|9.6 million (2007)|
|Latin (Haitian Creole alphabet)|
Official language in
|Regulated by||(Academy of Haitian Creole)Akademi Kreyòl Ayisyen|
Haitian Creole (; Haitian Creole: kreyòl,:1 pronounced: ; French: créole haïtien ; often called simply Creole or Kreyòl) is a French-based creole and is one of Haiti's two official languages, along with French. The word creole is of Latin origin via a Portuguese term that means, "person (especially a servant) raised in one's house". It first referred to Europeans born and raised in overseas colonies, but later was used to refer to the language as well. Haitian Creole is spoken by about 9.6–12 million people worldwide. Haitian Creole is the first language of 90–95% of Haitians. It is a creole language based largely on 18th-century French with influences from Portuguese, Spanish, Taíno, and West African languages. Haitian Creole emerged from contact between French settlers and African slaves during the Atlantic Slave Trade in the French colony of Saint-Domingue (now the Republic of Haiti). As of 2008, Haitians were the largest creole-speaking community in the world.
- History 1
- Origins 2
Orthography and phonology 3
- Haitian orthography debate 3.1
- French-based orthography 3.2
- Grammar 4
- Sample 5.1
- Nouns derived from trademarks 5.2
- Nèg and blan 5.3
- Salutations 6.1
Proverbs and expressions 7
- Proverbs 7.1
- Expressions 7.2
Usage outside of Haiti 8
- United States and Canada 8.1
- Cuba 8.2
- Dominican Republic 8.3
- Translation efforts after the 2010 Haitian earthquake 9
- See also 10
- References 11
- Further reading 12
- External links 13
Haitian Creole developed in the 17th and 18th centuries on the western third of Hispaniola in a setting that mixed native speakers of various Niger–Congo languages with French colonizers. In the early 1940s under President . Félix Morisseau-Leroy was one of the first and most influential authors to write in Haitian Creole. Since the 1980s, many educators, writers, and activists have written literature in Haitian Creole. On 28 October 2004 Haitian newspaper Le Matin first published an entire edition in Haitian Creole in observance of the country's newly instated "Creole Day".:556 Today numerous newspapers, as well as radio and television programs, are produced in Haitian Creole.
There are many theories on the formation of the Haitian Creole language.
John Singler suggests that Creole was probably formed between the time the French colony of Saint-Domingue was founded in 1659 and 1740.:53 It was during this period that the colony moved from tobacco and cotton production to a mostly sugar-based economy, which created a favorable setting for the Creole language to form. At the time of tobacco and cotton production, the Haitian population was made up of colonists, the engagés (employed whites), people of color and slaves in relatively balanced proportions, with roughly equal numbers of people of color and engagés. Singler estimates the economy shifted into sugar production in 1690, and radically reconfigured the early Haitian people as "the big landowners drove out the small ones, while the number of slaves exploded".:53 Prior to this economic shift, engagés were favored over slaves as they were felt to be easier to control. However, the sugar crop required a much larger labor force, and larger numbers of slaves were brought in. As the colored slaves had decreasing contact with native French-speaking whites, the language would have begun to change.:53–57
Singler's research shows that many African slaves in French ownership were from the Niger-Congo territory and particularly from Kwa (Gbe and Akan) and Bantu language-family areas. He also presents documents indicating a large number of these slaves were sent to French colonies. Singler suggests that the number of Bantu speakers decreased while the number of Kwa speakers increased, with Gbe being the most dominant group. The first fifty years of Saint-Domingue's sugar boom coincided with the Gbe predominance in the French Caribbean. During the time Singler places the evolution of the language, the Gbe population was 50% of the imported slave population.:53–57
In contrast to the African languages, a type of Classical French or "Popular French" was used during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in Saint-Domingue. Slaves who were seldom able to communicate with fellow slaves would try to learn French. With the constant importation of slaves, the language gradually became formalized and became a distinct tongue to that of the French. The language was also picked up by the whites and became used by all those born in what is now Haiti.
Although over 90% of the Haitian Creole vocabulary is of French origin, the two languages are mutually unintelligible. This is due to the fact that the two grammars are different. In addition, both Haitian Creole and French have experienced semantic change; words that had a single meaning in the 17th century have changed or have been replaced in both languages. For example, "Ki jan ou rele?" ("What is your name?") corresponds to the French "Comment vous appelez-vous?" Although the average French person would not understand this phrase, every word shown is of French origin: qui "what"; genre "manner"; vous "you", and héler "to call", but the verb héler has been replaced by appeler in 21st century French.
The Fon language, a modern subdivision of the Gbe language, is often used to compare grammatical structure between Haitian Creole and to relexify it with vocabulary from French. The fact that the equivalent of the definite article ("the") also comes after the noun as in Creole, instead of before surely heightens its case, but the usage in modern spoken French is similar. An example of this would be in the following words denoting the noun using a definitive article:
|French||Popular French||Fon||Haitian Creole||English|
|la maison||la maison-là||afe a||kay la||the house|
Note that the là ("there") in Popular French, is added after the noun for emphasis, comparable to the English "that there house".
Orthography and phonology
Haitian Creole has a phonemic orthography with highly regular spelling, except for proper nouns and foreign words. According to the official standardized orthography, Haitian Creole is composed of the following 32 symbols: ⟨a⟩, ⟨an⟩, ⟨b⟩, ⟨ch⟩, ⟨d⟩, ⟨e⟩, ⟨è⟩, ⟨en⟩, ⟨f⟩, ⟨g⟩, ⟨h⟩, ⟨i⟩, ⟨j⟩, ⟨k⟩, ⟨l⟩, ⟨m⟩, ⟨n⟩, ⟨ng⟩, ⟨o⟩, ⟨ò⟩, ⟨on⟩, ⟨ou⟩, ⟨oun⟩, ⟨p⟩, ⟨r⟩, ⟨s⟩, ⟨t⟩, ⟨ui⟩, ⟨v⟩, ⟨w⟩, ⟨y⟩, and ⟨z⟩.:100 The letters ⟨c⟩ and ⟨u⟩ are always associated with another letter (in the multigraphs ⟨ch⟩, ⟨ou⟩, ⟨oun⟩, and ⟨ui⟩). The Haitian Creole alphabet has no ⟨q⟩ or ⟨x⟩; when ⟨x⟩ is used in loanwords and proper nouns, it represents the sounds /ks/, /kz/, or /gz/.:433
- There are no silent letters in Haitian Creole.
All sounds are always spelled the same, except when a vowel carries a grave accent ⟨`⟩ before ⟨n⟩, which makes it an oral vowel instead of a nasal vowel:
- ⟨en⟩ for /ɛ̃/ and ⟨èn⟩ for /ɛn/;
- ⟨on⟩ for /ɔ̃/ and ⟨òn⟩ for /ɔn/; and
- ⟨an⟩ for /ã/ and ⟨àn⟩ for /an/.
- When immediately followed by a vowel in a word, the digraphs denoting the nasal vowels (an, en, on, and sometimes oun) are pronounced as an oral vowel followed by n.
- There is some ambiguity in the pronunciation of the high vowels i and ou when followed in spelling by n: common words such as moun ("person") and machin ("car") end with consonantal /n/, while very few words, mostly adopted from African languages, contain nasalized high vowels as in houngan ("vodou priest").
Haitian orthography debate
The first technical orthography for Haitian Creole was developed in 1940 by H. Ormonde McConnell. It was later revised with the help of Frank Laubach, resulting in the creation of what is known as the McConnell–Laubach orthography.:434
The McConnell–Laubach orthography received substantial criticism from members of the Haitian elite. Haitian scholar Charles Pressoir critiqued the McConnell–Laubach orthography for its lack of codified front-rounded vowels, which are typically used only by francophone elites.:436 Another criticism was of the broad use of the letters ⟨k⟩, ⟨w⟩, and ⟨y⟩, which Pressoir argued looked "too American".:431–432 This criticism of the "American look" of the orthography was shared by many educated Haitians, who also criticized its association with Protestantism.:432 The last of Pressoir's criticisms was that "the use of the circumflex to mark nasalized vowels" treated nasal sounds differently from the way they are represented in French, which he feared would inhibit the learning of French.:431
The creation of the orthography was essentially an articulation of the language ideologies of those involved and brought out political and social tensions between competing groups. A large portion of this tension lay in the ideology held by many that the French language is superior, which led to resentment of the language by some Haitians and an admiration for it from others.:435 This orthographical controversy boiled down to an attempt to unify a conception of Haitian national identity. Where ⟨k⟩ and ⟨w⟩ seemed too Anglo-Saxon and American imperialist, ⟨c⟩ and ⟨ou⟩ to represent those sounds are the heritage of French colonialism.:191
Alongside the official phonetic orthography, in Haiti there is also a French-based orthography (l'orthographe francisée), or rather several variations of this which were present long before the introduction of the current phonetic orthography. There have been arguments against the phonetic writing system of Creole. The main complaint is that it looks nothing like French and so may hinder the learning of French at school. Unlike the phonetic orthography, the French orthography is not standardized: it has no official rules or regulations on spelling, so spelling varies depending on the writer; some use exact French spelling, others adjust the spelling of certain words to represent the Creole accent, and still others drop silent letters at the ends of words since Creole rarely uses the French liaison. The result is that a phrase represented phonetically like "Li ale travay le maten" may be represented many ways using the French orthography.
- Li ale travay le maten = Lui aller travail le matin = Li aller travail le matin
- Koman ou ye? = Comment 'ous yest? = Commen ou yé?
- Pa gen problem = Pas gagne problème = Pa guin problème
- Tout bagay an fòm = Toute bagaye en forme = Toute bagail en fóme
- Pa koun ye a = Pas counne hier à = Pa counne hié à
- Nou ap chache = Nous ap' chercher = Nou ap chácher
- Nou bezwen on doktè tout swit = Nous besoin un docteur toute suite = Nou besouin on docté toute suite
- Kote lopital la? = Côté l'hôpital là?
Haitian Creole grammar is highly analytical: for example, verbs are not inflected for tense or person, and there is no grammatical gender, which means that adjectives and articles are not inflected according to the noun. The primary word order is subject–verb–object as it is in French and English.
Many grammatical features, particularly the pluralization of nouns and indication of possession, are indicated by appending certain markers, like yo, to the main word. There has been a debate going on for some years as to whether these markers are affixes or clitics, and if punctuation such as the hyphen should be used to connect them to the word.:185–192
Although language's vocabulary has many words related to their French-language cognates, its sentence structure is like that of the West African Fon language.
|Haitian Creole||Fon||French (17th c.)||English|
bekann mwen yo
bike my plural
keke che le
bike my plural
There are six pronouns: first, second, and third person, each in both singular, and plural. Some are of French origin, others are not. There is no difference between direct and indirect objects. The short form of Haitian Creole pronouns are used only at the beginning of a sentence or before verbs that begin with a vowel.
|long form||short form:131|
|ou||w||hwɛ̀||tu||you (singular), thou (archaic)|
|l '||him, her, it|
|lui||him, her, it|
- sometimes the French pronoun on ("one", "[generic] you", "[singular] they") is translated to Haitian Creole as ou and other times it is translated as yo
- sometimes ou is written as w and in the sample phrases below, w indicates ou
- in the northern part of Haiti, li is often shortened to i as in Guadeloupe, Martinique and the other Lesser Antilles
- in southern Haiti, the second person plural is zòt
- sometimes the French pronoun on ("one", "[generic] you", "[singular] they") is translated to Haitian Creole as yo and other times it is translated as ou
Plural of nouns
If a noun is definite, it is pluralized by adding yo at the end. If it is indefinite, it has no plural marker, and its plurality is determined by context.
|liv yo||les livres||the books|
|machin yo||les autos||the cars|
|fi yo mete wob||les filles mettent des robes||the girls put on dresses|
Possession is indicated by placing the possessor or possessive pronoun after the item possessed. This is similar to the French construction of chez moi or chez lui which are "my place" and "his place", respectively. In northern Haiti, a or an is placed before the possessive pronoun.
Unlike in English, possession does not indicate definiteness ("my friend" as opposed to "a friend of mine"), and possessive constructions are often followed by a definite article.
|lajan li||son argent||his money|
|fanmi mwen||ma famille||my family|
|fanmi an m|
|kay yo||leur maison||their house|
|leurs maisons||their houses|
|papa ou||ton père||your father|
|chat Pierre a||le chat de Pierre||Pierre's cat|
|chèz Marie a||la chaise de Marie||Marie's chair|
|zanmi papa Jean||l'ami du père de Jean||Jean's father's friend|
|papa vwazen zanmi nou||le père du voisin de notre ami||our friend's neighbor's father|
The language has two indefinite articles, on and yon (pronounced /õ/ and /jõ/) which correspond to French un and une. Yon is derived from the French il y a un ("there is a"). Both are used only with singular nouns, and are placed before the noun:
|on kouto||un couteau||a knife|
|on kravat||une cravate||a necktie|
In Haitian Creole, there are five definite articles,:28 and they are placed after the nouns they modify. The final syllable of the preceding word determines which is used with which nouns.:20 If the last sound is an oral consonant and is preceded by an oral vowel, it becomes la:
|kravat la||la cravate||the tie|
|liv la||le livre||the book|
|lakay la||la maison||the house|
|lamp lan||la lampe||the lamp|
|bank lan||la banque||the bank|
|kouto a||le couteau||the knife|
|peyi a||le pays||the country|
If a word ends in "mi", "mou", "ni", "nou", or a nasal vowel, it becomes an:
|fanmi an||la famille||the family|
|mi an||le mur||the wall|
|chyen an||le chien||the dog|
|pon an||le pont||the bridge|
If the last sound is a nasal consonant, it becomes nan, but may also be lan:
|machin nan||la voiture||the car|
|telefonn nan||le téléphone||the telephone|
|fanm nan||la femme||the woman|
There is a single word sa that corresponds to English "this" and to "that" (and to French ce, ceci, cela, and ça). As in English, it may be used as a demonstrative, except that it is placed after the noun that it qualifies. It is often followed by a or yo (in order to mark number): sa a ("this here" or "that there"):
|jaden sa bèl||ce jardin est beau||this garden is beautiful|
|that garden is beautiful|
As in English, it may also be used as a pronoun, replacing a noun:
|sa se zanmi mwen||c'est mon ami||this is my friend|
|that is my friend|
|sa se chyen frè mwen||c'est le chien de mon frère||this is my brother's dog|
|that is my brother's dog|
Many verbs in Haitian Creole are the same spoken words as the French infinitive, but there is no conjugation in the language; the verbs have one form only, and changes in tense, mood, and aspect are indicated by the use of markers:
|li ale travay nan maten||il va au travail le matin||he goes to work in the morning|
|elle va au travail le matin||she goes to work in the morning|
|li dòmi aswè||il dort le soir||he sleeps in the evening|
|elle dort le soir||she sleeps in the evening|
|li li Bib la||il lit la Bible||he reads the Bible|
|elle lit la Bible||she reads the Bible|
|mwen fè manje||je fais à manger||I make food|
|nou toujou etidye||nous étudions toujours||we always study|
The concept expressed in English by the verb "to be" is expressed in Haitian Creole by three words, se, ye, and sometimes e.
The verb se (pronounced similarly to the English word "say") is used to link a subject with a predicate nominative:
|li se frè mwen||il est mon frère||he is my brother|
|mwen se on doktè||je suis médecin||I'm a doctor|
|je suis docteur|
|sa se on pyebwa mango||c'est un manguier||this is a mango tree|
|that is a mango tree|
|nou se zanmi||nous sommes amis||we are friends|
The subject sa or li can sometimes be omitted with se:
|se on bon ide||c'est une bonne idée||that's a good idea|
|this is a good idea|
|se nouvo chemiz mwen||c'est ma nouvelle chemise||that's my new shirt|
|this is my new shirt|
To express: "I want to be", usually vin ("to become") is used instead of se.
|li pral vin bofrè m||il va devenir mon beaufrère||he will be my brother-in-law|
|li pral vin bofrè mwen|
|mwen vle vin on doktè||je veux devenir docteur||I want to become a doctor|
|sa pral vin on pye mango||ça va devenir un manguier||that will become a mango tree|
|this will become a mango tree|
|nou pral vin zanmi||nous allons devenir amis||we will be friends|
|mwen se Ayisyen||je suis haïtien||I am Haitian|
|Ayisyen mwen ye|
|Koman ou ye?||lit. Comment êtes-vous?||How are you?|
|mwen gen yon zanmi ki malad||j'ai un ami malade||I have a sick friend|
|zanmi mwen malad||mon ami est malade||my friend is sick|
The verb "to have" is genyen, often shortened to gen.
|mwen gen lajan nan bank lan||j'ai de l'argent dans la banque||I have money in the bank|
The verb genyen (or gen) also means "there is" or "there are":
|gen anpil Ayisyen nan Florid||il y a beaucoup d'Haïtiens en Floride||there are many Haitians in Florida|
|gen on moun la||il y a quelqu'un là||there is someone here|
|there is someone there|
|pa gen moun la||il n'y a personne là||there is nobody here|
|there is nobody there|
The Haitian Creole word for "to know" and "to know how" is konnen, which is often shortened to konn.
|Eske ou konnen non li?||Connais-tu son nom?||Do you know his name?|
|Do you know her name?|
|mwen konnen kote li ye||je sais où il est||I know where he is|
|je sais où elle est||I know where she is|
|Mwen konn fè manje||Je sais comment faire à manger||
I know how to cook
(lit. "I know how to make food")
|Eske ou konn ale Ayiti?||As-tu été à Haïti?||
Have you been to Haiti?
(lit. "Do you know to go to Haiti?")
|Li pa konn li franse||Il ne sait pas lire le français||
He cannot read French
(lit. "He doesn't know how to read French")
|Elle ne sait pas lire le français||
She cannot read French
(lit. "She doesn't know how to read French")
Fè means "do" or "make". It has a broad range of meanings, as it is one of the most common verbs used in idiomatic phrases.
|Kòman ou fè pale Kreyòl?||Comment as-tu appris à parler Créole?||How did you learn to speak Haitian Creole?|
|Marie konn fè mayi moulen.||Marie sait faire de la farine de maïs.||Marie knows how to make cornmeal.|
To be able to
The verb kapab (or shortened to ka, kap or kab) means "to be able to (do something)". It refers to both "capability" and "availability":
|mwen ka ale demen||je peux aller demain||I can go tomorrow|
|petèt mwen ka fè sa demen||je peux peut-être faire ça demain||maybe I can do that tomorrow|
|nou ka ale pita||nous pouvons aller plus tard||we can go later|
|mwen pale Kreyòl||je parle Créole||I speak Creole|
|mwen manje||j'ai mangé||I ate|
|ou manje||tu as mangé||you ate|
|li manje||il a mangé||he ate|
|elle a mangé||she ate|
|nou manje||nous avons mangé||we ate|
|yo manje||ils ont mangé||they ate|
|elles ont mangé|
Manje means both "food" and "to eat"; m ap manje bon manje means "I am eating good food".
For other tenses, special "tense marker" words are placed before the verb. The basic ones are:
|te||simple past||from French été ("been")|
|t ap||past progressive||a combination of te and ap, "was doing"|
|ap||present progressive||with ap and a, the pronouns nearly always take the short form (m ap, l ap, n ap, y ap, etc.). From 18th century French être après, progressive form|
|a||future||some limitations on use. From French avoir à ("to have to")|
|pral||near or definite future||translates to "going to". Contraction of French pour aller ("going to")|
|ta||conditional future||a combination of te and a ("will do")|
|mwen te manje||I ate|
|I had eaten|
|ou te manje||you ate|
|you had eaten|
|li te manje||he ate|
|he had eaten|
|she had eaten|
|nou te manje||we ate|
|we had eaten|
|yo te manje||they ate|
|they had eaten|
|mwen t ap manje||I was eating|
|ou t ap manje||you were eating|
|li t ap manje||he was eating|
|she was eating|
|nou t ap manje||we were eating|
|yo t ap manje||they were eating|
|m ap manje||I am eating|
|w ap manje||you are eating|
|l ap manje||he is eating|
|she is eating|
|n ap manje||we are eating|
|y ap manje||they are eating|
For the present progressive, it is customary, though not necessary, to add kounye a ("right now"):
|m ap manje kounye a||I am eating right now|
|y ap manje kounye a||they are eating right now|
Also, ap manje can mean "will eat" depending on the context of the sentence:
|m ap manje apre m priye||I will eat after I pray|
|I am eating after I pray|
|mwen pap di sa||I will not say that|
|I am not saying that|
Near or definite future:
|mwen pral manje||I am going to eat|
|ou pral manje||you are going to eat|
|li pral manje||he is going to eat|
|she is going to eat|
|nou pral manje||we are going to eat|
|yo pral manje||they are going to eat|
|n a wè pi ta||
see you later
(lit. "we will see later")
|mwen te wè zanmi ou yè||I saw your friend yesterday|
|nou te pale lontan||we spoke for a long time|
|lè l te gen uit an . . .||when he was eight years old . . .|
|when she was eight years old . . .|
|m a travay||I will work|
|m pral travay||I'm going to work|
|n a li l demen||we'll read it tomorrow|
|nou pral li l demen||we are going to read it tomorrow|
|mwen t ap mache epi m te wè yon chen||I was walking and I saw a dog|
Recent past markers include fèk and sòt (both mean "just" or "just now" and are often used together):
|mwen fèk sòt antre kay la||I just entered the house|
A verb mood marker is ta, corresponding to English "would" and equivalent to the French conditional tense:
|yo ta renmen jwe||they would like to play|
|mwen ta vini si m te gen yon machin||I would come if I had a car|
|li ta bliye w si ou pa t la||he would forget you if you weren't here|
|she would forget you if you weren't here|
The word pa comes before a verb and any tense markers to negate it:
|Rose pa vle ale||Rose doesn't want to go|
|Rose pa t vle ale||Rose didn't want to go|
Most of the lexicon of Creole is derived from French, with significant changes in pronunciation and morphology; often the French definite article was retained as part of the noun. For example, the French definite article la in la lune ("the moon") was incorporated into the Creole noun for moon: lalin. However, the language also inherited many words of different origins, among them Wolof, Fon, Kongo, English, Spanish, Portuguese, Taino and Arabic.
Being a living language, Haitian Creole creates and borrows new words to describe new or old concepts and realities. Examples of this are fè bak which was borrowed from English and means "to move backwards" (the original word derived from French is rekile from reculer), and also from English, napkin, which is being used as well as tòchon, from the French torchon.
|annanna||/ãnãna/||French: anana (from Taíno: ananas)||pineapple|
|Ayiti||/ajiti/||Taíno: Ayiti, lit. mountainous land||Haiti ("mountainous land")|
|bagay||/baɡaj/||French: bagage, lit. baggage||thing|
|bannann||/bãnãn/||French: banane, lit. banana||banana / plantain|
|Bondye||/bõdje/||French: bon dieu, lit. good god||God|
|chenèt||/ʃenɛt/||French: quénette (French Antilles)||gap between the two front teeth|
|chouk||/ʃõk/||Fula: chuk, lit. to pierce, to poke||poke|
|dekabes||/dekabes/||Spanish: dos cabezas, lit. two heads||two-headed win during dominos|
|diri||/diɣi/||French: du riz, lit. some rice||rice|
|Etazini||/etazini/||French: États-Unis||United States|
|fig||/fiɡ/||French: figue, lit. fig||banana|
|je||/ʒe/||French: yeux, lit. eyes||eye|
|kle||/kle/||French: clé, lit. key||key, wrench|
|kle kola||/kle kola/||French: clé, lit. key||bottle opener|
|kònflèks||/kõnfleks/||English: corn flakes||breakfast cereal|
|kawotchou||/kautʃu/||French: caoutchouc, lit. rubber||tire|
|lakay||/lakaj/||French: la cahutte, lit. the hut||house|
|lalin||/lalin/||French: la lune, lit. the moon||moon|
|li||/li/||French: lui||he, she, him, her, it|
|manbo||/mãbo/||Kongo: mambu or Fon: nanbo||vodou priestess|
|matant||/matãt/||French: ma tante, lit. my aunt||aunt, aged woman|
|moun||/mun/||French: monde, lit. world||people, person|
|mwen||/mwɛ̃/||French: moi, lit. me||I, me, my, myself|
|nimewo||/nimewo/||French: numéro, lit. number||number|
|oungan||/ũɡã/||Fon: houngan||vodou priest|
|piman||/pimã/||French: piment||a very hot pepper|
|pann||/pãn/||French: pendre, lit. to hang||clothesline|
|podyab||/podjab/||French: pauvre diable or Spanish: pobre diablo||poor devil|
|pwa||/pwa/||French: pois, lit. pea||bean|
|tonton||/tõtõ/||French: tonton||uncle, aged man|
|yo||/jo/||Fon: ye||they, them, their; plural marker|
|zonbi||/zõbi/||Kongo: nzumbi||soulless corpse, living dead, ghost|
|zwazo||/zwazo/||French: les oiseaux, lit. the birds||bird|
Nouns derived from trademarks
|Haitian Creole||generic trademark||English|
|kolgat (also pat dantifris)||Colgate||toothpaste|
|jilèt (also razwa)||Gillette||razor|
|pampèz (also kouchèt)||Pampers||diaper, nappy|
Nèg and blan
Despite nèg and blan having similar words in French (nègre, a pejorative to refer to black people, and blanc, meaning white, or white person), the meanings they carry in French do not apply in Haitian Creole. Nèg means "person", regardless of skin color (like "guy" or "dude" in American English). The word blan generally means "foreigner" or "not from Haiti". Thus, a non-black Haitian man would be called nèg, while a black person from Cameroon could be referred to as blan.
There are many other Haitian Creole terms for specific tones of skin including grimo, bren, roz, and mawon. Some Haitians consider such labels as offensive because of their association with color discrimination and the Haitian class system, while others use the terms freely.
|A demen!||See you tomorrow!|
|A pi ta!||See you later!|
|Adye!||Good bye! (permanently)|
|Anchante!||Nice to meet you! (lit. "enchanted!")|
|Bon apre-midi!||Good afternoon!|
|Bònn nui!||Good night!|
|Eskize m!||Excuse me!|
|Kenbe la!||Hang in there! (informal)|
|Ki jan ou rele?||What's your name?|
|Ki non ou?|
|Ki non w?|
|Koman ou rele?|
|Mwen rele . . .||My name is . . .|
|Non m se . . .|
|Ki jan ou ye?||How are you?|
|Ki laj ou?||How old are you? (lit. "What is your age?")|
|Ki laj ou genyen?|
|Koman ou ye?||How are you?|
|Kon si, kon sa||So, so|
|Kontinye konsa!||Keep it up!|
|M ap boule||
I'm managing (informal; lit. "I'm burning")
(common response to sa kap fèt and sak pase)
|M ap kenbe||I'm hanging on (informal)|
|M ap viv||I'm living|
|Men wi||Of course|
|Mwen byen||I'm well|
|Mwen dakò||I agree|
|Mwen gen . . . an||I'm . . . years old|
|Mwen la||I'm so-so (informal; lit. "I'm here")|
|N a wè pi ta!||See you later! (lit. "We will see later!")|
|Orevwa!||Good bye (temporarily)|
|Pa mal||Not bad|
|Pa pi mal||Not so bad|
|Padonne m!||Pardon me!|
|Pòte w byen!||Take care! (lit. "Carry yourself well!")|
|Sa kap fèt?||What's going on? (informal)|
|What's up? (informal)|
|Sak pase?||What's happening? (informal)|
|What's up? (informal)|
|Tout al byen||All is well (lit. "All goes well")|
|Tout bagay anfòm||Everything is fine (lit. "Everything is in form")|
|Tout pa bon||All is not well (lit. "All is not good")|
Proverbs and expressions
Proverbs play a central role in traditional Haitian culture and Haitian Creole speakers make frequent use of them as well as of other metaphors.
|Men anpil, chay pa lou||Strength through unity (lit. "With many hands, the burden is not heavy"; Haitian Creole equivalent of the French on the coat of arms of Haiti, which reads l'union fait la force)|
|Apre bal, tanbou lou||There are consequences to your actions|
|Sak vid pa kanpe||No work gets done on an empty stomach (lit. "An empty bag does not stand up"):60|
|Pitit tig se tig||Like father like son (lit. "The son of a tiger is a tiger")|
|Ak pasyans w ap wè tete pis||Anything is possible (lit. "With patience you will see the breast of the ant")|
|Bay kou bliye, pòte mak sonje||The giver of the blow forgets, the carrier of the scar remembers|
|Mache chèche pa janm dòmi san soupe||You will get what you deserve|
|Bèl dan pa di zanmi||Not all smiles are friendly|
|Bèl antèman pa di paradi||A beautiful funeral does not guarantee heaven|
|Bel fanm pa di bon menaj||A beautiful wife does not guarantee a happy marriage|
|Dan konn mode lang||People who work together sometimes hurt each other (lit. "Teeth are known to bite the tongue")|
|Sa k rive koukouloulou a ka rive kakalanga tou||What happens to the turkey can happen to the rooster too (lit. "What happens to the dumb guy can happen to the smart one too"):75|
|Chak jou pa Dimanch||Your luck will not last forever (lit. "Not every day is Sunday")|
|Fanm pou yon tan, manman pou tout tan||A woman is for a time, a mother is for all time:93|
|Nèg di san fè, Bondye fè san di||Man talks without doing, God does without talking:31|
|Sa Bondye sere pou ou, lavalas pa ka pote l ale||What God has saved for you, nobody can take it away|
|Nèg rich se milat, milat pov se nèg||A rich negro is a mulatto, a poor mulatto is a negro|
|Pale franse pa di lespri||Speaking French does not mean you are smart:114|
|Wòch nan dlo pa konnen doulè wòch nan solèy||The rock in the water does not know the pain of the rock in the sun|
|Ravèt pa janm gen rezon devan poul||Justice will always be on the side of the stronger (lit. "A cockroach in front of a chicken is never correct")|
|Si ou bwè dlo nan vè, respèkte vè a||If you drink water from a glass, respect the glass|
|Si travay te bon bagay, moun rich ta pran l lontan||If work were a good thing, the rich would have grabbed it a long time ago|
|Sèl pa vante tèt li di li sale||Let others praise you (Said to ridicule those who praise themselves)|
|Bouch granmoun santi, sak ladan l se rezon||Wisdom comes from the mouth of old people (lit. "The mouth of the old stinks but what's inside is wisdom")|
|Tout moun se moun||Everyone matters (lit. "Everybody is a person")|
|Se lave men, siye l atè||It was useless work (lit. "Wash your hands and wipe them on the floor")|
|M ap di ou sa kasayòl te di bèf la||Mind your own business|
|Li pale franse||He cannot be trusted, he is a trickster (lit. "He speaks French")|
|Kreyòl pale, Kreyòl konprann||Speak straightforwardly and honestly (lit. "Creole talks, Creole understands"):29|
|Bouche nen ou pou bwè dlo santi||You have to accept a bad situation (lit. "Pinch your nose to drink smelly water"):55|
|Mache sou pinga ou, pou ou pa pile: "Si m te konnen!"||"Be on your guard, so you don't have to say: 'If only I'd known!'":159|
|Tann jis nou tounen pwa tann||To wait forever (lit. "Wait until you become a tender pea" which is a word play on tann, which means both "tender" and "to wait")|
|San pran souf||Without taking a breath; continuously|
|W ap kon joj||Warning or threat of punishment or reprimand (lit. "You will know George")|
|Dis ti piti tankou ou||Dismissing or defying a threat or show of force (lit. "Ten little ones like you couldn't . . .")|
|Lè poul va fè dan||Never (lit. "When hens grow teeth")|
|Piti piti zwazo fè nich li||You will learn (lit. "Little by little the bird makes its nest"):110|
Usage outside of Haiti
United States and Canada
Haitian Creole is used widely among Haitians who have relocated to other countries, particularly the United States and Canada. Some of the larger Creole-speaking populations are found in Montreal, Quebec (where French is the first official language), New York City, Boston, and Central and South Florida (Miami, Fort Lauderdale, and Palm Beach). To reach out to the large Haitian population, government agencies have produced various public service announcements, school-parent communications, and other materials in Haitian Creole. For instance, Miami-Dade County in Florida sends out paper communications in Haitian Creole in addition to English and Spanish. In the Boston area, the Boston subway system and area hospitals and medical offices post announcements in Haitian Creole as well as English. North America's only Creole-language television network is HBN, based in Miami. The area also has more than half a dozen Creole-language AM radio stations.
Haitian language and culture is taught in many colleges in the United States and the Bahamas. York College at the City University of New York features a minor in Haitian Creole. Indiana University has a Creole Institute founded by Albert Valdman where Haitian Creole, among other facets of Haiti, are studied and researched. The University of Kansas, Lawrence has an Institute of Haitian studies, founded by Bryant Freeman. Additionally, the University of Massachusetts Boston, Florida International University, and University of Florida offer seminars and courses annually at their Haitian Creole Summer Institute. Tulane University, Brown University, University of Miami, and Duke University also offer Haitian Creole classes, and Columbia University and NYU offer a course jointly.
Haitian Creole is the second most spoken language in Cuba, where over 300,000 Haitian immigrants speak it. It is recognized as a minority language in Cuba and a considerable number of Cubans speak it fluently. Most of these speakers have never been to Haiti and do not possess Haitian ancestry, but merely learned it in their communities. In addition, there is a Haitian Creole radio station operating in Havana.
As of 2012 the language was also spoken by over 450,000 Haitians who reside in the neighboring Dominican Republic, although the locals do not speak it. However, some estimates suggest that there are over a million speakers due to a huge population of illegal aliens from Haiti.
Translation efforts after the 2010 Haitian earthquake
After the Carnegie Mellon University released data for its own research into the public domain. Microsoft Research and Google Translate implemented alpha version machine translators based on the Carnegie Mellon data.
Several smartphone apps have been released, including learning with flashcards by Byki and two medical dictionaries, one by Educa Vision and a second by Ultralingua, the latter of which includes an audio phrase book and a section on cultural anthropology.
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This course is part of the language exchange program with New York University . . .
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