Education in Tokyo
Primary and secondary schools
Publicly run kindergartens, elementary schools (years 1 through 6), and junior high schools (7 through 9) are operated by local wards or municipal offices. Public high schools in Tokyo are run by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Board of Education and are called "Metropolitan High Schools". Tokyo also has many private schools from kindergarten through high school.
Colleges and universities
- See also List of universities in Tokyo.
Various groups rank colleges and universities worldwide. See College and university rankings.
In 2007 The Times Higher Education Supplement ranked the University of Tokyo at 17th worldwide, the highest among universities in Japan. Tokyo Institute of Technology was at 90th place, Keio was at 161st and Waseda at 180th. Showa (318), Tokyo Metropolitan University (335) and Tokyo University of Science (364) follow.
According to the Institute of Higher Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong, the top-ranked private universities in Tokyo were Keio (ranked in the 25–42 group), Waseda (ranked in the 43–64 group), Juntendo (in the 65–100 group), and Nihon (also ranked in the 65–100 group).
The École des Mines de Paris list of "The 377 leading higher education institutions in 2009" is "based on Fortune Global 500, 2008" and puts the University of Tokyo first in the world, Waseda 4th, Keio joint 11th, Chuo joint 20th, and Hitotsubashi joint 42nd.
The 4ICU ranking classifies Keio as the 1st top university in Japan, based on web popularity ranking. Also in the top 20 are (in 2010)
Within Tokyo, the relative degree of difficulty of entrance to particular "Faculties" (gakubu, also called "Schools") or even their component Departments is of some interest. Yoyogi Seminar, a large cram school company, publishes lists of gakubu arranged by difficulty. For faculties of law, economics, business and commerce of public universities, the most demanding in or for 2010 was Hitotsubashi University's faculty of law, followed by faculties of the University of Tokyo; for these subjects at private universities, four faculties of Keio and two of Waseda outclassed their closest rivals (at Sophia and Chuo); for faculties of humanities, education, languages and social studies of public universities, Tokyo, the Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, Hitotsubashi, and Ochanomizu were particularly demanding; for the same at private universities, two faculties of Keio, four of Waseda, one of Sophia and one of Hosei occupied the top two ranks.
- 東京都高等学校一覧. Japanese WorldHeritage (in Japanese). Retrieved 2007-10-19.
- "Top 400 universities in the THES - QS World University Rankings 2007."
- Institute of Higher Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong
- "The 377 leading higher education institutions in 2008," in "International Professional Ranking of Higher Education Institutions", École des Mines de Paris, 2008.
- "The 377 leading higher education institutions in 2009," in "International Professional Ranking of Higher Education Institutions", École des Mines de Paris, 2009.
- "Universities in Japan by 2010 University Web Ranking", 2010.
- Asia ranking for January 2008. The criteria are explained here.
- 国公立大学入試難易ランキング表 《法･経済・経営・商系
- 私立大学入試難易ランキング表 《法･経済・経営・商系》
- 国公立大学入試難易ランキング表 《文・教育・外国語・生活科学系》
- 私立大学入試難易ランキング表 《文・教育・外国語・生活科学系》.
- The EMP Professional Ranking of World Universities (retrieved December 16, 2007)
- Institute of Higher Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong (retrieved December 16, 2007)
- Webometrics (retrieved December 16, 2007)
- QS Top Universities: Top 400 universities in the THES - QS World University Rankings 2007 (retrieved December 16, 2007)
- College Quality and Earnings in the Japanese Labor Market. Hiroshi Ono. SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance No 395 (Revised March 11, 2003).
- Educational Credentials and Promotion Chances in Japanese and American Organizations. Hiroshi Ishida, Seymour Spilerman & Kuo-Hsien Su. American Sociological Review, Vol 62, No 6 (Dec., 1997), pp. 866–882.
- "Gakureki shakai kasetsu no kento" (Examining the educational credentialism hypothesis). Bunshiro Ando. In Kenichi Tominaga, ed., Nihon no Kaiso Kozo (1994) University of Tokyo Press, pp. 275–292.
- A Review of Higher Education Reform in Modern Japan. Paul Doyon. Higher Education, Vol. 41, No. 4 (Jun., 2001), pp. 443–470.
- Japan's Top 30 Universities. William Currie. International Higher Education, Winter 2002 
- Engineering Tasks for the New Century: Japanese and U.S. Perspectives (1999) Office of International Affairs