Convolvulaceae

Convolvulaceae

Bindweed family
Ipomoea imperati
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Solanales
Family: Convolvulaceae
Juss.
Type genus
Convolvulus
L.
Genera

See text

Convolvulaceae, known commonly as the bindweed or morning glory family, is a family of about 60 genera and more than 1,650 species of mostly herbaceous vines, but also trees, shrubs and herbs.

Contents

  • Description 1
  • Tribes 2
  • Genera 3
  • References 4
  • Further reading 5
  • External links 6

Description

Convolvulaceae can be recognized by their funnel-shaped, radially symmetrical corolla; the floral formula for the family has five sepals, five fused petals, five epipetalous stamens (stamens fused to the petals), and a two-part syncarpous and superior gynoecium. The stems of these plants are usually winding, hence their Latin name (from convolvere, "to wind"). The leaves are simple and alternate, without stipules. The fruit can be a capsule, berry, or nut, all containing only two seeds per one locule (one ovule/ovary).

The leaves and starchy, tuberous roots of some species are used as foodstuffs (e.g. sweet potato and water spinach), and the seeds are exploited for their medicinal value as purgatives. Some species contain ergoline alkaloids that are likely responsible for the use of these species as ingredients in psychedelic drugs (e.g. ololiuhqui). The presence of ergolines in some species of this family is due to infection by fungi related to the ergot fungi of the genus Claviceps. A recent study of Convolvulaceae species, Ipomoea asarifolia, and its associated fungi showed the presence of a fungus, identified by DNA sequencing of 18s and ITS ribosomal DNA and phylogenetic analysis to be closely related to fungi in the family Clavicipitaceae, was always associated with the presence of ergoline alkaloids in the plant. The identified fungus appears to be a seed-transmitted, obligate biotroph growing epiphytically on its host.[1] This finding strongly suggests the unique presence of ergoline alkaloids in some species of the family Convolvulaceae is due to symbiosis with clavicipitaceous fungi. Moreover, another group of compounds, loline alkaloids, commonly produced by some members of the clavicipitaceous fungi (genus Neotyphodium), has been identified in a convolvulaceous species, but the origin of the loline alkaloids in this species is unknown.[2]

Members of the family are well known as showy garden plants (e.g. morning glory) and as troublesome weeds (e.g. bindweed).

Tribes

According to the study of D. F. Austin (see Reference) the family Convolvulaceae can be classified in the tribes Ericybeae, Cressea, Convolvuleae, merremioids, Ipomoeae, Argyreiae, Poraneae, Dichondreae and Cuscuteae (sometimes classified as a separate family Cuscutaceae).

Genera

Tribe Aniseieae
Tribe Cardiochlamyeae
Tribe Convolvuleae
Tribe Cresseae
Tribe Cuscuteae
Tribe Dichondreae
Tribe Erycibeae
Tribe Humbertieae
Tribe Ipomoeeae
Tribe Jacquemontieae
Tribe Maripeae
Tribe Merremieae
Incertae sedis

References

  1. ^ Ulrike Steiner, Mahalia A. Ahimsa-Müller, Anne Markert, Sabine Kucht, Julia Groß, Nicole Kauf, Monika Kuzma, Monika Zych, Marc Lamshöft, Miroslawa Furmanowa et al. (2006). "Molecular characterization of a seed transmitted clavicipitaceous fungus occurring on dicotyledoneous plants (Convolvulaceae)".  
  2. ^ Britta Tofern, Macki Kaloga, Ludger Witte, Thomas Hartmann & Eckart Eich (1999). "Occurrence of loline alkaloids in Argyreia mollis (Convolvulaceae)".  
  3. ^ "Aniseieae tribe Convolvulaceae"Genera of .  
  4. ^ "Cardiochlamyeae tribe Convolvulaceae"Genera of . Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2009-04-13. 
  5. ^ "Convolvuleae tribe Convolvulaceae"Genera of . Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2009-04-13. 
  6. ^ "Cresseae tribe Convolvulaceae"Genera of . Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2009-04-13. 
  7. ^ "Cuscuteae tribe Convolvulaceae"Genera of . Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2009-04-13. 
  8. ^ "Dichondreae tribe Convolvulaceae"Genera of . Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2009-04-13. 
  9. ^ "Erycibeae tribe Convolvulaceae"Genera of . Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2009-04-13. 
  10. ^ "Humbertieae tribe Convolvulaceae"Genera of . Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2009-04-13. 
  11. ^ "Ipomoeeae tribe Convolvulaceae"Genera of . Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2009-04-13. 
  12. ^ "Jacquemontieae tribe Convolvulaceae"Genera of . Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2009-04-13. 
  13. ^ "Maripeae tribe Convolvulaceae"Genera of . Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2009-04-13. 
  14. ^ "Merremieae tribe Convolvulaceae"Genera of . Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2009-04-13. 

Further reading

  • Daniel F. Austin (1973). I. Systematics"Lysiostyles, and Dicranostyles, Maripa"The American Erycibeae (Convolvulaceae): .  
  • Austin, D. F. 1997. Convolvulaceae (Morning Glory Family)
  • Convolvulus plant
  • Convolvulaceae in L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz (1992 onwards). The families of flowering plants.
  • Daniel F. Austin (2000). "Bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis, Convolvulaceae) in North America – from medicine to menace".  
  • Costea, M. 2007-onwards. Digital Atlas of Cuscuta (Convolvulaceae)
  • Lyons, K. E. 2001. L. field bindweed.Convolvulus arvensisElement stewardship abstract for The Nature Conservancy.
  • Calif. Dept. of Food and Agriculture. Undated. L.)Convolvulus arvensisField bindweed (
  • Univ. of Idaho Extension. 1999. Homewise: No matter what we do, our morning glory weeds come back every year. Any advice? Aug. 23
  • Hodges, L. 2003. Bindweed identification and control options for organic production. NebFacts. Univ. of Nebraska – Lincoln Cooperative Extension
  • Univ. of California Agriculture and Natural Resources. 2003. Field Bindweed. Pest Notes. Publ. # 7462
  • Washington State Univ. Cooperative Extension. Undated. Convolvulus arvensisHortsense: Weeds: Field bindweed (Wild morningglory):
  • Sullivan, P. 2004. Field bindweed control alternatives. ATTRA. National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service.
  • Lanini, W. T. Undated. Organic weed management in vineyards. University of California, Davis Cooperative Extension.
  • Cox, H. R. 1915. The eradication of bindweed or wild morning-glory. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Farmers’ Bulletin 368. Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office.
  • J. L. Littlefield (2004). "Bindweeds". In Eric M. Coombs. Biological Control of Invasive Plants in the United States. Corvallis OR:  
  • New Mexico State Univ. Cooperative Extension Service. 2004. gall mites for control of field bindweed.Aceria malherbaeManaging
  • Sue Dockstader (2005). "Coping with field bindweed without using herbicides".  

External links

  • Convolvulaceae Unlimited
  • Convolvulaceae in Topwalks
  • Family Convolvulaceae Flowers in Israel