 14-15 handles <=24 coach trains; Platform 16-17 & Platform 18 handles <=26 coach trains. The Railway ministry sanctioned the extension of Platforms 10-13 to accommodate 24 coach trains in 2015 Railway budget.
Apart from via the central concourse on the South-side, all platforms are connected on the North-side via FOB stretching from Times of India building on DN road to the pathway leading to Platforms 14-18.
Rumours persist that the design for Chhatrapat Shivaji Terminus in Mumbai was originally designated for Flinders Street Station. However, no convincing evidence, other than architectural similarities to other buildings in their respective cities, has been produced to support the rumour.
Mumbai CST is the largest train terminus in Mumbai. Long distance passenger trains originating from Mumbai CST are listed below.
Complete departure list
|Mumbai Suburban Railway station|
|Location||Dr Dadabhai Naoroji Rd, Dhobi Talao|
|Owned by||Ministry of Railways, Indian Railways|
|Line(s)||Central Line, Harbour Line|
|Structure type||Standard on-ground station|
|Fare zone||Central Railways|
The network of suburban trains (locally known as locals, short for local trains) radiating out from this station is instrumental in keeping Mumbai running. The station serves long-distance trains as well as two of the suburban lines-the Central Line and the Harbour line. It is the westernmost terminus of Central Railway.
- Central Line the trains terminate at Kurla, Ghatkopar, Thane, Dombivli, Kalyan, Ambarnath, Badlapur, Karjat, Khopoli, Asangaon, Titwala, and Kasara.
- Harbour Line the trains terminate at Bandra, Andheri, Mankhurd, Vashi, Nerul, Belapur and Panvel.
CST has 18 platforms – seven are for locals trains and 11 are for long distance.
Air-conditioned dormitories were inaugurated at CST on 16 April 2013 by Union Railway Minister Pawan Kumar Bansal. The facility has 58 beds for men and 20 for women.
In popular culture
- In films
2008 Mumbai attacks
On 26 November 2008, two Pakistani terrorists entered the passenger hall of the CST, opened fire and threw grenades at people. The terrorists were armed with AK-47 rifles. One of the terrorists, Ajmal Kasab, was later caught alive by the police and identified by eyewitnesses. The attacks began around 21:30 when the two men entered the passenger hall and opened fire, The attackers killed 58 people and injured 104 others, their assault ending at about 22:45 after they existed the station via the North FOB towards the west to Cama hospital back entrance. This despite the fact that Central Railway RPF Hq being located near Platform 13 overlooking the central passenger hall. The CCTV captured the attack but not completely made public to hide Railway police inaction.The CCTV evidence was used to identify and indict Kasab.
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- File:India Mumbai Victor Grigas 2011-15.jpg
- Aruṇa Ṭikekara, Aroon Tikekar (2006). The cloister's pale: a biography of the University of Mumbai. Popular Prakashan. p. 357. Page 64
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- "Advisory Body Evaluation: Chatrapati Shivaji Terminus" (PDF).
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- "Suresh Kalmadi - Work Profile". Retrieved 21 March 2011.
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- W, Christopher (2002). Bombay Gothic. London: India Book House PVT Ltd.
- "Departures from CSTM/Mumbai CST". Retrieved 9 December 2014.
- "Dormitories for women at CST, LTT get good response". Indian Express. April 19, 2013.
- Outlook Publishing (6 October 2008). Outlook. Outlook Publishing. pp. 69–. Retrieved 7 November 2011.
- "3,500 VFX shots in RA.One". Mahiram. n.d. Retrieved 2011-11-07.
- "3 witnesses identify Kasab, court takes on record CCTV footage". The Economic Times (India). 17 June 2009. Archived from the original on 20 June 2009. Retrieved 17 June 2009.
- "Photographer recalls Mumbai attacks".
- Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus on the UNESCO website
- Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus Mumbai
- Google Satellite Map of Mumbai CST
- 360° Panorama