Elizabeth I of England
Recent historians, however, have taken a more complicated view of Elizabeth. Her reign is famous for the defeat of the Armada, and for successful raids against the Spanish, such as those on Cádiz in 1587 and 1596, but some historians point to military failures on land and at sea. In Ireland, Elizabeth's forces ultimately prevailed, but their tactics stain her record. Rather than as a brave defender of the Protestant nations against Spain and the Habsburgs, she is more often regarded as cautious in her foreign policies. She offered very limited aid to foreign Protestants and failed to provide her commanders with the funds to make a difference abroad.
Elizabeth established an English church that helped shape a national identity and remains in place today. Those who praised her later as a Protestant heroine overlooked her refusal to drop all practices of Catholic origin from the Church of England. Historians note that in her day, strict Protestants regarded the Acts of Settlement and Uniformity of 1559 as a compromise. In fact, Elizabeth believed that faith was personal and did not wish, as Francis Bacon put it, to "make windows into men's hearts and secret thoughts".
Though Elizabeth followed a largely defensive foreign policy, her reign raised England's status abroad. "She is only a woman, only mistress of half an island," marvelled Pope Sixtus V, "and yet she makes herself feared by Spain, by France, by the Empire, by all". Under Elizabeth, the nation gained a new self-confidence and sense of sovereignty, as Christendom fragmented. Elizabeth was the first Tudor to recognise that a monarch ruled by popular consent. She therefore always worked with parliament and advisers she could trust to tell her the truth—a style of government that her Stuart successors failed to follow. Some historians have called her lucky; she believed that God was protecting her. Priding herself on being "mere English", Elizabeth trusted in God, honest advice, and the love of her subjects for the success of her rule. In a prayer, she offered thanks to God that:
[At a time] when wars and seditions with grievous persecutions have vexed almost all kings and countries round about me, my reign hath been peacable, and my realm a receptacle to thy afflicted Church. The love of my people hath appeared firm, and the devices of my enemies frustrate.
|Ancestors of Elizabeth I of England|
- Early modern Britain
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- "I mean to direct all my actions by good advice and counsel." Elizabeth's first speech as queen, Hatfield House, 20 November 1558. Loades, 35.
- Starkey Elizabeth: Woman, 5.
- Neale, 386.
- Somerset, 729.
- Somerset, 4.
- Loades, 3–5
- Somerset, 4–5.
- Loades, 6–7.
- An Act of July 1536 stated that Elizabeth was "illegitimate ... and utterly foreclosed, excluded and banned to claim, challenge, or demand any inheritance as lawful heir ... to [the King] by lineal descent". Somerset, 10.
- Loades, 7–8.
- Somerset, 11. Jenkins (1957), 13
- Richardson, 39–46.
- Richardson, 56, 75–82, 136
- Weir, Children of Henry VIII, 7.
- Our knowledge of Elizabeth's schooling and precocity comes largely from the memoirs of Roger Ascham, also the tutor of Prince Edward. Loades, 8–10.
- Somerset, 25.
- Loades, 21.
- contributor: Dr. Ivan Herbison (). A Kist o Wurds. Series 33. Episode 2. 9.10 minutes in. BBC Radio Ulster. http://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/episode/b038qsd1/A_Kist_o_Wurds_Series_33_Episode_2/.
- "Venice: April 1603", Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 9: 1592–1603 (1897), 562–570. Retrieved 22 March 2012.
- Stoyle, Mark. West Britons, Cornish Identities and the Early Modern British State, University of Exeter Press, 2002, p220.
- Davenport, 32.
- Loades, 11.
- Starkey Elizabeth: Apprenticeship, p. 69
- Loades, 14.
- Haigh, 8.
- Neale, 32.
- Williams Elizabeth, 24.
- Loades, 14, 16.
- Neale, 33.
- Elizabeth had assembled 2,000 horsemen, "a remarkable tribute to the size of her affinity". Loades 24–25.
- Loades, 27.
- Neale, 45.
- Loades, 28.
- Somerset, 51.
- Loades, 29.
- "The wives of Wycombe passed cake and wafers to her until her litter became so burdened that she had to beg them to stop." Neale, 49.
- Loades, 32.
- Somerset, 66.
- Neale, 53.
- Loades, 33.
- Neale, 59.
- Kantorowicz, ix
- Full document reproduced by Loades, 36–37.
- Somerset, 89–90. The "Festival Book" account, from the British Library
- Neale, 70.
- Patrick Collinson, "Elizabeth I (1533–1603)" in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2008) accessed 23 Aug 2011
- Loades, 46.
- "It was fortunate that ten out of twenty-six bishoprics were vacant, for of late there had been a high rate of mortality among the episcopate, and a fever had conveniently carried off Mary's Archbishop of Canterbury, Reginald Pole, less than twenty-four hours after her own death". Somerset, 98.
- "There were no less than ten sees unrepresented through death or illness and the carelessness of 'the accursed cardinal' [Pole]". Black, 10.
- Somerset, 101–103.
- , 17 November 2009Daily Telegraph"Stamp-sized Elizabeth I miniatures to fetch ₤80.000", Retrieved 16 May 2010
- Loades, 38.
- Haigh, 19.
- Loades, 39.
- Retha Warnicke, "Why Elizabeth I Never Married," History Review, Sept 2010, Issue 67, pp 15–20
- Loades, 42; Wilson, 95
- Wilson, 95
- Skidmore, 162, 165, 166–168
- Chamberlin, 118
- Somerset, 166–167. Most modern historians have considered murder unlikely; breast cancer and suicide being the most widely accepted explanations (Doran Monarchy, 44). The coroner's report, hitherto believed lost, came to light in The National Archives in the late 2000s and is compatible with a downstairs fall as well as other violence (Skidmore, 230–233).
- Wilson, 126–128
- Doran Monarchy, 45
- Doran Monarchy, 212.
- Adams, 384, 146.
- Jenkins (1961), 245, 247; Hammer, 46.
- Doran Queen Elizabeth I, 61.
- Wilson, 303.
- Frieda, 397.
- Haigh, 17.
- Elizabeth Jenkins Elizabeth the Great London 1959 p 59; Karin Tegenborg Falkdalen Vasadöttrarna ISBN 978-91-87031-26-7 p 126; Michael Roberts The Early Vasas Cambridge 1968 pp 159 & 207
- Loades, 53–54.
- Loades, 54.
- Somerset, 408.
- Doran Monarchy, 87
- Haigh, 20–21.
- Haigh, 22–23.
- Anna Dowdeswell (28 November 2007). "Historic painting is sold for £2.6 million". bucksherald.co.uk. Retrieved 17 December 2008.
- John N. King, "Queen Elizabeth I: Representations of the Virgin Queen," Renaissance Quarterly Vol. 43, No. 1 (Spring, 1990), pp. 30–74 in JSTOR
- Haigh, 23.
- Susan Doran, "Juno Versus Diana: The Treatment of Elizabeth I's Marriage in Plays and Entertainments, 1561–1581," Historical Journal 38 (1995): 257–74 in JSTOR
- Haigh, 24.
- Haigh, 131.
- Mary's position as heir derived from her great-grandfather Henry VII of England, through his daughter Margaret Tudor. In her own words, "I am the nearest kinswoman she hath, being both of us of one house and stock, the Queen my good sister coming of the brother, and I of the sister". Guy, 115.
- On Elizabeth's accession, Mary's Guise relatives had pronounced her Queen of England and had the English arms emblazoned with those of Scotland and France on her plate and furniture. Guy, 96–97.
- By the terms of the treaty, both English and French troops withdrew from Scotland. Haigh, 132.
- Loades, 67.
- Loades, 68.
- Simon Adams: "Dudley, Robert, earl of Leicester (1532/3–1588)" Oxford Dictionary of National Biography online edn. May 2008 (subscription required) Retrieved 3 April 2010
- Letter to Mary, Queen of Scots, 23 June 1567." Quoted by Loades, 69–70.
- Loades, 72–73.
- Loades, 73
- Williams Norfolk, p. 174
- McGrath, 69
- Collinson p. 67
- Collinson pp. 67–68
- Collinson p. 68
- Loades, 73.
- Guy, 483–484.
- Loades, 78–79.
- Guy, 1–11.
- Frieda, 191.
- Loades, 61.
- Flynn and Spence, 126–128.
- Somerset, 607–611.
- Haigh, 135.
- Strong and van Dorsten, 20–26
- Strong and van Dorsten, 43
- Strong and van Dorsten, 72
- Strong and van Dorsten, 50
- Letter to Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, 10 February 1586, delivered by Sir Thomas Heneage. Loades, 94.
- Chamberlin, 263–264
- Elizabeth's ambassador in France was actively misleading her as to the true intentions of the Spanish king, who only tried to buy time for his great assault upon England: Parker, 193.
- Haynes, 15; Strong and van Dorsten, 72–79
- Parker, 193–194
- Haigh, 138.
- When the Spanish naval commander, the Duke of Medina Sidonia, reached the coast near Calais, he found the Duke of Parma's troops unready and was forced to wait, giving the English the opportunity to launch their attack. Loades, 64.
- Black, 349.
- Neale, 300.
- Somerset, 591; Neale, 297–98.
- Black, 353.
- Haigh, 145.
- For example, C. H. Wilson castigates Elizabeth for half-heartedness in the war against Spain. Haigh, 183.
- Somerset, 655.
- Haigh, 142.
- Haigh, 143.
- Haigh, 143–144.
- One observer wrote that Ulster, for example, was "as unknown to the English here as the most inland part of Virginia". Somerset, 667.
- Loades, 55
- Somerset, 668.
- Somerset, 668–669.
- Loades, 98.
- In a letter of 19 July 1599 to Essex, Elizabeth wrote: "For what can be more true (if things be rightly examined) than that your two month's journey has brought in never a capital rebel against whom it had been worthy to have adventured one thousand men". Loades, 98.
- Loades, 98–99.
- Russia and Britain by Crankshaw, Edward, published by Collins, 126 p. The Nations and Britain series
- Tate Gallery exhibition "East-West: Objects between cultures", Tate.org.uk
- Virginia Mason Vaughan (2005). Performing Blackness on English Stages, 1500–1800. Cambridge University Press. p. 57.
- Allardyce Nicoll (2002). Shakespeare Survey With Index 1–10. Cambridge University Press. p. 90.
- Emily Carroll Bartels (2008). ''Speaking of the Moor'', Emily C. Bartels p.24. University of Pennsylvania Press.
- University of Birmingham Collections Mimsy.bham.ac.uk
- Kupperman, p. 39
- Nicoll, p.96
- Kupperman, p.40
- Kupperman, p.41
- Haigh, 155.
- Black, 355–356.
- Black, 355.
- This criticism of Elizabeth was noted by Elizabeth's early biographers William Camden and John Clapham. For a detailed account of such criticisms and of Elizabeth's "government by illusion", see chapter 8, "The Queen and the People", Haigh, 149–169.
- Adams, 7; Hammer, 1; Collinson, 89
- Collinson, 89
- Doran Monarchy, 216
- Hammer, 1–2
- Hammer, 1, 9
- Hammer, 9–10
- Lacey, 117–120
- A Patent of Monopoly gave the holder control over an aspect of trade or manufacture. See Neale, 382.
- Williams Elizabeth, 208.
- Black, 192–194.
- Neale, 383–384.
- Loades, 86.
- Black, 239.
- Black, 239–245.
- Haigh, 176.
- Loades, 92.
- Haigh, 171.
- "The metaphor of drama is an appropriate one for Elizabeth's reign, for her power was an illusion—and an illusion was her power. Like Henry IV of France, she projected an image of herself which brought stability and prestige to her country. By constant attention to the details of her total performance, she kept the rest of the cast on their toes and kept her own part as queen." Haigh, 179.
- Loades, 93.
- Loades, 97.
- Black, 410.
- After Essex's downfall, James VI of Scotland referred to Cecil as "king there in effect". Croft, 48.
- Cecil wrote to James, "The subject itself is so perilous to touch amongst us as it setteth a mark upon his head forever that hatcheth such a bird". Willson, 154.
- James VI of Scotland was a great-great-grandson of Henry VII of England, and thus Elizabeth's first cousin twice removed, since Henry VII was Elizabeth's paternal grandfather.
- Willson, 154.
- Willson, 155.
- Neale, 385.
- Black, 411.
- Black, 410–411.
- Weir, Elizabeth, 486.
- Strong, 163–164.
- Loades, 100–101.
- Somerset, 726.
- Strong, 164.
- Haigh, 170.
- Weir, 488.
- Dobson and Watson, 257.
- Haigh, 175, 182.
- Dobson and Watson, 258.
- The age of Elizabeth was redrawn as one of chivalry, epitomised by courtly encounters between the queen and sea-dog "heroes" such as Drake and Raleigh. Some Victorian narratives, such as Raleigh laying his cloak before the queen or presenting her with a potato, remain part of the myth. Dobson and Watson, 258.
- Haigh, 175.
- In his preface to the 1952 reprint of Queen Elizabeth I, J. E. Neale observed: "The book was written before such words as "ideological", "fifth column", and "cold war" became current; and it is perhaps as well that they are not there. But the ideas are present, as is the idea of romantic leadership of a nation in peril, because they were present in Elizabethan times".
- Haigh, 182.
- Kenyon, 207
- Haigh, 183.
- Black, 408–409.
- Haigh, 142–147, 174–177.
- Loades, 46–50.
- Weir, Elizabeth, 487.
- Hogge, 9–10.
- The new state religion was condemned at the time in such terms as "a cloaked papistry, or mingle mangle". Somerset, 102.
- Haigh, 45–46, 177.
- Black, 14–15.
- Williams Elizabeth, 50.
- Haigh, 42.
- Somerset, 727.
- Hogge, 9n.
- Loades, 1.
- As Elizabeth's Lord Keeper, Sir Nicholas Bacon, put it on her behalf to parliament in 1559, the queen "is not, nor ever meaneth to be, so wedded to her own will and fantasy that for the satisfaction thereof she will do anything ... to bring any bondage or servitude to her people, or give any just occasion to them of any inward grudge whereby any tumults or stirs might arise as hath done of late days". Starkey Elizabeth: Woman, 7.
- Somerset, 75–76.
- Edwards, 205.
- Starkey Elizabeth: Woman, 6–7.
- Adams, Simon (2002), Leicester and the Court: Essays in Elizabethan Politics, Manchester: Manchester University Press, .
- Black, J. B. (1945) , The Reign of Elizabeth: 1558–1603, Oxford: Clarendon, .
- Chamberlin, Frederick (1939), Elizabeth and Leycester, Dodd, Mead & Co..
- Collinson, Patrick. "Elizabeth I (1533–1603)" in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2008) Retrieved 23 Aug 2011
- Croft, Pauline (2003), King James, Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, .
- Davenport, Cyril (1899), Pollard, Alfred, ed., English Embroidered Bookbindings, London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner and Co., .
- Dobson, Michael & Watson, Nicola (2003), "Elizabeth's Legacy", in Doran, Susan, Elizabeth: The Exhibition at the National Maritime Museum, London: Chatto and Windus, .
- Doran, Susan (2003), Queen Elizabeth I, London: British Library, .
- Doran, Susan (2003), "The Queen's Suitors and the Problem of the Succession", in Doran, Susan, Elizabeth: The Exhibition at the National Maritime Museum, London: Chatto and Windus, .
- Edwards, Philip (2004), The Making of the Modern English State: 1460–1660, Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, .
- Flynn, Sian & Spence, David (2003), "Elizabeth's Adventurers", in Doran, Susan, Elizabeth: The Exhibition at the National Maritime Museum, London: Chatto and Windus, .
- Haynes, Alan (1987), The White Bear: The Elizabethan Earl of Leicester, Peter Owen, .
- Hogge, Alice (2005), God's Secret Agents: Queen Elizabeth's Forbidden Priests and the Hatching of the Gunpowder Plot, London: HarperCollins, .
- McGrath, Patrick (1967), Papists and Puritans under Elizabeth I, London: Blandford Press.
- Richardson, Ruth Elizabeth (2007), Mistress Blanche: Queen Elizabeth I's Confidante, Woonton: Logaston Press, .
- Somerset, Anne (2003), Elizabeth I. (1st Anchor Books ed.), London: Anchor Books, .
- Strong, R. C. & van Dorsten, J. A. (1964), Leicester's Triumph, Oxford University Press.
- Weir, Alison (1999), Elizabeth the Queen, London: Pimlico, .
- Williams, Neville (1964), Thomas Howard, Fourth Duke of Norfolk, London: Barrie & Rockliff.
- Williams, Neville (1972), The Life and Times of Elizabeth I, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, .
- Willson, David Harris (1963) , King James VI & I, London: Jonathan Cape, .
- Wilson, Derek (1981), Sweet Robin: A Biography of Robert Dudley Earl of Leicester 1533–1588, London: Hamish Hamilton, .
- Woodward, Jennifer (1997), The Theatre of Death: The Ritual Management of Royal Funerals in Renaissance England, 1570–1625, Boydell & Brewer,
- Beem, Charles. The Foreign Relations of Elizabeth I (2011) excerpt and text search
- Bridgen, Susan (2001). New Worlds, Lost Worlds: The Rule of the Tudors, 1485–1603. New York, NY:
- Hodges, J. P. The Nature of the Lion: Elizabeth I and Our Anglican Heritage (London: Faith Press, 1962). 153 p.
- Jones, Norman. The Birth of the Elizabethan Age: England in the 1560s (Blackwell, 1993)
MacCaffrey Wallace T. Elizabeth I (1993), political biography summarising his multivolume study:
- MacCaffrey Wallace T. The Shaping of the Elizabethan Regime: Elizabethan Politics, 1558–1572 (1969)
- MacCaffrey Wallace T. Queen Elizabeth and the Making of Policy, 1572–1588 (1988)
- MacCaffrey Wallace T. Elizabeth I: War and Politics, 1588–1603 (1994)
- McLaren, A. N. Political Culture in the Reign of Elizabeth I: Queen and Commonwealth, 1558–1585 (Cambridge University Press, 1999) excerpt and text search
- Palliser, D. M. The Age of Elizabeth: England Under the Later Tudors, 1547–1603 (1983) survey of social and economic history
- Jasper Godwin Ridley (1989). Elizabeth I: The Shrewdness of Virtue. Fromm International.
Primary sources and early histories
- Elizabeth I (2002). Elizabeth I: Collected Works. University of Chicago Press.
- Susan M. Felch, ed. Elizabeth I and Her Age (Norton Critical Editions) (2009); 700pp; primary and secondary sources, with an emphasis on literature
- Camden, William. History of the Most Renowned and Victorious Princess Elizabeth. Wallace T. MacCaffrey (ed). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, selected chapters, 1970 edition. OCLC 59210072.
- William Camden. Annales Rerum Gestarum Angliae et Hiberniae Regnante Elizabetha. (1615 and 1625.) Hypertext edition, with English translation. Dana F. Sutton (ed.), 2000. Retrieved 7 December 2007.
- Clapham, John. Elizabeth of England. E. P. Read and Conyers Read (eds). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1951. OCLC 1350639.
Historiography and memory
- Carlson, Eric Josef. "Teaching Elizabeth Tudor with Movies: Film, Historical Thinking, and the Classroom," Sixteenth Century Journal, Summer 2007, Vol. 38 Issue 2, pp 419–440
- Collinson, Patrick. "Elizabeth I and the verdicts of history," Historical Research, Nov 2003, Vol. 76 Issue 194, pp 469–91
- Doran, Susan, and Thomas S. Freeman, eds. The Myth of Elizabeth.(2003). 280 pp.
- Greaves, Richard L., ed. Elizabeth I, Queen of England (1974), excerpts from historians
- Haigh, Christopher, ed. The Reign of Elizabeth I (1984), essays by scholars
- Howard, Maurice. "Elizabeth I: A Sense Of Place In Stone, Print And Paint," Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, Dec 2004, Vol. 14 Issue 1, pp 261–268
- Hulme, Harold. "Elizabeth I and Her Parliaments: The Work of Sir John Neale," Journal of Modern History Vol. 30, No. 3 (Sept. 1958), pp. 236–240 in JSTOR
- Montrose, Louis. The Subject of Elizabeth: Authority, Gender, and Representation. (2006). 341 pp.
- Watkins, John. Representing Elizabeth in Stuart England: Literature, History, Sovereignty (2002) 264pp
- Michael Dobson; Nicola Jane Watson (2002). England's Elizabeth: An Afterlife in Fame and Fantasy. Oxford University Press, USA.
- Woolf, D. R. "Two Elizabeths? James I and the Late Queen's Famous Memory," Canadian Journal of History, Aug 1985, Vol. 20 Issue 2, pp 167–91
- Media related to at Wikimedia Commons
- Archival material relating to Elizabeth I of England listed at the UK National Archives
- Works by or about Elizabeth I of England in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- Portraits of Queen Elizabeth I at the National Portrait Gallery, London
Elizabeth I of EnglandBorn: 7 September 1533 Died: 24 March 1603
Mary I and Philip
Queen of England and Ireland