First Lady of the United States
First Lady of the
|Inaugural holder||Martha Washington|
|Formation||April 30, 1789|
The First Lady of the United States (FLOTUS) is an unofficial title and position traditionally held by the wife of the president, concurrent with his term of office. Historically, if a president is not married, or if the president's wife is unable to act as First Lady, the president usually asks a female relative or friend to act as White House hostess. The current First Lady is Michelle Obama who, as a result of the re-election of her husband Barack Obama on November 6, 2012, is scheduled to serve until January 20, 2017.
The position of the First Lady is unofficial and carries no official duties. Nonetheless, first ladies have held this highly visible position in U.S. government. The role of the First Lady has evolved over the centuries. She is, first and foremost, the hostess of the White House. She organizes and attends official ceremonies and functions of state either along with, or in place of, the president.
The current First Lady is George W. Bush.
Origins of the title
The use of the title 
Dolley Madison was reportedly referred to as "First Lady" in 1849 at her funeral in a eulogy delivered by President Zachary Taylor; however, no written record of this eulogy exists, nor did any of the newspapers of her day refer to her by that title. Sometime after 1849, the title began being used in Washington, D.C., social circles. One of the earliest known written examples comes from the November 3, 1863, diary entry of William Howard Russell, in which he referred to gossip about "the First Lady in the Land," referring to Mary Todd Lincoln. The title first gained nationwide recognition in 1877, when newspaper journalist Mary C. Ames referred to Lucy Webb Hayes as "the First Lady of the Land" while reporting on the inauguration of Rutherford B. Hayes. The frequent reporting on Lucy Hayes' activities helped spread use of the title outside Washington. A popular 1911 comedic play about Dolley Madison by playwright Charles Nirdlinger, titled The First Lady in the Land, popularized the title further. By the 1930s it was in wide use. Use of the title later spread from the United States to other nations.
When Edith Wilson took control of her husband's schedule in 1919 after he had a debilitating stroke, one Republican senator labeled her "the Presidentress who had fulfilled the dream of the suffragettes by changing her title from First Lady to Acting First Man."
Several women who were not presidents' wives have served as First Lady, as when the president was a bachelor or widower, or when the wife of the president was unable to fulfill the duties of the First Lady herself. In these cases, the position has been filled by a female relative or friend of the president, such as Martha Jefferson Randolph during Jefferson's presidency, Emily Donelson and Sarah Yorke Jackson during Jackson's, Mary Elizabeth (Taylor) Bliss during Taylor's, Mary Harrison McKee during Benjamin Harrison's presidency, upon her mother's death, and Harriet Lane during Buchanan's.
Burns identifies four successive main themes of the First Ladyship: as public woman (1900–1929); as political celebrity (1932–1961); as political activist (1964–1977); and as political interloper (1980–2001).
The position of the First Lady is not an elected one and carries no official duties. Nonetheless, first ladies have held a highly visible position in U.S. government. The role of the First Lady has evolved over the centuries. She is, first and foremost, the hostess of the White House. She organizes and attends official ceremonies and functions of state either along with, or in place of, the president.
Both Martha Washington and Abigail Adams gained fame from the Revolutionary War and were treated as if they were "ladies" of the British royal court. Dolley Madison popularized the First Ladyship by engaging in efforts to assist orphans and women, by dressing in elegant fashions and attracting newspaper coverage, and by risking her life to save iconic treasures during the War of 1812. Madison set the standard for the ladyship and her actions were the model for nearly every First Lady until Eleanor Roosevelt in the 1930s. Plagued by a paralytic illness, President Franklin D. Roosevelt was not free to travel around the country, so Mrs. Roosevelt assumed this role. She authored a weekly newspaper column and hosted a radio show. Jacqueline Kennedy led an effort to redecorate and restore the White House while she was First Lady.
Over the course of the 20th century it became increasingly common for first ladies to select specific causes to promote, usually ones that are not politically divisive. It is common for the First Lady to hire a staff to support these activities. Lady Bird Johnson pioneered environmental protection and beautification; Pat Nixon encouraged volunteerism and traveled extensively abroad; Betty Ford supported women's rights; Rosalynn Carter aided those with mental disabilities; Nancy Reagan founded the Just Say No drug awareness campaign; Barbara Bush promoted literacy; Hillary Clinton sought to reform the healthcare system in the U.S.; and Laura Bush supported women's rights groups and encouraged childhood literacy. Michelle Obama has become identified with supporting military families and tackling childhood obesity.
Clinton was elected a U.S. Senator from New York in 2001 and was the Secretary of State in the Obama administration from 2009 to 2013. Many first ladies, including Jacqueline Kennedy, Nancy Reagan, and Michelle Obama have been significant fashion trendsetters. There is a strong tradition against the First Lady holding outside employment while serving as White House hostess. However, some first ladies have exercised a degree of political influence by virtue of being an important adviser to the president. During Hillary Clinton's campaign for election to the U.S. Senate, the couple's daughter, Chelsea, took over much of the First Lady's role.
Office of the First Lady
The Office of the First Lady of the United States is accountable to the First Lady for her to carry out her duties as hostess of the White House, and is also in charge of all social and ceremonial events of the White House. The First Lady has her own staff that includes a chief of staff, press secretary, White House Social Secretary, Chief Floral Designer, etc. The Office of the First Lady is an entity of the White House Office, a branch of the Executive Office of the President. When First Lady Hillary Clinton decided to pursue a run for Senator of New York, she set aside her duties as first lady and moved to Chappaqua, New York to establish state residency. She resumed her duties as First Lady after winning her senatorial campaign  and Hillary Clinton retained her duties as both first lady and U.S. Senator for the seventeen-day overlap before Bill Clinton's term came to an end.
Exhibitions and collections
Established in 1912, the First Ladies Collection has been one of the most popular attractions at the Smithsonian Institution. The original exhibition opened in 1914 and was one of the first at the Smithsonian to prominently feature women. Originally focused largely on fashion, the exhibition now delves deeper into the contributions of first ladies to the presidency and American society. In 2008, "First Ladies at the Smithsonian" opened at the National Museum of American History as part of its reopening year celebration. That exhibition served as a bridge to the museum's expanded exhibition on first ladies' history that opened on November 19, 2011. "The First Ladies" explores the unofficial but important position of first lady and the ways that different women have shaped the role to make their own contributions to the presidential administrations and the nation. The exhibition features 26 dresses and more than 160 other objects, ranging from those of Martha Washington to Michelle Obama, and includes White House china, personal possessions and other objects from the Smithsonian's unique collection of first ladies' materials.
First Ladies of the United States
- For a complete list of the first ladies, see List of First Ladies of the United States
First Lady and fashion
Some first ladies have garnered attention for their dress and style. Jacqueline Kennedy, for instance, became a global fashion icon: her style was copied by commercial manufacturers and imitated by many young women, and she was named to the International Best Dressed List Hall of Fame in 1965. Michelle Obama has also received significant attention for her fashion choices. Style writer Robin Givhan praised Michelle Obama in the Daily Beast, arguing that the First Lady's style has helped to enhance the public image of the office.
- First Ladies: Influence & Image
- First Ladies National Historic Site (Canton, Ohio)
- First Lady – use of the title outside the United States.
- List of current United States first spouses
- List of First Ladies of the United States
- Second Lady of the United States – spouse of the Vice President of the United States
- excerpt and text search
- Curriculum unit based on primary sources.
- Popular essays by scholars.
- Deppisch, Ludwig M. The Health of the First Ladies: Medical Histories from Martha Washington to Michelle Obama (McFarland, 2015). x, 232 pp.
- On media images of Michelle Obama.
- Heavily illustrated.
- excerpt and text search
- By a leading political historian.
- excerpt and text search
- Alphabetical List of First Ladies of the United States – Library of Congress website
- Office of the First Lady – WhiteHouse.gov
- First Lady's Gallery – WhiteHouse.gov
- The National First Ladies' Library
- The First Ladies at the Smithsonian – an online exhibition from the National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution