July 22, 1849|
New York City, New York
November 19, 1887
New York City, New York
|Notable works||The New Colossus|
Emma Lazarus (July 22, 1849 – November 19, 1887) was an American poet born in New York City.
She is best known for "The New Colossus", a sonnet written in 1883; its lines appear inscribed on a bronze plaque in the pedestal of the Statue of Liberty installed in 1903, a decade and a half after Lazarus's death.
- Background 1
- Works 2
- References 3
- Further reading 4
- External links 5
Lazarus was born into a large Sephardic Jewish family, the fourth of seven children of Moses Lazarus and Esther Nathan, The Lazarus family was originally from Portugal and had settled in New York long before the American Revolution. Lazarus's great-great grandmother on her mother's side, Grace Seixas Nathan (born in New York in 1752) was also a poet. Lazarus was also related through her mother to Benjamin N. Cardozo, Associate Justice of the US Supreme Court.
She was also an early admirer of Single Tax movement for a number of years.
Lazarus wrote her own important poems and edited many adaptations of German poems, notably those of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Heinrich Heine. She also wrote a novel and two plays in five acts, The Spagnoletto, a tragic verse drama about the titular figure and The Dance to Death, a dramatization of a German short story about the burning of Jews in Nordhausen during the Black Death.
Lazarus began to be more interested in her Jewish ancestry after reading the Daniel Deronda, and as she heard of the Russian pogroms that followed the assassination of Tsar Alexander II in 1881. As a result of this anti-Semitic violence, thousands of destitute Ashkenazi Jews emigrated from the Russian Pale of Settlement to New York, leading Lazarus to write articles on the subject as well as the book Songs of a Semite (1882). Lazarus began at this point to advocate on behalf of indigent Jewish refugees. She helped establish the Hebrew Technical Institute in New York to provide vocational training to assist destitute Jewish immigrants to become self-supporting.
She is best known for "The New Colossus", a sonnet written in 1883; its lines appear on a bronze plaque in the pedestal of the Statue of Liberty placed in 1903. The sonnet was written for and donated to an auction, conducted by the "Art Loan Fund Exhibition in Aid of the Bartholdi Pedestal Fund for the Statue of Liberty" to raise funds to build the pedestal. Lazarus' close friend Rose Hawthorne Lathrop was inspired by "The New Colossus" to found the Dominican Sisters of Hawthorne. Lazarus is also known for her sixteen part cycle poem "Epochs".
She traveled twice to Europe, first in 1883 and again from 1885 to 1887. On one of those trips, Edward Burne-Jones, introduced her to William Morris at her home the Grange. She returned to New York City seriously ill after her second trip and died two months later on November 19, 1887, most likely from Hodgkin's lymphoma.
She is an important forerunner of the Zionist movement. She argued for the creation of a Jewish homeland thirteen years before Theodor Herzl began to use the term Zionism. Lazarus is buried in Beth-Olom Cemetery in Brooklyn.
Emma Lazarus was honored by the Office of the Manhattan Borough President in March 2008 and her home on West 10th Street was included in a map of Women's Rights Historic Sites. The Museum of Jewish Heritage featured an exhibition about Emma Lazarus in 2012.
- Lazarus, Emma (1888). The Poems of Emma Lazarus.
- "In the Jewish Synagogue at Newport"
- Watts, Emily Stipes. The Poetry of American Women from 1632 to 1945. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1977: 123. ISBN 0-292-76450-2
- Young, Bette Roth (1997). Emma Lazarus in Her World: Life and Letters. The Jewish Publication Society. ISBN 0-8276-0618-4. p. 3:
- "Jewish Women's Archive: Emma Lazarus". Retrieved 2008-01-10.
- Schor, Esther. Emma Lazarus. Schocken, 2008.
- "Progress and Poverty".
- The Poems of Emma Lazarus in Two Volumes, kindle ebooks ASIN B0082RVVJ2 & ASIN B0082RDHSA
- Charles Lowe, Henry Wilder Foote, John Hopkins Morison, Henry H. Barber, James De Normandie, Joseph Henry Allen (May 1876). The Unitarian Review 5 https://books.google.com/books?id=rdJJAAAAMAAJ&lpg=PA570&ots=pNK288t6Mx&dq=Richard%20Reinhard%20der%20tanz%20zum%20tode&pg=PA570#v=onepage&q=Richard%20Reinhard%20der%20tanz%20zum%20tode&f=false.
- Young, Bette Roth (1997). Emma Lazarus in Her World: Life and Letters. The Jewish Publication Society. Constance Cary Harrison Lazarus refused initially; convinced by William Maxwell Evarts] p. 45: Solicited by "William Maxwell Evert" [sic; presumably Felder, Deborah G.; Diana L Rosen (2003). Fifty Jewish Women Who Changed the World. Citadel Press.
- "Exhibit highlights connection between Jewish poet, Catholic nun".
- Obituary in Century Magazine The Poems of Emma Lazarus in Two Volumes, kindle ebooks ASIN B0082RVVJ2 & ASIN B0082RDHSA
- Esther Schor, Emma Lazarus (2006)
- Judith Flanders, A Circle of Sisters (2001) page 186.
-  by Briana Simon (WZO Hagshama)
- Cavitch, Max. "Emma Lazarus and the Golem of Liberty," American Literary History 18.1 (2006), 1–28
- Eiselein, Gregory. Emma Lazarus: Selected Poems and Other Writings. USA: Broadview Press, 2002. ISBN 1-55111-285-X.
- Jacob, H. E. The World of Emma Lazarus. New York: Schocken, 1949; New York: Kessing Publishers, 2007, ISBN 1-4325-1416-4.
- Lazarus, Emma. Emma Lazarus: Selected Poems. USA: Library of America, 2005. ISBN 1-931082-77-4.
- Moore, H. S. Liberty's Poet: Emma Lazarus. USA: TurnKey Press, 2004. ISBN 0-9754803-4-0.
- Schor, Esther. Emma Lazurus. New York: Schocken, 2006. ISBN 0-8052-4216-3. Randomhouse.com
- Young, B. R. Emma Lazarus in Her World: Life and Letters. USA: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1997. ISBN 0-8276-0618-4.
- Media related to at Wikimedia Commons
- Quotations related to Emma Lazarus at Wikiquote
- Works written by or about Emma Lazarus at Wikisource
- Jewish Virtual Library: Emma Lazarus
- Jewish Women's Archive: HISTORY MAKERS: Emma Lazarus, 1849–1887
- National Public Radio: Emma Lazarus, Poet of the Huddled Masses
- Works by Emma Lazarus at Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about Emma Lazarus at Internet Archive
- Works by Emma Lazarus at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
- Jewish-American Hall of Fame: Virtual Tour: Emma Lazarus (1849–1887)
- Dr. David P. Stern: Welcome to my World: Emma Lazarus at the Wayback Machine (archived June 16, 2006)
- Emma Lazarus Memorial Near the Statue of Liberty on YouTube
- Papers of Emma Lazarus at the American Jewish Historical Society