Glossary of scientific naming
This is a list of terms and symbols used in glossary of scientific names. Note that many of the abbreviations are used with or without a stop.
Naming standards and taxonomic organizations and their codes and taxonomies
- ICTV - International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses
ICSP - International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes
- formerly the ICSB - International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology
- publishes the ICNB - International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria or the "Bacteriological Code"
ICZN - International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature
- publishes ICZN the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature or "ICZN Code"
IBC - International Botanical Congress
publishes ICN the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants
- formerly ICBN or the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (current version the Melbourne Code)
- also publishes ICNCP or the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants
- publishes ICN the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants
synonym a name for a taxon different from the currently accepted name.
- senior synonym, (zoology) the earliest (correctly published) name
- junior synonym, (zoology) any later name
- homotypic synonym (botany)
- heterotypic synonym (botany)
- objective synonym (zoology)
- subjective synonym (zoology)
- pro parte or p. p. - for part,
- Principle of the First Reviser
- Principle of Priority
- taxonomic authority
- binomial authority
- taxon (pl taxa)
- polyphyletic taxon
- monophyletic taxon - a taxon consisting of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, a clade
- parphyletic taxon
- species complex a group of closely related species very similar in appearance, generally constituting a monophyletic taxon
- alliance a group of species or genera that have at sometime been considered provisionally related.
- ichnotaxon (ichnogenus, ichnospecies, etc.) A taxon (genus, species, etc.) only known by its work, e.g. footprints, nests, bite marks.
- ootaxon (oospecies, etc.) A taxon (species, etc.) known from fossil eggs.
- conspecific of the same species, for example of two taxa previously thought to be different species
- congeners items of the same genus
- circumscription the limits of a taxon as laid down by its description
- sensu (Latin "sense") as in sensu stricto (in the strict sense), sensu lato (in a broad sense), etc. See sensu for more variants and details.
- secundum - following, as in "Secundum Smith".
- type species
- type genus
- type specimen
The main ranks are kingdom (regnum), phylum or division (divisio), class (biology), order, family, genus and species. The ranks of section and series are also used in botany for groups within genera, while section is used in zoology for a division of an order. Further levels in the hierarchy can be made by the addition of prefixes such as sub-, super-, infra-, and so on.
Divisions such as "form", "variety", "strain", "breed", "cultivar" and "landrace" are used to describe various sub-specific groups in different fields.
Latin descriptions of names or taxa
Note that in zoology the phrase "conserved name", for example is acceptable.
- nomen nudum (nom. nud.; plural: nomina nuda) – a name published without an accompanying description
- nomen dubium (nom. dub.; plural: nomina dubia) – a name of questionable application
- nomen illegitimum (nom. illeg.; plural: nomina illegitima) – an illegitimate name
- nomen conservandum (nom. cons.; plural: nomina conservanda) – a conserved name
- nomen protectum (nom. prot.; plural: nomina protecta) – a name granted protection
- nomen suppressum (nom. supp.; plural: nomina suppressa) – a name that has been suppressed and cannot be used
- nomen rejiciendum (nom. rej.; plural: nomina rejicienda) – a name that has been rejected and cannot be used
- nomen oblitum (nom. obl.; plural: nomina oblita) – a name which has been overlooked and is no longer valid
- nomen novum (nom. nov.; plural: nomina nova) – a replacement name
- nomen vanum (plural: nomina vana) - a failed emendation
- incertae sedis – of uncertain placement
- ex errore – made in error
Abbreviations and symbols
- var. – variety
- subvar. - subvariety
- sp. (plural spp.) – species
- subsp. (plural subspp.) – subspecies
- f. - forma or form.
- subf. - subforma
- cf. (confer) – indicates approximate placement
- s.s. - sensu stricto
- s.l. - sensu lato