Foreign relations of Armenia

Foreign relations of Armenia

This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Armenia
See also

Since its independence, La Francophonie. It is also an observer member of the Eurasian Economic Community and the Non-Aligned Movement. Eduard Nalbandyan serves as Minister of Foreign Affairs of Armenia.

Contents

  • Armenian genocide recognition 1
  • Disputes 2
    • Nagorno-Karabakh/Independent Republic 2.1
  • Countries with no diplomatic relations 3
  • Countries with diplomatic relations 4
    • Europe 4.1
    • Asia 4.2
    • Africa, Americas and Oceania 4.3
  • See also 5
  • References 6
    • Footnotes 6.1
  • External links 7

Armenian genocide recognition

Political map showing states which have officially recognized the Armenian Genocide.

Parliaments of countries that recognize the Armenian genocide include Argentina, Armenia, Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Cyprus, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Lebanon, Lithuania, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden,[2] Switzerland, Uruguay, Vatican City and Venezuela; additionally, some regional governments of countries recognize the Armenian genocide too, such as Barack Obama has expressed his desire to recognize the Armenian Genocide during the electoral campaigns, but after being elected, has not used the word genocide in his first annual 24 April speech in 2009 and ever since.

Disputes

Nagorno-Karabakh/Independent Republic

Armenia supports ethnic Armenians in the Nagorno–Karabakh republic in the longstanding and very bitter conflict against the Azerbaijani government.

The current conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh (NK) began in 1988 when Armenian demonstrations against Azerbaijani rule broke out in Nagorno–Karabakh and later in Armenia and the Nagorno-Karabakh Supreme Soviet voted to secede from Azerbaijan and join Armenia. Soon, violence broke out against ethnic Armenians in Azerbaijan and ethnic Azeris in Armenia. In 1990, after violent episodes in Nagorno–Karabakh and Azerbaijani cities like Baku, Sumgait and Kirovabad, Moscow declared a state of emergency in Karabakh, sent troops to the region, and forcibly occupied Baku, killing over a hundred civilians. In April 1991, Azerbaijani militia and Soviet forces targeted Armenian populations in Karabakh, known as Operation Ring. Moscow also deployed troops to Yerevan. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, conflict escalated into a full-scale war between the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, supported, by Armenia, and Azerbaijan. Military action was influenced by the Russian military, which inspired and manipulated the rivalry between the two neighbouring sides in order to keep both under control.

More than 30,000 people were killed in the fighting from 1988 to 1994. In May 1992, ethnic Armenian forces seized Shusha and Lachin (thereby linking Nagorno-Karabakh to Armenia). By October 1993, ethnic Armenian forces succeeded in taking almost all of former NKAO, Lachin and large areas in southwestern Azerbaijan. In 1993, the UN Security Council adopted four resolutions calling for the cessation of hostilities, unimpeded access for international humanitarian relief efforts, and the eventual deployment of a peacekeeping force in the region. Fighting continued, however, until May 1994 when Russia brokered a cease-fire, between the three sides.

Negotiations to resolve the conflict peacefully have been ongoing since 1992 under the aegis of the Minsk Group of the sniper-fire and landmine incidents continue to claim over 100 lives each year.

Since 1997, the Minsk Group co-chairs have presented three proposals to serve as a framework for resolving the conflict. One side or the other rejected each of those proposals. Beginning in 1999, the presidents of Azerbaijan and Armenia initiated a direct dialogue through a series of face-to-face meetings, often facilitated by the Minsk Group Co-Chairs. The OSCE sponsored a round of negotiations between the presidents in Key West, Florida. U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell launched the talks on 3 April 2001, and the negotiations continued with mediation by the U.S., Russia and France until 6 April 2001. The Co-Chairs are continuing to work with the two presidents in the hope of finding a lasting peace.

The two countries are still technically at war. Citizens of the Republic of Armenia, as well as citizens of any other country who are of Armenian descent, are forbidden entry to the Republic of Azerbaijan. If a person's passport shows any evidence of travel to Nagorno–Karabakh, they are forbidden entry to the Republic of Azerbaijan.[4][5]

In 2008, in what became known as the 2008 Mardakert Skirmishes, ethnic Armenia forces and Azerbaijan clashed over Nagorno-Karabakh. The fighting between the sides was brief, with few casualties on either side.[6]

Countries with no diplomatic relations

Armenia does not have diplomatic relations with the following countries:

  • Azerbaijan
  • Hungary (suspended by Armenia since 31 August 2012 due to Ramil Safarov's extradition to Azerbaijan)[7][8]
  • Pakistan (Pakistan does not recognize Armenia)
  • Palestinian Authority (Armenia does not recognize the State of Palestine due to the United States and Israel's suppression)
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Turkey
  • Western Sahara
  • Yemen

Countries with diplomatic relations

Foreign relations of Armenia:
  Diplomatic relations established
  No diplomatic relations established
  Diplomatic relations suspended by Armenia

Armenia has diplomatic relations with 151 sovereign entities (including the Vatican City and

  • Khachatrian, Haroutiun: "Foreign Investments in Armenia: Influence of the Crisis and Other Peculiarities" in the Caucasus Analytical Digest No. 28
International
  • Iskandaryan, Alexander:"NATO and Armenia: A Long Game of Complementarism" in the Caucasus Analytical Digest No. 5
NATO
  • Danish Foreign Ministry: development program with Armenia
Denmark
  • Armenian embassy in London
  • British Foreign and Commonwealth Office about relations with Armenia *British embassy in Yerevan
Czech
  • Chilean Senate: recognition of the Armenian Genocide (in Spanish only)
Chile
  • Armenian embassy in Ottawa
  • Canadian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Trade about relations with Armenian
Canada
  • List of Treaties ruling the relations Argentina and Armenia (Argentine Foreign Ministry, in Spanish)
Argentina

External links

  1. ^ – "Armenian Foreign Policy Between Russia, Iran And U.S." – 29 March 2010 Archived 24 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ Azerbaijan Country Page. NCSJ: Advocates on Behalf of Jews in Russia, Ukraine, the Baltic States & Eurasia. Accessed 23 May 2010.
  5. ^ a b
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  13. ^ a b Established Full Diplomatic Relations of the Republic of Macedonia
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  15. ^ Myanmar establishes diplomatic ties with Armenia
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  34. ^ Bulgarian embassy in Yerevan Archived 25 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine
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  52. ^ British embassy in Yerevan
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  54. ^ Azerbaijan Country Page. NCSJ: Advocates on Behalf of Jews in Russia, Ukraine, the Baltic States & Eurasia. Accessed 23 May 2010. Archived 20 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine
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  60. ^ Armenia, Georgia Agree On Greater Part of Border Lines Archived 31 May 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  61. ^ Indian embassy in Yerevan Archived 27 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  62. ^
  63. ^ a b http://search.naver.com/search.naver?sm=tab_hty.top&where=nexearch&ie=utf8&query=%EB%B6%81%ED%95%9C+%EC%95%84%EB%A5%B4%EB%A9%94%EB%8B%88%EC%95%84+%EC%88%98%EA%B5%90
  64. ^ Armenia To Provide Relief To Lebanon, Armenialiberty.org.
  65. ^ Armenia Sent Humanitarian Assistance To Lebanon, PanArmenian.Net
  66. ^
  67. ^
  68. ^ a b http://www.mofa.go.kr/ENG/countries/europe/countries/20070803/1_24643.jsp?menu=m_30_40
  69. ^ http://www.mofa.go.kr/ENG/press/pressreleases/index.jsp?menu=m_10_20&sp=/webmodule/htsboard/template/read/engreadboard.jsp%3FtypeID=12%26boardid=302%26seqno=310308
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  73. ^ "Turkey and Armenia; Friends and Neighbors, rising hopes of better relations between two historic enemies", The Economist, 27 September 2008, p. 67.
  74. ^
  75. ^ ArmenianDiaspora website Archived 4 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  76. ^ http://www.mofa.gov.vn/en/cn_vakv/euro/nr040819105821/ns070924160837 Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Vietnam
  77. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Armenia
  78. ^ Embassy of Armenia in Ottawa
  79. ^ Embassy of Canada in Moscow (in English, French and Russia)
  80. ^ . Fuente Diario Armenia
  81. ^
  82. ^ http://www.senado.cl/prontus_senado/antialone.html?page=http://www.senado.cl/prontus_senado/artic/20070914/pags/20070914115407.html
  83. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Armenia
  84. ^ Ministry of foreign Affairs of Armenia
  85. ^ a b c
  86. ^ Embassy of Armenia in Mexico City
  87. ^ Embassy of Mexico in Moscow, Russia (in Russian and Spanish)
  88. ^
  89. ^ Ministry of foreign Affairs of Armenia
  90. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Armenia
  91. ^ a b Department of International Relation and Cooperation of South Africa
  92. ^ Embassy of Armenia in Washington, DC
  93. ^ Embassy of the United States in Yerevan (in Armenia and English)
  94. ^ Uruguayan Ministry of Foreign Relations: directions of the representation of Armenia in Uruguay Archived 21 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  95. ^ Uruguayan Ministry of Foreign Relations: directions of the representation of Uruguay in Armenia

Footnotes

References

See also

Country Formal relations began Notes
Argentina 17 January 1992 See Armenia–Argentina relations
  • Argentina is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Yerevan.
  • Armenia has an embassy in Buenos Aires.
  • Argentine parliament has recognized the Armenian Genocide.
  • List of Treaties ruling the relations Argentina and Armenia (Argentine Foreign Ministry, in Spanish)
Australia See Armenia–Australia relations

The first Armenians migrated to Australia in the 1850s, during the gold rush. The majority came to Australia in the 1960s, starting with the Armenians of Egypt after Nasser came to power then, in the early 1970s, from Cyprus after the Turkish occupation of the island and from 1975 until 1992, a period of civil unrest in Lebanon. Person-to-person governmental links are increasing although they are still modest. In September 2003, The Hon Mr Philip Ruddock MP visited Armenia in his former capacity as Australian Minister for Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs. In October 2005, the Armenian Foreign Minister, H.E. Mr Vardan Oskanyan, visited Australia. In November 2005, The Hon Mr Joe Hockey MP, Minister for Human Services, visited Armenia. The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia refuses to recognise the mass murder of Armenians in 1915 as Genocide, although the State of N.S.W passed a law recognising this several years earlier. The Australian Government elections of 2007 created an atmosphere in which the Opposition Labor party declared it will push for the Recognition of the Armenian Genocide in Australian Parliament if Labor wins the Elections.

Brazil 17 February 1992 See Armenia–Brazil relations
Canada See also Armenia–Canada relations, Embassy of Armenia in Ottawa, Armenian Canadian
  • Armenia has an embassy in Ottawa.[78]
  • Canada is accredited to Armenia from its embassy in Moscow, Russia and an honorary consulate in Yerevan.[79]
  • In 2004, the parliament of Canada recognized the Armenian Genocide.
  • Canadian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Trade about relations with Armenian
Chile 1992 See Armenia–Chile relations
  • Armenia is represented in Chile through its embassy in Buenos Aires (Argentina), and honorary consulate in Santiago.
  • Chile is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Moscow (Russia).
  • There are around 1,600 people of Armenian descent living in Chile.

Chile recognized the Armenian Genocide on 14 September 2007.[80][81][82]

Madagascar 1993 Armenia-Madagascar relations
  • Diplomatic relations between Armenia and Madagascar were established on 25 June 1993.[83]
Mauritius 28 June 2013

Armenia-Mauritius relations

  • Diplomatic relations between were established on 28 June 2013.[84]
Mexico 14 January 1992[85] See Armenia–Mexico relations
  • Armenia has an embassy in Mexico City.[86]
  • Mexico is accredited to Armenia from its embassy in Moscow, Russia.[87]
  • There are approximately 400 Armenians living in Mexico and several thousand Mexicans of Armenian descent.[88]
  • See also: Armenians in Mexico
Peru 20 April 1992[85] See Armenia–Peru relations
  • Peru recognized Armenia on 26 December 1991.
  • Peru is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Moscow, Russia.
  • There are around 50 people of Armenian descent living in Peru.
Seychelles 19 April 2006

Armenia-Seychelles relations

  • Diplomatic relations between were established on 19 April 2006.[89]
South Africa 1993 Armenia-South Africa relations
  • Diplomatic relations between Armenia and South Africa were established on 23 June 1993.[90]
  • Armenia is represented in South Africa through its embassy in Cairo, Egypt.[91]
  • South Africa is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Kiev, Ukraine.[91]
United States See Armenia–United States relations

The dissolution of the Soviet Union in December 1991 brought an end to the Cold War and created the opportunity for bilateral relations with the New Independent States (NIS) as they began a political and economic transformation. The U.S. recognized the independence of Armenia on 25 December 1991, and opened an embassy in Yerevan in February 1992.

  • Armenia has an embassy in Washington, DC and a consulate-general in Los Angeles.[92]
  • United States has an embassy in Yerevan.[93]
  • See also: Armenian American
Uruguay 1992 See Armenia–Uruguay relations
  • Armenia is represented in Uruguay through its embassy in Buenos Aires (Argentina) and an honorary consulate in Montevideo.[94]
  • Uruguay is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Moscow (Russia) and through a consulate in Yerevan.[95]
  • There are around 20,000 people of Armenian descent living in Uruguay.
  • Uruguay was the first country to recognize the Armenian Genocide on 20 April 1965.
Venezuela 30 October 1993[85] See Armenia–Venezuela relations
  • Armenia has an honorary consulate in Caracas
  • Venezuela is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Moscow, Russia.
  • There are around 4.000 people of Armenian descent living in Venezuela.
  • Venezuelian parliament has recognized the Armenian Genocide.

Africa, Americas and Oceania

Country Formal relations began Notes
Azerbaijan No diplomatic relations See Armenia–Azerbaijan relations, Nagorno-Karabakh War, Sumgait pogrom, Baku pogrom, Khojaly massacre, Maraga massacre, Khachkar destruction in Nakhichevan

The two nations have fought two wars in 1918–20 (Armenian–Azerbaijani War) and in 1988–94 (Nagorno-Karabakh War), in the past century, with last one ended with provisional cease fire agreement signed in Bishkek. There are no formal diplomatic relations between the two countries, because of the ongoing Nagorno-Karabakh conflict and dispute.

During the Soviet period, many Armenians and Azeris lived in relative peace under the Soviet iron fist. However, when Mikhail Gorbachev introduced the policies of Glasnost and Perestroika, the majority of Armenians from the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast (NKAO) of the Azerbaijan SSR began a movement to unify with the Armenian SSR. In 1988, the Armenians of Karabakh voted to secede and join Armenia. This, along with sporadic massacres in Azerbaijan against Armenians resulted in the conflict that became known as the Nagorno-Karabakh War. The violence resulted in de facto Armenian control of former NKAO and seven surrounding Azerbaijani regions which was effectively halted when the three sides agreed to observe a cease-fire which has been in effect since May 1994, and in late 1995 the sides also agreed to mediation of the OSCE Minsk Group. The Minsk Group is co-chaired by the U.S., France and Russia, and comprises Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkey and several Western European nations. Despite the cease fire, up to 40 clashes are reported along the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict lines of control each year.

The sides are still technically at war. Citizens of the Republic of Armenia, as well as citizens of any other country who are of Armenian descent, are forbidden entry to the Republic of Azerbaijan.[5] If a person's passport shows any evidence of travel to Nagorno-Karabakh, they are forbidden to enter the Republic of Azerbaijan.[54]

In 2008, in what became known as the 2008 Mardakert Skirmishes, Armenia and Azerbaijan clashed over Nagorno-Karabakh. The fighting between the three sides was brief, with few casualties on either side.[6]

Bhutan 27 September 2012 See Armenia–Bhutan relations
China 6 April 1992 See Armenia–China relations
  • China recognized Armenia on 21 December 1991.
  • Armenia has an embassy in Beijing.
  • China has an embassy in Yerevan.[55]
  • Since the establishment of diplomatic relations, cultural exchange has been a major component of bilateral relations, as both nations recognize the importance of creating a strong foundation based upon their ancient and rich histories.[56]
Cyprus 18 March 1992 See Armenia–Cyprus relations
  • Cyprus was the second country to recognise the Armenian Genocide, on 24 April 1975.
  • Armenia is represented in Cyprus through its embassy in Athens (Greece).
  • Cyprus is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Moscow (Russia), and through an honorary consulate in Yerevan.
  • There are over 3.500 people of Armenian descent living in Cyprus.[57]
  • Vahan Ovanesyan of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation visited Cyprus on 24 January 2001 to take part in celebrations of the 110th anniversary of the federation.[58]
  • Cyprus Foreign Ministry: list of bilateral treaties with Armenia
Georgia 17 July 1992 See Armenia–Georgia relations

Armenians and Georgians have a lot in common. Both are ancient Christian civilizations with their own distinct alphabets. Both use the terms "Apostolic" and "Orthodox" in the full titles of their respective churches. They also use the term "Catholicos" to refer to their church patriarchs. Despite all this, however, Armenians and Georgians have tended to have a tenuous relationship (at times, sharing close bonds while at other times regarding each other as rivals).

Today, relations with Georgia are of particular importance for Armenia because, under the economic blockade imposed by Turkey and Azerbaijan due to the ongoing United Javakhk) pushing for autonomy, there has been no violence between Armenians and Georgians in the area.

India 31 August 1992 See Armenia–India relations
  • Since 1999, Armenia has an embassy in New Delhi and two honorary consulates Mumbai, and Chennai.
  • India has an embassy in Yerevan.[61]
  • Indian government is funding the renovation of schools in Lori region.
  • Around 700 Medical students are studying in Armenian universities.
  • Armenia recognizes Kashmir to be part of India and not of Pakistan.
  • Armenia supports India's bid for permanent seat in the UNSC.[62]
Iran See Armenia–Iran relations

Despite religious and ideological differences, relations between Armenia and the Islamic Republic of Iran remain cordial and both Armenia and Iran are strategic partners in the region. Armenia and Iran enjoy cultural and historical ties that go back thousands of years. There are no border disputes between the two countries and the Christian Armenian minority in Iran enjoys official recognition. Of special importance is the cooperation in the field of energy security which lowers Armenia's dependence on Russia and can in the future also supply Iranian gas to Europe through Georgia and the Black Sea.

Israel See Armenia–Israel relations

Since independence, Armenia has received support from Israel and today remains one of its major trade partners. While both countries have diplomatic relations, neither maintains an embassy in the other country. Instead, Righteous Among the Nations for risking their lives to save Jews during the Holocaust.

Japan 7 September 1992 See Armenia–Japan relations
  • Armenia has an embassy in Tokyo.
  • Japan has an embassy in Yerevan.
  • Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Armenia
  • Japan–Armenia Friendship Association (日本アルメニア友好協会, Nihon Arumenia Yūkō Kyōkai) (Japanese)
Kazakhstan 27 August 1992 See Armenia–Kazakhstan relations
  • Since 1992 Armenia has an embassy in Almaty.
  • Kazakhstan has an embassy in Yerevan.
  • Kazakh Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Armenia
North Korea 13 February 1992[63] See Foreign relations of North Korea
Kuwait 1994 See Armenia–Kuwait relations
Lebanon See Armenia–Lebanon relations

Armenian-Lebanese relations are very friendly. Lebanon is host to the eighth largest Armenian population in the world and is the only member of the Arab League, much less of the Middle East and the Islamic World that recognizes the Armenian Genocide. During the 2006 Lebanon War, Armenia announced that it would send humanitarian aid to Lebanon. According to the Armenian government, an unspecified amount of medicines, tents and fire-fighting equipment was allocated to Lebanese authorities on 27 July 2006.[64][65]

Malaysia Armenia-Malaysia relations has an the embassy in New Delhi. Malaysia never have close contact with Armenia to maintain the relationships with Turkey.[66]
Pakistan See Armenia–Pakistan relations

Armenia-Pakistan relations are poor owing to disagreements between the two countries. The main issue is the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. Pakistan is a major supporter of Azerbaijan during and after the Nagorno-Karabakh War. Pakistan also does not recognize Armenia despite Armenia recognizing Pakistan. Pakistan does not recognize the Armenian Genocide and maintains that during the war large number of Armenians and Muslims were killed. Armenia also has friendly relations with India, which Pakistan heavily opposes.

Philippines 20 May 1992 See Armenia–Philippines relations
  • The Philippines has a consulate in Yerevan.
  • Armenia has a consulate in Makati.
Sri Lanka 12 February 1992 See Armenia–Sri Lanka relations
  • Armenia is represented in Sri Lanka through the Embassy of Armenia in New Delhi.
  • Sri Lanka is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Moscow (Russia) and an honorary consulate in Yerevan.
Saudi Arabia See Armenia–Saudi Arabia relations

There are no diplomatic relations between Armenia and Saudi Arabia.[67]

South Korea 21 February 1992[68] See Armenia–South Korea relations South Korea–Armenia relations Armenian–South Korean relations South Korean–Armenian relations
Syria See Armenia–Syria relations
  • Armenia has an embassy in Damascus and a consulate general in Aleppo.[70]
  • Since 1997, Syria has an embassy in Yerevan.
  • There are around 150,000 people of Armenian descent living in the Syria. During the Armenian Genocide, the main killing fields of Armenians were located in the Syrian desert of Deir ez-Zor.
  • Armenian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: direction of the Syrian embassy in Yerevan
Turkey No formal diplomatic relations See Armenia–Turkey relations

Turkey was one of the first countries to recognize Armenia's independence in 1991. Despite this, for most of the 20th century and early 21st century, relations remain tense and there are no formal diplomatic relations between the two countries for numerous reasons. Some bones of contention include the unresolved Karabakh conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan (which has resulted in Turkey imposing a blockade on Armenia that is still in effect today), the treatment of Armenians in Turkey, the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline, and the Armenian claim of Turkey's holding of historic Armenian lands (ceded to them in the Treaty of Kars, a treaty which Armenia refuses to recognize to this day since it was signed between the Soviet Union and Turkey, and not between Armenia and Turkey proper). At the forefront of all disputes, however, is the issue surrounding the Armenian Genocide. The killing and deportation of between one and one-and-a-half million Armenians from the Ottoman Empire orchestrated by the Young Turks is a taboo subject in Turkey itself as the Turkish government refuses to acknowledge that a genocide ever happened. However, since Turkey has become a candidate to join the European Union, limited discussion of the event is now taking place in Turkey. Some in the European Parliament have even suggested that one of the provisions for Turkey to join the E.U. should be the full recognition of the event as genocide.

On 5 June 2005, Armenian President Robert Kocharian announced that he was ready to "continue dialogue with Azerbaijan for the settlement of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict and with Turkey on establishing relations without any preconditions."[71] Armenia has also stated that as a legal successor to the Armenian SSR, it is loyal to the Treaty of Kars and all agreements inherited by the former Soviet Armenian government.[72] Yet Turkey continues to lay preconditions on relations, insisting that Armenia abandon its efforts to have the Genocide recognized, which official Yerevan is not willing to do.

In the wake of the

[73]

Turkmenistan 1992 See Armenia–Turkmenistan relations
  • Armenia has an embassy in Ashgabat.
  • Turkmenistan has an embassy in Yerevan.
  • Both countries are full members of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.
  • There are between 32,000 people of Armenian descent living in Turkmenistan.
United Arab Emirates See Armenia–United Arab Emirates relations
  • Armenia has an embassy in Abu Dhabi.[74]
  • The United Arab Emirates is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Tehran (Iran).
  • There are around 3,500 people of Armenian descent living in the United Arab Emirates.[75]
  • Armenian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: presentation of the Emirati ambassador’s credentials to the Armenian Foreign Minister

Armenia-Vietnam relations

Vietnam 1992 Armenia-Vietnam relations
  • Diplomatic relations between Armenia and Vietnam were established on 14 July 1992.[76]
  • Vietnam is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Moscow, Russia.[77]

Asia

Country Formal relations began Notes
Albania 18 February 1993 See Armenia–Albania relations
  • Armenia is represented in Albania through its embassy in Athens, (Greece).
  • Albania is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Athens, (Greece).
Andorra 18 November 2003 See Armenia–Andorra relations
  • Armenia is represented in Andorra through its embassy in Paris, (France).
  • Andorra is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Paris, (France).
Austria 24 January 1992 See Armenia–Austria relations
  • Armenia has an embassy in Vienna.
  • Austria has an honorary consulate in Yerevan.
Belarus 12 June 1993 See Armenia–Belarus relations
  • Armenia has an embassy in Minsk.
  • Belarus has an embassy in Yerevan.
Belgium 10 March 1992 See Armenia–Belgium relations
  • Armenia has an embassy in Brussels.
  • Belgium is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Moscow.
Bosnia and Herzegovina 29 July 1997 See Armenia–Bosnia and Herzegovina relations
  • Bosnia is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Moscow.
Bulgaria 18 January 1992 See Armenia–Bulgaria relations
  • Armenia has an embassy in Sofia.
  • Since 19 December 1999, Bulgaria has an embassy in Yerevan.[34]
  • Both countries are full members of the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation.
  • There are around 30,000 people of Armenian descent living in Bulgaria.
Croatia 8 July 1994 See Armenia–Croatia relations
  • Armenia is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Rome (Italy).
  • Croatia is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Athens (Greece) and honorary consulate in Yerevan.
Czech Republic 30 March 1992 See Armenia–Czech Republic relations
  • Armenia is represented in Czech Republic through its embassy in Prague.
  • The Czech Republic is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Yerevan.
  • There are around 12,000 people of Armenian descent living in the Czech Republic.
Denmark 14 January 1992 See Armenia–Denmark relations
  • Armenia is represented in Denmank through its embassy in Kopenhagen, Denmark.
  • Denmark is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Kiev, Ukraine.
Estonia 23 August 1992

See Armenia–Estonia relations

  • Armenia is represented in Estonia through its embassy in Vilnius (Lithuania) and an honorary consulate in Tallinn.
  • Estonia is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Athens (Greece) and through an honorary consulate in Yerevan.
  • Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Armenia
Finland 25 March 1992

See Armenia–Finland relations

  • Before 1918, both countries were part of the Russian Empire. Finland recognised Armenia on 30 December 1991. Armenia is represented in Finland by a non-resident ambassador (based in Yerevan at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs). Finland is represented in Armenia by a non-resident ambassador (based in Helsinki at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs) and an honorary consulate in Yerevan. Around 1,000 people of Armenian descent live in Finland.
  • Finnish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Armenia
France 24 February 1992 See Armenia–France relations

Franco-Armenian relations have existed since the French and the Armenians established contact in the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia and are close to this day. 2006 was proclaimed the Year of Armenia in France.

Germany Jan 1992 See Armenia–Germany relations
  • Armenia has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Yerevan.
Greece 20 January 1992 See Armenia–Greece relations

Greece was one of the first countries to recognize Armenia's independence on 21 September 1991, and one of those that have officially recognized the Armenian Genocide. Since the independence of Armenia the two countries have been partners within the framework of international organizations (United Nations, OSCE, Council of Europe, BSEC), whilst Greece firmly supports the community programs aimed at further developing relations between the EU and Armenia.

Continuous visits of the highest level have shown that both countries want to continue to improve the levels of friendship and cooperation (Visit by the President of Armenia Levon Ter-Petrossian to Greece in 1996, visit by the President of the Hellenic Republic Costis Stephanopoulos in 1999, visit by the President of Armenia Robert Kocharyan to Greece in 2000 and 2005 and visit by Greek president Karolos Papoulias to Armenia in June 2007).

Greece is, after Russia, the major military partner of Armenia. Armenian officers are trained in Greek military academies, and various technical assistance is supplied by Greece. Since 2003, an Armenian platoon has been deployed in Kosovo as part of KFOR, where they operate as a part of the Greek battalion of KFOR.

Holy See 23 May 1992 See Armenia–Holy See relations
Hungary 26 February 1992

31 Aug 2012

See Armenia–Hungary relations

  • Armenia was represented in Hungary through its embassy in Vienna (Austria).
  • Hungary was represented in Armenia through its embassy in Tbilisi(Georgia) and an honorary consulate in Yerevan.[35]
  • There are around 15,000 people of Armenian descent living in Hungary.
Iceland See Armenia–Iceland relations
Ireland 13 June 1996 See Armenia–Ireland relations
  • Ireland recognized Armenia's independence in December 1991.
  • Armenia is represented in Ireland through its embassy in London and through an honorary consulate in Dublin.[36]
  • Ireland is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Sofia (Bulgaria) and through an honorary consulate in Yerevan.
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe.[37]
Italy 12 May 1993 See Armenia–Italy relations
Latvia 22 August 1992 See Armenia–Latvia relations
  • Armenia is represented in Latvia through its embassy in Vilnius (Lithuania).
  • Latvia is represented in Armenia through a non-resident ambassador based in Riga (at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs) and through an honorary consulate in Yerevan.
  • There are around 5,000 people of Armenian descent living in Latvia.
  • Latvian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Armenia
  • Latvian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: direction if the Latvian representation in Armenia
Liechtenstein 7 May 2008 See Armenia–Liechtenstein relations
Lithuania 21 November 1991 See Armenia–Lithuania relations
  • Armenia has an embassy in Vilnius.
  • Lithuania has an embassy in Yerevan.
  • There are around 2,500 people of Armenian descent living in Lithuania.
  • Lithuanian Ministry of Foreign affairs: list of bilateral treaties with Armenia (in Lithuanian only)
Luxembourg 11 June 1992 See Armenia–Luxembourg relations
  • Armenia is represented in Luxembourg through its embassy in Brussels, (Belgium), and an honorary consulate in Luxembourg.
Macedonia 27 April 1993[13] See Armenia–Macedonia relations
Malta 27 May 1993 See Armenia–Malta relations
  • Armenia is represented in Malta through its embassy in Rome.
  • Malta is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Warsaw and honorary consulate in Yerevan.
Republic of Moldova May 1992 See Armenia–Moldova relations
  • Armenia is represented in Moldova through its embassy in Kiev (Ukraine).
  • Moldova is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Moscow (Russia).
  • There are around 8,000 people of Armenina descent living in Moldova.
  • Armenian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: presentation of the Moldovan ambassador’s credentials to the Armenian Foreign Minister
  • Moldovan Ministry of Foreign Affairs: list of bilateral treaties with Armenia
Monaco Oct 2008 See Armenia–Monaco relations
Montenegro See Armenia–Montenegro relations
Netherlands 30 January 1992 See Armenia–Netherlands relations
  • Armenia has an embassy in The Hague and honorary consulate in Hilversum
  • The Netherlands is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Tbilisi, Georgia. It made plans to open an embassy in Yerevan.
  • There are around 8,000 people of Armenian descent living in the Netherlands.
  • The Netherlands is also one of the countries who has recognized the Armenian genocide.[40]
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe. The Netherlands is a European Union member and Armenia is a candidate.
  • Both countries have the worlds third largest trade of diamonds and second largest trade in between the countries. Both the Netherlands and Armenia have the worlds top share in the diamond industry.
  • Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Armenia (in Dutch only)
Norway 5 June 1992 See Armenia–Norway relations
  • Armenia is represented in Norway through its embassy in Kopenhagen (Denmark)
Poland 26 February 1992 See Armenia–Poland relations
Portugal 25 May 1992 See Armenia–Portugal relations

Armenia is represented in Portugal through its embassy in Rome (Italy). Portugal is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Moscow (Russia).[42]

One of the most notable Armenians who resided in Portugal was Calouste Gulbenkian. He was a wealthy Armenian businessman and philanthropist, who made Lisbon the headquarters for his businesses. He established the international charity, the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation in Lisbon. He also founded the Museu Calouste Gulbenkian in Lisbon.[43][44]

Romania 17 November 1991 See Armenia–Romania relations
  • Armenia has an embassy in Bucharest.[45]
  • Romania has an embassy in Yerevan.[46]
Russia 3 April 1992 See Armenia–Russia relations

Armenia's most notable recent foreign policy success came with 29 August treaty with Russia on friendship, cooperation and mutual assistance, in which Moscow committed itself to the defense of Armenia should it be attacked by a third party. Russia is the key regional security player, and has proved a valuable historical ally for Armenia. Although it appeared as a response to Aliyev's US trip, the treaty had probably long been under development. However, it is clear from the wider context of Armenian foreign policy that—while Yerevan welcomes the Russian security guarantee—the country does not want to rely exclusively on Moscow, nor to become part of a confrontation between Russian and US-led alliances in the Transcaucasus.

San Marino 21 March 2006 See Armenia–San Marino relations
  • Armenia is represented in San Marino through its embassy in Rome (Italy)
Serbia 14 January 1993 See Armenia–Serbia relations
  • Armenia is represented in Serbia through its embassy in Athens (Greece).
  • Serbia is also represented in Armenia through its embassy in Athens.
  • Serbian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Armenia
Slovakia 14 January 1993 See Armenia–Slovakia relations
  • Armenia is represented in Slovakia through its embassy in Prague (Czech Republic).
  • Slovakia is represented in Armenia through a non-resident ambassador based in Bratislava (in the Foreign Ministry).
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe.
  • Between 24–28 February 2008, Slovak Foreign Minister Ján Kubiš made an official visit to Armenia.[47]
Slovenia 27 June 1994 See Armenia–Slovenia relations
Spain 27 January 1992 See Armenia–Spain relations
  • Armenia has an embassy in Madrid[48] and there is an 2 honorary consulates in Valencia and Barcelona.
  • Spain is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Moscow (Russia) and an honorary consulate in Yerevan.
  • Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperations about the relation with Armenia (in Spanish only)
Sweden 10 July 1992 See Armenia–Sweden relations
  • Armenia has an embassy in Stockholm.
  • Sweden opened an embassy in Yerevan 2014. and an honorary consulate in Yerevan.[49]
  • Swedish Ministry of Foreign Affairs: informations about the Swedish ambassador to Armenia
Switzerland 23 December 1991 See Armenia–Switzerland relations
  • The Armenian ambassador to Switzerland and the Swiss ambassador to Armenia (based in Yerevan, Armenia) were both accredited in 2011.
  • The Armenian ambassador to Switzerland is based in Geneva, in the Armenian representation to the United Nations.
  • Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs about relations with Armenia
Ukraine 25 December 1992 See Armenia–Ukraine relations

Armenian-Ukrainian relations have lasted for centuries and today are cordial. Relations between Armenia and Ukraine have deflated since Armenia recognized the illegal referendum in Crimea and its subsequent annexation by Russia, and Ukraine has withdrawn its ambassador to Armenia for consultations. The Ukrainian government has asserted that this is temporary and that diplomatic relations between the two states shall indeed continue.[50]

United Kingdom 20 January 1992 See Armenia–United Kingdom relations
  • The United Kingdom recognised Armenia on 31 December 1991.
  • The first Embassy of the Republic of Armenia in Europe was established in London in October 1992.[51]
  • Since 1995, the United Kingdom has an embassy in Yerevan.[52]
  • The two countries maintain collaborative and friendly relations, however the United Kingdom does not recognize the Armenian Genocide, as it considers that the evidence is not clear enough to respectively consider "the terrible events that afflicted the Ottoman Armenian population at the beginning of the last century" genocide under the 1948 UN convention. The British government states the "massacres were an appalling tragedy" and states that this was the view of the government during that period.[53] Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland consider it to be a genocide, and there is a memorial in Cardiff, Wales.
  • British Foreign and Commonwealth Office about relations with Armenia

Europe

Notes on some of these relations follow:

  • Azerbaijan
  • St. Kitts and Nevis, Dominica, Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados
  • Cape Verde, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Niger, Togo, Central African Republic, São Tomé and Príncipe, South Sudan, Djibouti, Kenya, Somalia, Uganda, Comoros, Mauritius, Lesotho, Botswana
  • Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Yemen
  • Palau, Micronesia, Marshall Islands, Kiribati, Nauru, Cook Islands, Niue, Tonga, Samoa, Vanuatu, Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea
  • Turkey
  • the states with limited recognition.

Armenia has not yet established diplomatic relations with:

[33][32][31][30][29][28][27][26][25][24][23][22][21][20][19][18] Ukraine, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, the United States of America, Uruguay and Vietnam.[17] Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Thailand, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu,[16] Norway, Netherlands, Nigeria, Oman, Order of Malta, Paraguay, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Serbia, Seychelles, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sudan, Swaziland,[15] Malta, Mauritania, Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Montenegro, Myanmar,[14][13] Holy See (Vatican City), Honduras, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, North Korea, South Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lebanon, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Libya, Macedonia,[12]