|Motto: "Ad Montes Oculos Levavi" ("I have lifted up mine eyes unto the hills")|
Cumbria shown within England
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Established||1 April 1974|
|Established by||Local Government Act 1972|
|Lord Lieutenant||Claire Hensman|
|High Sheriff||Diana Matthews|
|Area||6,768 km2 (2,613 sq mi)|
|– Ranked||3rd of 48|
|Population (mid-2014 est.)||499,800|
|– Ranked||41st of 48|
|Density||74/km2 (190/sq mi)|
96.5% White British
0.3% White Irish
0.1% White Gypsy or Irish Traveller
1.7% Other White
0.2% White & Black Caribbean
0.1% White & Black African
0.2% White & Asian
0.1% Other Mixed
0.2% Other Asian
0.1% Black African
|County council||Cumbria County Council|
|Executive||Conservative / Labour / Independent|
|Area||6,768 km2 (2,613 sq mi)|
|– Ranked||2nd of 27|
|– Ranked||26th of 27|
|Density||74/km2 (190/sq mi)|
Districts of Cumbria
|Members of Parliament||List of MPs|
|Time zone||GMT (UTC)|
|– Summer (DST)||BST (UTC+1)|
Cumbria (English pronunciation: ; locally [ˈkʊmbɾiə] ) is a non-metropolitan county in North West England. The county and Cumbria County Council, its local authority, came into existence in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972. Cumbria's largest settlement and county town is Carlisle and the only other major urban area is Barrow-in-Furness on the south-western tip of the county. The county of Cumbria consists of six districts (Allerdale, Barrow-in-Furness, Carlisle, Copeland, Eden and South Lakeland), and in 2008 had a population of just under half a million. Cumbria is one of the most sparsely populated counties in the United Kingdom, with 73.4 people per km2 (190/sq mi).
Cumbria, the third-largest ceremonial county in England by area, is bounded to the north by the Scottish council areas of Dumfries and Galloway and Scottish Borders, to the west by the Irish Sea, to the south by Lancashire, to the southeast by North Yorkshire, and to the east by County Durham and Northumberland.
Cumbria is predominantly rural and contains the Lake District and Lake District National Park, considered one of England's most outstanding areas of natural beauty, serving as inspiration for artists, writers, and musicians. A large area of the south east of the county is within the Yorkshire Dales National Park. Much of Cumbria is mountainous, and it contains every peak in England over 3,000 feet (910 m) above sea level, with Scafell Pike at 3,209 feet (978 m) being the highest point of England. An upland, coastal, and rural area, Cumbria's history is characterised by invasions, migration, and settlement, as well as battles and skirmishes between the English and the Scots. Historic sites in Cumbria include Carlisle Castle, Furness Abbey, and Hadrian's Wall, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
- History 1
- Boundaries and divisions 2.1
- Tourism 3.1
- Economic output 3.2
- Politics 4
- Education 5
- Transport 6
- Demography 7
- Town and city twinnings 8.1
- Symbols and county emblems 9
- Football 10.1
- Rugby league 10.2
- Rugby union 10.3
- Cricket 10.4
- Other 10.5
- Media 11
- Places of interest 12
- Notable people 13
- See also 14
- References 15
- External links 16
At the end of the period of British history known as Roman Britain (c. 410 AD) the inhabitants of Cumberland (the county called Cumbria having been created in 1974 from Cumberland, Lancashire over the sands and Westmorland) were Cumbric-speaking native "Romano-Britons" who were probably descendants of the Brigantes and Carvetii (sometimes considered to be a sub-tribe of the Brigantes) that the Roman Empire had conquered in about 85AD. (Cumbric was a language related to Old Welsh and there are many Cumbrian dialect words and phrases which take their origins from this language). Based on inscriptional evidence from the area, the Roman civitas of the Carvetii seems to have covered portions of Cumbria. The names "Cumbria", "Cymru" (the native Welsh name for Wales), "Cambria" (the medieval Latinization of Welsh Cymru) and "Cumberland" are derived from the name these people gave themselves, *kombroges in Brittonic, which originally meant 'compatriots'.
During the Early Middle Ages Cumberland formed the core of the Brythonic kingdom of Rheged. By the end of the 7th century most of Cumberland had been incorporated into the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria. Most of modern-day Cumbria was ruled by Scotland at the time of the Norman Conquest of England in 1066 and thus was excluded from the Domesday Book survey of 1086. In 1092 Cumberland was invaded by William II and incorporated into England. Nevertheless, the region was dominated by the many wars and border skirmishes between England and Scotland of the Latter Middle Ages and Early Modern Period, and the associated Border Reivers who exploited the dynamic political situation of the region. There were at least three sieges of Carlisle fought between England and Scotland, and two further sieges during the Jacobite Risings.
After the Jacobite Risings of the eighteenth century, Cumberland became a more stable place and, as in the rest of Northern England, the Industrial Revolution caused a large growth in urban populations. In particular, the west-coast towns of Workington, Millom and Barrow-in-Furness saw large iron and steelworks develop, with Barrow also developing a significant shipbuilding industry. Kendal, Keswick and Carlisle all became mill towns, with textiles, pencils and biscuits among the products manufactured in the region. The early nineteenth century saw the county gain fame as the Lake Poets and other artists of the romantic movement, such as William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, lived among, and were inspired by, the lakes and mountains of the region. Later, the children's writer Beatrix Potter also wrote in the region and became a major landowner, granting much of her property to the National Trust on her death. In turn, the large amount of land owned by the National Trust assisted in the formation of the Lake District National Park in 1951, which remains the largest National Park in England and has come to dominate the identity and economy of the county.
The county of Cumbria was created in 1974 from the traditional counties of Cumberland and Westmorland, the Cumberland County Borough of Carlisle, along with the North Lonsdale or Furness part of Lancashire, usually referred to as "Lancashire North of the Sands", (including the county borough of Barrow-in-Furness) and, from the West Riding of Yorkshire, the Sedbergh Rural District. Its strategic authority is Cumbria County Council.
Local papers The Westmorland Gazette and Cumberland and Westmorland Herald continue to use the name of their historic county. Other publications, such as local government promotional material, describe the area as "Cumbria", as do the Lake District National Park Authority and most visitors.
Cumbria is the most northwesterly county of England. The northernmost and southernmost points in Cumbria are just west of Deadwater, Northumberland and South Walney respectively. Kirkby Stephen (close to Tan Hill, Yorkshire) and St Bees Head are the most easterly and westerly points of the county. At 978 metres (3,209 ft) Scafell Pike is the highest point in Cumbria and in England. Windermere is the largest natural lake in England.
Boundaries and divisions
The boundaries are along the Irish Sea to Morecambe Bay in the west, and along the Pennines to the east. Cumbria's northern boundary stretches from the Solway Firth from the Solway Plain eastward along the border with Scotland to Northumberland.
It is made up of six districts: Allerdale, Barrow-in-Furness, Carlisle, Copeland, Eden and South Lakeland. For many administrative purposes Cumbria is divided into three areas — East, West and South. East consists of the districts of Carlisle and Eden, West consists of Allerdale and Copeland, and South consists of Lakeland and Barrow.
In January 2007, Cumbria County Council voted in favour of an official bid to scrap the current two-tier system of county and district councils in favour of a new unitary Cumbria Council, to be submitted for consideration to the Department for Communities and Local Government. This was then rejected.
The county returns six Members of Parliament to the House of Commons, representing the constituencies of Carlisle, Penrith & The Border, Workington, Copeland, Westmorland and Lonsdale and Barrow & Furness.
Many large companies and organisations are based in Cumbria. The county council itself employs around 17,000 individuals, while the largest private employer in Cumbria, the Sellafield nuclear processing site, has a workforce of 10,000. Below is a list of some of the county's largest companies and employers (excluding services such as Cumbria Constabulary, Cumbria Fire and Rescue and the NHS in Cumbria), categorised by district:
U.S.-based multinational bed maker Sealy Beds UK (which is part of the Silentnight Group) own a factory at Aspatria, which employs around 300 people.
- Flour miller Carr's Milling Industries PLC, which is based in Carlisle, owns a large factory at Silloth which makes the 'Carr's Breadmaker' range and Carr's farm feeds.
- Window maker WestPort Windows owns a large factory at Maryport, which makes UPVC windows and doors.
- World rally company M-Sport has its headquarters at Dovenby Hall, near Cockermouth.
- Swedish paper maker Iggesund Paperboard has its only UK factory at Siddick, near Workington
- U.S.-based Eastman Chemical Company has a factory at Siddick, near Workington. It makes plastic bottle pellets (PBP) and products for the smoking industry and employs 100 people.
- Steel company Tata Steel owns a cast products plant at Workington, which employs 300 people.
- Carlisle-based haulage group The Stobart Group owns a large haulage depot at Workington, which was once owned by truck and bus maker Leyland.
- Packaging company Amcor owns the formerAlcan packaging plant at Salterbeck, Workington.
- James Walker Ltd, an international high-performance sealing manufacturer, has a large factory at Cockermouth.
- Barrow's shipyard is one of the UK's largest. BAE Systems is the current owner and employs around 5,000.
- Associated British Ports Holdings own and operate the port of Barrow.
- The only Kimberly-Clark mill in the North of England is located in Barrow.
- James Fisher & Sons, a large provider of marine engineering services, is based in Barrow.
- One of the largest single-site furniture stores in the UK, Stollers, is located in Barrow.
- Close to 1,000 people work in one of only two Pirelli tyre plants in the UK.
- Carr's is a successful foodstuff and agricultural brand that was established in 1831 in Carlisle.
- The Stobart Group, which is one of the UK's largest haulage companies, is headquartered in Carlisle.
- Nestlé operates a factory on the outskirts of Carlisle.
- Cavaghan & Gray is a food manufacturing business based in Carlisle and a significant employer in the city.
- Crown Holdings owns two factories in Carlisle, locally known as 'Metal Box'. Both factories make products for the beverage industry.
- As stated above, Sellafield is the largest private employer in the county; many West Cumbrians have links to the site.
- South Lakeland
The largest and most widespread industry in Cumbria is tourism. The Lake District National Park alone receives some 15.8 million visitors every year. Despite this, fewer than 50,000 people reside permanently within the Lake District – mostly in Ambleside, Bowness-on-Windermere, Coniston, Keswick, Grasmere and Windermere. Over 36,000 Cumbrians are employed in the tourism industry which adds £1.1 billion a year to the county's economy. The Lake District and county as a whole attracts visitors from across the UK, Europe, North America and the Far East (particularly Japan). The tables below show the twenty most-visited attractions in Cumbria in 2009 (please note that not all visitor attractions provided data to Cumbria Tourism who collated the list. Notable examples are Furness Abbey, the Lakes Aquarium and South Lakes Safari Zoo, the latter of which would almost certainly rank within the top five).
This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added (GVA) of East Cumbria at current basic prices published (pp. 240–253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.
|Year||Regional Gross Value Added||Agriculture||Industry||Services|
This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of West Cumbria at current basic prices published (pp. 240–253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.
|Year||Regional Gross Value Added||Agriculture||Industry||Services|
|Barrow and Furness||Cecil Franks||John Hutton||John Woodcock|
|Carlisle||Ronald Lewis||Eric Martlew||John Stevenson|
|Copeland||Jack Cunningham||Jamie Reed|
|Penrith and The Border||David Maclean||Rory Stewart|
|Westmorland and Lonsdale||Michael Jopling||Tim Collins||Tim Farron|
|Workington||Dale Campbell-Savours||Tony Cunningham|
|General Election 2015: Cumbria|
|Overall Number of seats as of 2015|
Although Cumbria has a comprehensive system almost in toto, it has one state grammar school in Penrith. There are 42 state secondary schools and 10 independent schools. The more rural secondary schools tend to have sixth forms though in Barrow-in-Furness district no school except Chetwynde School (Independent) has a sixth form, and this is the same for three schools in Allerdale and South Lakeland, and one in the other districts. Chetwynde is also the only school in Barrow to educate children from nursery all the way to sixth form level.
Colleges of further education in Cumbria include Barrow-in-Furness Sixth Form College, Carlisle College, Cumbria Institute of the Arts, Dallam Sixth form Centre, Furness College, Kendal College, Lakes College West Cumbria, West Cumbria Catholic Sixth Form Centre and Workington Sixth Form College.
The University of Cumbria is one of the UK's newest universities having been established in 2007, it is at present the only university in Cumbria and has campuses across the county.
- A6 (Luton, Bedfordshire to Carlisle via Kendal and Penrith)
- A66 (Workington to Middlesbrough, North Yorkshire via Keswick, Penrith and Brough)
- A69 (Carlisle to Newcastle upon Tyne via Brampton and Hexham)
- A590 (M6 Junction 36 to Barrow-in-Furness via Ulverston)
- A591 (Sizergh to Bothel via Kendal, Windermere, Ambleside, Grasmere and Keswick)
- A592 (M6 Junction 40 to Staveley via Penrith, Windermere and Bowness-on-Windermere)
- A595 (Carlisle to Dalton-in-Furness via Whitehaven and Workington)
- A596 (Carlisle to Workington)
Several bus companies run services in Cumbria serving the main towns and villages in the county, with some services running to neighbouring areas such as Lancaster. Stagecoach North West is the largest; it has depots in Barrow-in-Furness, Carlisle, Kendal and Workington. Stagecoach's flagship X6 route connects Barrow-in-Furness and Kendal in south Cumbria.
There are only two airports in the county: Carlisle Lake District and Barrow/Walney Island. Both airports formerly served scheduled passenger flights and both are proposing expansions and renovations to handle domestic and European flights in the near future. The nearest international airports to south Cumbria are Blackpool, Manchester and Liverpool John Lennon. North Cumbria is closer to Newcastle, Glasgow Prestwick and Glasgow International. Barrow-in-Furness is one of the country's largest shipbuilding centres, but the Port of Barrow is only minor, it is operated by Associated British Ports alongside the Port of Silloth in Allerdale. There are no ferry links from any port or harbour along the Cumbria coast.
The busiest railway stations in Cumbria are Carlisle, Barrow-in-Furness, Penrith and Oxenholme Lake District. The 399-mile (642 km) long West Coast Main Line runs through the Cumbria countryside adjacent to the M6 motorway. The Cumbrian Coast Line connects Barrow-in-Furness to Carlisle and is a vital link in the west of the county. Other railways in Cumbria are the Windermere Branch Line, most of the Furness Line and much of the Settle-Carlisle Railway.
Cumbria's largest settlement and only city is Carlisle, in the north of the county. The largest town, Barrow-in-Furness, in the south, is slightly smaller. The county's population is largely rural: it has the second lowest population density among English counties, and has only five towns with a population of over 20,000. Cumbria is also one of the country's most ethnically homogeneous counties, with 95.1% of the population categorised as White British (around 470,900 of the 495,000 Cumbrians). However, the larger towns have ethnic makeups that are closer to the national average. The 2001 census indicated that Christianity was the religion with the most adherents in the county.
2010 ONS estimates placed the number of foreign-born (non-United Kingdom) people living in Cumbria at around 14,000 and foreign nationals at 6,000. The 2001 UK Census showed the following most common countries of birth for Cumbrians that year:
- England – 454,137
- Scotland – 16,628
- Wales – 3,471
- Northern Ireland – 2,289
- Germany – 1,438
- Republic of Ireland – 1,359
- South Africa – 603
- Canada – 581
- Australia – 531
- United States – 493
- India – 476
- Hong Kong – 417
- Italy – 249
- New Zealand – 241
- France – 197
- Poland – 193
- Cyprus – 174
- Netherlands – 167
- Spain – 166
- Singapore – 160
The table below has divided the settlements into their local authority district. Each district has a centre of administration; for some of these correlate with a district's largest town, while others are named after the geographical area.
|Administration borough/district||Centre of administration||Other towns, villages and settlements|
Askam and Ireleth
Arlecdon and Frizington
Town and city twinnings
|Dalton-in-Furness||Barrow-in-Furness||Dalton, Pennsylvania, United States|
|Penrith||Eden||Penrith, New South Wales, Australia|
|Sedbergh||South Lakeland||Zreče, Slovenia|
|Ulverston||South Lakeland||Albert, France|
|Windermere||South Lakeland||Diessen am Ammersee, Germany|
Symbols and county emblems
The arms of Cumbria County Council were granted by the College of Arms on 10 October 1974. The arms represent the areas from which the new county council's area was put together; the shield's green border has Parnassus flowers representing Cumberland interspersed with roses; red for Lancashire (the Furness district) on white for Yorkshire (Sedbergh is from the West Riding). The crest is a ram's head crest, found in the arms both of Westmorland County Council and Barrow County Borough, with Cumberland's Parnassus flowers again. The supporters are the legendary Dacre Bull (Cumberland) and a red dragon (Appleby in Westmorland). They stand on a base compartment representing Hadrian's Wall (in Cumberland), crossed with two red bars (from the Westmorland arms).
The county council motto "Ad Montes Oculos Levavi" is Latin, from Psalm 121; ("I shall lift up mine eyes unto the hills").
The county flag of Cumbria is a banner of arms of Cumbria County Council.
Carlisle United are the only professional football team in Cumbria and currently play in League Two (4th Tier in the English football pyramid). They attract support from across Cumbria and beyond, with many Cumbrian "ex-pats" travelling to see their games, both home and away. Home attendances are usually 3,000 to 4,000 and the away support is often 1,000 to 2,000. This is one of the highest proportions of away-home support in England.
Barrow and Workington A.F.C—who are always known locally as "the reds"—are well-supported non-league teams, having both been relegated from the Football League in the 1970s, with Barrow being one of the best supported non-league football teams in England. Recently Workington A.F.C have made a rapid rise up the non league ladder and in 2007/08 competed with Barrow in the Conference North (Tier 6). Barrow were then promoted to the Blue Square Premier (Tier 5) in 2007/08.
Rugby league is a very popular in South and West Cumbria. Barrow, Whitehaven and Workington play in the Rugby League National Leagues and Carlisle in the Rugby League Conference. Amateur teams Wath Brow Hornets, Askam, Egremont Rangers and Millom play in the National Conference.
Rugby union is popular in the east of the county with teams such as Furness RUFC & Hawcoat Park RUFC (South Cumbria), Workington RUFC (West Cumbria), Carlisle RUFC, Aspatria RUFC, Wigton RUFC, Kendal RUFC, Kirkby Lonsdale RUFC, Keswick RUFC, Cockermouth RUFC, Upper Eden RUFC and Penrith RUFC.
Cumberland County Cricket Club is one of the cricket clubs that constitute the Minor Counties in the English domestic cricket structure. The club, based in Carlisle, competes in the Minor Counties Championship and the MCCA Knockout Trophy. The club also play some home matches in Workington, as well as other locations.
Uppies and Downies
Workington is home to the ball game known as Uppies and Downies, a traditional version of football, with its origins in Medieval football or an even earlier form. Players from outside Workington do take part, especially fellow West Cumbrians from Whitehaven and Maryport.
Cumberland and Westmorland wrestling is an ancient and well-practised tradition in the county with a strong resemblance to Scottish Backhold.
In the 21st century Cumberland and Westmorland wrestling along with other aspects of Lakeland culture are practised at the Grasmere Sports and Show, an annual meeting held every year since 1852 on the August Bank Holiday.
The origin of this form of wrestling is a matter of debate, with some describing it as having evolved from Norse wrestling brought over by Viking invaders, while other historians associate it with the Cornish and Gouren styles indicating that it may have developed out of a longer-standing Celtic tradition.
Cumbria is home to the Walney Terriers and the Carlisle Border Reivers, which are rival amateur American Football teams, despite a relatively low level of interest in the sport throughout the county.
Cumbria Kart Racing Club is based at the Lakeland Circuit, Rowrah, between Cockermouth and Egremont . The track is currently a venue for rounds of both major UK national karting championships . Formula One world champions Lewis Hamilton and Jenson Button both raced karts at Rowrah many times in the formative stages of their motor sport careers , while other F1 drivers, past and present, to have competed there include Johnny Herbert, Anthony Davidson, Allan McNish, Ralph Firman, Paul di Resta and David Coulthard, who hailed from just over the nearby Anglo-Scottish border and regarded Rowrah as his home circuit, becoming Cumbria Kart Racing Club Champion in 1985 in succession to McNish (di Resta also taking the CKRC title subsequently) .
Two evening newspapers are published daily in Cumbria. The News and Star focuses largely on Carlisle and the surrounding areas of north and west Cumbria, and the North-West Evening Mail is based in Barrow-in-Furness and covers news from across Furness and the South Lakes. The Cumberland and Westmorland Herald and The Westmorland Gazette are weekly newspapers based in Penrith and Kendal respectively.
Due to the size of Cumbria the county spans two television zones: BBC North East and Cumbria and ITV Tyne Tees & Border in the north and BBC North West and ITV Granada in the south. The Bay, CFM Radio and Lakeland Radio are the most popular local radio stations throughout the county, with BBC Radio Cumbria being the only station that is aimed at Cumbria as a whole.
Places of interest
- Richard Abbot
- Abraham Acton
- Jack Adams
- Sir John Barrow
- Derrick Bird
- Bill Birkett
- Norman Birkett
- Chris Bonington
- British Sea Power
- Melvyn Bragg
- Baron Campbell-Savours
- Donald Campbell
- Thomas Cape
- Fletcher Christian
- Lady Anne Clifford
- Samuel Taylor Coleridge
- Glenn Cornick
- Mark Cueto
- Wayne Curtis
- John Dalton
- Thomas DeQuincey
- Steve Dixon
- Brian Donnelly
- Troy Donockley
- Francis Dunnery
- Margaret Fell
- Sheila Fell
- Anna Ford
- Douglas Ferreira
- Kathleen Ferrier
- Norman Gifford
- Edmund Grindal
- Ade Gardner
- Sarah Hall
- Willie Horne
- Francis Howgill
- Emlyn Hughes
- Thomas Henry Ismay
- Maurice Flitcroft
- Harry Hadley
- Brad Kavanagh
- Nigel Kneale
- Phil Jackson
- Stuart Lancaster
- Nella Last
- Stan Laurel
- Jimmy Lewthwaite
- Hugh Lowther, 5th Earl of Lonsdale
- Ian McDonald
- Frank McPherson
- Vic Metcalfe
- Dave Myers
- Joss Naylor
- Norman Nicholson
- Saint Ninian
- Catherine Parr
- Baron Peart
- John Peel
- Jack Pelter
- Beatrix Potter
- Peter Purves
- Sir James Ramsden
- Dame Stella Rimington
- Eric Robson
- George Romney
- Thomas Round
- Adam Roynon
- John Ruskin
- Helen Skelton
- Montagu Slater
- Richard T. Slone
- James Alexander Smith
- Robert Southey
- Lord Soulsby
- Constance Spry
- Gary Stevens
- Stuart Stockdale
- Karen Taylor
- Edward Troughton
- Keith Tyson
- Josefina de Vasconcellos
- Alfred Wainwright
- Eric Wallace
- William Whitelaw
- John Wilkinson
- Len Wilkinson
- Malcolm Wilson
- Christopher Wordsworth
- Dorothy Wordsworth
- William Wordsworth
- Anglo-Scottish border
- Cumbria County Council
- Cumbrian dialect
- Cumbric language
- Cumbrian toponymy
- Etymology of Cumbrian Place Names
- Healthcare in Cumbria
- List of Cumbria-related topics
- List of High Sheriffs of Cumbria
- List of Lord Lieutenants of Cumbria
- Outline of England
- "Online Etymological Dictionary ''Cymric''". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 25 September 2010.
- Davies, John (2007) . A History of Wales. London: Penguin Books. pp. 68–69.
- "County council votes to pursue a single council for Cumbria". Retrieved 24 February 2007.
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- "Lake District National Park". Lake District National Park. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
- "Lake District National Park". Cumbria Tourism. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
- Components may not sum to totals due to rounding
- includes hunting and forestry
- includes energy and construction
- includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured
- "Current Estimates – Population Estimates by Ethnic Group Mid-2009 (experimental)".
- "Table 1.3: Estimated population resident in the United Kingdom, by foreign country of birth, April 2009 to March 2010". Office for National Statistics. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 14 January 2011.
- Побратимени градове - Municipality of KOZLODUY
- Cumbria County Council (Civic Heraldry) accessed 24 January 2010
- Cumbria floods remembered at Department for Communities and Local Government - News stories - GOV.UK
- "Cumbria flag flying outside Eland House". Department for Communities and Local Government. 2010. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
- "Uppies and Downies website". Retrieved 25 June 2009.
- Origins of Mass ball Games. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
- "Times and Star". Retrieved 25 June 2009.
- "Kronos; A Chronology of the Martial Arts and Combative Sports". Retrieved 24 February 2007.
- "Amateur Wrestling". Retrieved 24 February 2007.
- "Kronos; A Chronology of the Martial Arts and Combative Sports". Retrieved 24 February 2007.