|Motto: "Ever Conscious of God We Aspire, Build and Advance as One People"|
Anthem: Hail Grenada
Royal anthem: God Save the Queen
Map indicating the location of Grenada in the Lesser Antilles.
and largest city
|Ethnic groups (2012)|
|Government||Parliamentary democracy under constitutional monarchy|
|-||Governor General||Cécile La Grenade|
|-||Prime Minister||Keith Mitchell|
|-||Lower house||House of Representatives|
|-||Associated State||March 3, 1967|
|-||Independence from the United Kingdom||February 7, 1974|
|-||Grenadian Revolution||March 13, 1979|
|-||Constitution Restoration||December 4, 1984|
348.5 km2 (203rd)
132.8 sq mi
|-||2012 estimate||109,590 (185th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2012 estimate|
|GDP (nominal)||2012 estimate|
high · 79th
|Currency||East Caribbean dollar (XCD)|
|Drives on the||Right- and left-hand traffic|
|ISO 3166 code||GD|
|a.||Plus trace of Arawak / Carib.|
Grenada () is an island country consisting of the island of Grenada and six smaller islands at the southern end of the Grenadines in the southeastern Caribbean Sea. Grenada is located northwest of Trinidad and Tobago, northeast of Venezuela, and southwest of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.
- French colony (1649–1763) 1.1
- British colony (1763–1974) 1.2
- Toward independence (1950–1974) 1.3
- Independence and revolution (1974–1983) 1.4
Invasion by the United States 1.5
- Coup and execution of Maurice Bishop 1.5.1
- US and allied response and reaction 1.5.2
- Post-invasion arrests 1.5.3
- Grenada since 1983 1.6
- Geography 2
- Parishes 3
- Politics 4
- Economy and tourism 5
- Religion 6.1
- Language 7
- Culture 8
- Olympics 9.1
- Cricket 9.2
- See also 10
- Notes 11
- References 12
- External links 13
French colony (1649–1763)
On March 17, 1649, a French expedition of 203 men from Seven Years' War in 1762.
British colony (1763–1974)
Grenada was formally ceded to Britain by the Treaty of Paris in 1763. The French re-captured the island during the American War of Independence, after Comte d'Estaing won the bloody land and naval Battle of Grenada in July 1779. However the island was restored to Britain with the Treaty of Versailles in 1783. Britain was hard pressed to overcome a pro-French revolt in 1795–1796 led by Julien Fedon.
Nutmeg was introduced to Grenada in 1843 when a merchant ship called in on its way to England from the East Indies. The ship had a small quantity of nutmeg trees on board which they left in Grenada, and this was the beginning of Grenada's nutmeg industry that now supplies nearly forty percent of the world's annual crop.
In 1877, Grenada was made a Crown colony. Theophilus A. Marryshow founded the Representative Government Association (RGA) in 1917 to agitate for a new and participative constitutional dispensation for the Grenadian people. Partly as a result of Marryshow's lobbying, the Wood Commission of 1921–1922 concluded that Grenada was ready for constitutional reform in the form of a 'modified' Crown colony government. This modification granted Grenadians the right to elect 5 of the 15 members of the Legislative Council, on a restricted property franchise enabling the wealthiest 4% of adult Grenadians to vote.
The island has also pioneered the cultivation of organic cocoa which is also processed into finished bars by the Grenada Chocolate Company.
Tourism is concentrated in the southwest of the island, around St. George, Grand Anse, Lance Aux Epines, and Point Salines. Grenada has many idyllic beaches around its coastline including the 3 km (1.9 mi) long Grand Anse Beach in St George which is considered to be one of the finest beaches in the world and often appears in countdowns of the world's top ten beaches.
Flights at the Maurice Bishop International Airport connect with other Caribbean islands, the United States, Canada, and Europe. There is also a daily fast ferry service between St. George and Hillsborough. Beginning in October 2009 new passenger ferry service between Grenada, Barbados, St. Vincent, St. Lucia, and Trinidad provided by Grenada-based BEDY Ocean Line is scheduled to begin. However, as of January 2013, this service has not gone operational.
A majority of Grenadine citizens (82%) are descendants of the African slaves brought by the English and French; few of the indigenous Carib and Arawak population survived the French purge at Sauteurs. A small percentage of descendants of indentured workers from India were brought to Grenada mainly from the North Indian states of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh between May 1, 1857 – January 10, 1885. Today, Grenadians of Indian descent comprise the second largest ethnic group. There is also a small community of French and English descendants. The rest of the population is of mixed descent (13%).
Grenada, like many of the Caribbean islands is subject to a large amount of migration, with a large number of young people wanting to leave the island to seek life elsewhere. With 110,000 people living in Grenada, estimates and census data suggest that there are at least that number of Grenadian-born people in other parts of the Caribbean (such as Barbados and Trinidad) and at least that number again in First World countries. Popular migration points for Grenadians further north include New York City, Toronto, the United Kingdom (in particular, London and Yorkshire; see Grenadians in the UK) and sometimes Montreal, or as far south as Australia. This means that probably around a third of those born in Grenada still live there.
The official language, English, is used in the government, but Grenadian Creole is considered the lingua franca of the island. French Patois (Antillean Creole) is also spoken by about 10%–20% the population. Some Hindi/Bhojpuri terms are still spoken amongst the Indian descendants, mostly those pertaining to the kitchen; such as aloo, geera, karela, seim, chownkay, and baylay. The term bhai, which means 'brother' in Urdu and Hindi, is a common form of greeting amongst Indo-Grenadians males of equal status.
|Rastafari / Spiritist||1.3|
Including a small community of Rastafarians living in Grenada, most of the population belong to Christian churches. About half of the population are Roman Catholic; while the largest Protestant denomination is Anglican, with Presbyterian and Seventh Day Adventist taking up much of the remainder. Most churches have denomination-based schools but are open to all. There are a small Hindu and Muslim populations descended mostly from Gujarati Indian immigrants who came during the colonial period and set up merchant shops.
English is the country's official language, but the main spoken language is either of two English-based creole languages (Grenadian Creole English and Grenadian Creole French) which reflects the Indian, African, and European heritage of the nation. The creoles contain elements from a variety of African languages; Grenadian Creole, however, is also influenced by French.
Although French influence on Grenadian culture is much less visible than on other Caribbean islands, surnames and place names in French remain, and the every day language is laced with French words and the local dialect, or Patois. Stronger French influence is found in the well seasoned spicy food and styles of cooking similar to those found in New Orleans, and some French architecture has survived from the 1700s. Island culture is heavily influenced by the African roots of most of the Grenadians, but Indian and Carib Amerindian influence is also seen with dhal puri, rotis, Indian sweets, cassava and curries in the cuisine.
The "oildown" is considered to be the national dish. The name refers to a dish cooked in coconut milk until all the milk is absorbed, leaving a bit of coconut oil in the bottom of the pot. Early recipes call for a mixture of salted pigtail, pig's feet (trotters), salt beef and chicken, dumplings made from flour, and provision like breadfruit, green banana, yam and potatoes. Callaloo leaves are sometimes used to retain the steam and for extra flavour.
Soca, calypso, and reggae set the mood for Grenada's annual Carnival activities. Over the years rap music became famous among Grenadian youths, and there have been numerous young rappers emerging in the island's underground rap scene. Zouk is also being slowly introduced onto the island. The islanders' African and Carib Amerindian heritage plays an influential role in many aspects of Grenada's culture.
As with other islands from the Caribbean, cricket is the national and most popular sport and is an intrinsic part of Grenadian culture. The Grenada national cricket team forms a part of the Windward Islands cricket team in regional domestic cricket, however it plays as a separate entity in minor regional matches, as well having previously played Twenty20 cricket in the Stanford 20/20.
An important aspect of the Grenadian culture is the tradition of story telling, with folk tales bearing both African and French influences. The character, Anancy, a spider who is a trickster, originated in West Africa and is prevalent on other islands as well. French influence can be seen in La Diablesse, a well-dressed she-devil, and Ligaroo (from Loup Garoux), a werewolf.
Grenada has competed in every Summer Olympics since the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. Kirani James won the first Olympic gold medal for Grenada in the men's 400 meters at the 2012 Summer Olympics.
Cricket is one of the most popular sports of Grenada, with intense inter-island rivalry with its Caribbean neighbours. Devon Smith, West Indies record holder to win the List-A West Indian domestic competition for the second time, was born in a small town of Hermitage. This legendary West Indian batsman is one of the most famous sporting icons in the country.
- Outline of Grenada
- Index of Grenada-related articles
- International rankings of Grenada
- Windward Islands
- Foreign relations of Grenada
- "Government of Grenada Website". Retrieved 2007-11-01.
- "Grenada". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Retrieved 2012-03-19.
- "2014 Human Development Report Summary". United Nations Development Programme. 2014. pp. 21–25. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
- Grenada. A History of its People. Steele, Beverley A. 2003.Macmillan Publishers Limited. ISBN 0-333-93053-3, pp.35–44
- "Grenada Nutmeg - GCNA - Organic Nutmeg Producers, Nutmeg Oil - Nutmeg trees - Nutmeg farming in Grenada". Travelgrenada.com. Retrieved 2012-03-19.
- "From Old Representative System to Crown Colony". Bigdrumnation.org. 2008-07-01. Retrieved 2012-03-19.
- "1951 and Coming of General Elections". BigDrumNation. Retrieved 2012-03-19.
- Anthony Payne, Paul Sutton and Tony Thorndike (1984). "Grenada: Revolution and Invasion".
- Gailey, Phil; Warren Weaver Jr. (March 26, 1983). "Grenada". New York Times. Retrieved 2010-07-11.
- Julie Wolf (1999–2000). "The Invasion of Grenada". PBS: The American Experience (Reagan). Retrieved 2009-09-10.
- Autobiography: Sir Paul Scoon 'Survival for Service' (Macmillan Caribbean, 2003)(pp.135-136)
- "United Nations General Assembly resolution 38/7". United Nations. November 2, 1983.
- "Assembly calls for cessation of "armed intervention" in Grenada". UN Chronicle. 1984.
- Richard Bernstein (October 29, 1983). "U.S. VETOES U.N. RESOLUTION 'DEPLORING' GRENADA INVASION".
- See Maurice Paterson's book, published before this event, called Big Sky Little Bullet
- "Grenada: Bandleader Loses Job in Chinese Anthem Gaffe".
- "BBCCaribbean.com | Grenada goofs: anthem mix up". BBC. 2007-02-05. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- Font size Print E-mail Share 7 Comments By Scott Conroy (2007-02-03). "Taiwan Anthem Played For China Officials". CBS News. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- "Welcome to the OECS". Oecs.org. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- "The 10 Best Beaches in the World". The Daily Telegraph (London).
- "Oil down - National Dish of Grenada". Gov.gd. 2010-03-05. Retrieved 2012-03-19.
- "Other Matches played by Grenada". CricketArchive. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
- "Twenty20 Matches played by Grenada". CricketArchive. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
- Adkin, Mark. 1989. Urgent Fury: The Battle for Grenada: The Truth Behind the Largest U.S. Military Operation Since Vietnam. Trans-Atlantic Publications. ISBN 0-85052-023-1
- Beck, Robert J. 1993. The Grenada Invasion: Politics, Law, and Foreign Policy Decisionmaking. Boulder: Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-8709-4
- Brizan, George 1984. Grenada Island of Conflict: From Amerindians to People's Revolution 1498–1979. London, Zed Books Ltd., publisher; Copyright, George Brizan, 1984.
- Martin, John Angus. 2007. A–Z of Grenada Heritage. Macmillan Caribbean.
- "Grenada Heritage". Grenadaheritage.com. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- Sinclair, Norma. 2003. Grenada: Isle of Spice (Caribbean Guides). Interlink Publishing Group; 3rd edition. ISBN 0-333-96806-9
- Stark, James H. 1897. Stark's Guide-Book and History of Trinidad including Tobago, Grenada, and St. Vincent; also a trip up the Orinoco and a description of the great Venezuelan Pitch Lake. Boston, James H. Stark, publisher; London, Sampson Low, Marston & Company.
- Steele, Beverley A. 2003. Grenada: A History of Its People (Island Histories). MacMillan Caribbean. ISBN 0-333-93053-3
- Official Website of the Government of Grenada
- Chief of State and Cabinet Members
- Grenada entry at The World Factbook
- Grenada at UCB Libraries GovPubs.
- Grenada at DMOZ
- Grenada from the BBC News.
- Presentation Brothers College
- Key Development Forecasts for Grenada from International Futures.