# Diophantine analysis

### Diophantine analysis

In mathematics, a Diophantine equation is a polynomial equation that allows two or more variables to take integer values only. A linear Diophantine equation is an equation between two sums of monomials of degree zero or one.

Diophantine problems have fewer equations than unknown variables and involve finding integers that work correctly for all equations. In more technical language, they define an algebraic curve, algebraic surface, or more general object, and ask about the lattice points on it.

The word Diophantine refers to the Hellenistic mathematician of the 3rd century, Diophantus of Alexandria, who made a study of such equations and was one of the first mathematicians to introduce symbolism into algebra. The mathematical study of Diophantine problems that Diophantus initiated is now called Diophantine analysis.

While individual equations present a kind of puzzle and have been considered throughout history, the formulation of general theories of Diophantine equations (beyond the theory of quadratic forms) was an achievement of the twentieth century.

## Examples of Diophantine equations

 In the following Diophantine equations, x, y, and z are the unknowns and the other letters are given constants. $ax+by=1\,$ This is a linear Diophantine equation (see the section "Linear Diophantine equations" below). $x^n+y^n=z^n \,$ For n = 2 there are infinitely many solutions (x,y,z): the Pythagorean triples. For larger integer values of n, Fermat's Last Theorem states there are no positive integer solutions (x, y, z). $x^2-ny^2=\pm 1\,$ This is Pell's equation, which is named after the English mathematician John Pell. It was studied by Brahmagupta in the 7th century, as well as by Fermat in the 17th century. $\frac\left\{4\right\}\left\{n\right\} = \frac\left\{1\right\}\left\{x\right\} + \frac\left\{1\right\}\left\{y\right\} + \frac\left\{1\right\}\left\{z\right\}$ The Erdős–Straus conjecture states that, for every positive integer n ≥ 2, there exists a solution in x, y, and z, all as positive integers. Although not usually stated in polynomial form, this example is equivalent to the polynomial equation 4xyz = yzn + xzn + xyn = n(yz + xz + xy).

## Diophantine analysis

### Typical questions

The questions asked in Diophantine analysis include:

1. Are there any solutions?
2. Are there any solutions beyond some that are easily found by inspection?
3. Are there finitely or infinitely many solutions?
4. Can all solutions be found in theory?
5. Can one in practice compute a full list of solutions?

These traditional problems often lay unsolved for centuries, and mathematicians gradually came to understand their depth (in some cases), rather than treat them as puzzles.

### Typical problem

The given information that a father's age is 1 less than twice that of his son, and that the digits AB making up the father's age are reversed in the son's age (i.e. BA), leads to the equation 19B - 8A = 1. Inspection gives the result 73 and 37 years.

### 17th and 18th centuries

In 1637, Pierre de Fermat scribbled on the margin of his copy of Arithmetica: "It is impossible to separate a cube into two cubes, or a fourth power into two fourth powers, or in general, any power higher than the second into two like powers." Stated in more modern language, "The equation an + bn = cn has no solutions for any n higher than 2." And then he wrote, intriguingly: "I have discovered a truly marvelous proof of this proposition, which this margin is too narrow to contain." Such a proof eluded mathematicians for centuries, however, and as such his statement became famous as Fermat's Last Theorem. It wasn't until 1994 that it was proven by the British mathematician Andrew Wiles.

In 1657, Fermat attempted to solve the Diophantine equation 61x2 + 1 = y2 (solved by Brahmagupta over 1000 years earlier). The equation was eventually solved by Euler in the early 18th century, who also solved a number of other Diophantine equations.

### Hilbert's tenth problem

In 1900, in recognition of their depth, David Hilbert proposed the solvability of all Diophantine problems as the tenth of his celebrated problems. In 1970, a novel result in mathematical logic known as Matiyasevich's theorem settled the problem negatively: in general Diophantine problems are unsolvable.

Diophantine geometry, which is the application of techniques from algebraic geometry in this field, has continued to grow as a result; since treating arbitrary equations is a dead end, attention turns to equations that also have a geometric meaning. The central idea of Diophantine geometry is that of a rational point, namely a solution to a polynomial equation or a system of polynomial equations, which is a vector in a prescribed field K, when K is not algebraically closed.

### Modern research

One of the few general approaches is through the Hasse principle. Infinite descent is the traditional method, and has been pushed a long way.

The depth of the study of general Diophantine equations is shown by the characterisation of Diophantine sets as equivalently described as recursively enumerable. In other words, the general problem of Diophantine analysis is blessed or cursed with universality, and in any case is not something that will be solved except by re-expressing it in other terms.

The field of Diophantine approximation deals with the cases of Diophantine inequalities. Here variables are still supposed to be integral, but some coefficients may be irrational numbers, and the equality sign is replaced by upper and lower bounds.

The most celebrated single question in the field, the conjecture known as Fermat's Last Theorem, was solved by Andrew Wiles but using tools from algebraic geometry developed during the last century rather than within number theory where the conjecture was originally formulated. Other major results, such as Faltings' theorem, have disposed of old conjectures.

### Infinite Diophantine equations

An example of an infinite diophantine equation is:



N = A^2+2B^2+3C^2+4D^2+5E^2+.... which can be expressed as "How many ways can a given integer N be written as the sum of a square plus twice a square plus thrice a square and so on?" The number of ways this can be done for each N forms an integer sequence. Infinite Diophantine equations are related to theta functions and infinite dimensional lattices. This equation always has a solution for any positive N. Compare this to:



N = A^2+4B^2+9C^2+16D^2+25E^2+.... which does not always have a solution for positive N.

## Linear Diophantine equations

Linear Diophantine equations take the form ax + by = c. If c is the greatest common divisor of a and b then this is Bézout's identity, and the equation has an infinite number of solutions. These can be found by applying the extended Euclidean algorithm. It follows that there are also infinitely many solutions if c is a multiple of the greatest common divisor of a and b. If c is not a multiple of the greatest common divisor of a and b, then the Diophantine equation ax + by = c has no solutions.

## Exponential Diophantine equations

If a Diophantine equation has as an additional variable or variables occurring as exponents, it is an exponential Diophantine equation. One example is the Ramanujan–Nagell equation, 2n − 7 = x2. Such equations do not have a general theory; particular cases such as Catalan's conjecture have been tackled. However, the majority are solved via ad hoc methods such as Størmer's theorem or even trial and error.