Labour Party (UK)
|Leader||Jeremy Corbyn MP|
|Deputy Leader||Tom Watson MP|
|General Secretary||Iain McNicol|
|Founded||27 February 1900|
|Headquarters||One Brewer's Green, London|
|Student wing||Labour Students|
|Youth wing||Young Labour|
|Membership (2015)||380,000  [Note 1]|
Socialist International (observer)
|European affiliation||Party of European Socialists|
|European Parliament group||Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats|
|House of Commons||
231 / 650
|House of Lords||
212 / 819
20 / 73
38 / 129
30 / 60
12 / 25
6,885 / 20,565
|Police & Crime Commissioners||
13 / 41
Politics of the United Kingdom
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The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom. Initially growing out of the trade union movement and socialist political parties of the nineteenth century, the Labour Party has been described as a "broad church". Today the party encompasses a diversity of ideological trends, from strongly socialist to more moderately social democratic.
Founded on 27 February 1900, the Labour Party grew to overtake the Liberal Party as the primary challenger to the Conservative Party during the early 1920s, forming minority governments under Ramsay MacDonald in 1924 and then again from 1929 to 1931. Labour later served in the wartime coalition from 1940 to 1945, after which it formed its first majority government under Clement Attlee. Labour was also in government from 1964 to 1970 under Harold Wilson and from 1974 to 1979, first under Wilson and then James Callaghan.
The Labour Party was last in government from 1997 to 2010 under Tony Blair and Gordon Brown, beginning with a landslide majority of 179, reduced to 167 in 2001 and 66 in 2005. Having won 232 seats in the 2015 general election, the party currently forms the Official Opposition in the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Elsewhere, Labour runs a minority government in the Welsh Assembly under Carwyn Jones, is the largest opposition party in the Scottish Parliament and has 20 MEPs in the European Parliament, sitting in the Socialists and Democrats Group. The Labour Party is a full member of the Party of European Socialists and Progressive Alliance, and continues to hold observer status in the Socialist International. Since 12 September 2015, the Leader of the Labour Party has been Jeremy Corbyn MP.
- Founding 1.1
- Labour Representation Committee 1.2
- Early years 1.3
- First Labour government, 1924 1.4
- Second Labour government, 1929–1931 1.5
- 1930s split 1.6
- Wartime coalition, 1940–1945 1.7
- Attlee government, 1945–1951 1.8
- Post-war consensus, 1951–1964 1.9
- Wilson government, 1964–1970 1.10
- Spell in opposition, 1970–1974 1.11
- Majority to minority, 1974–1979 1.12
- "The Wilderness Years", 1979–1997 1.13
- "New Labour" government, 1997–2010 1.14
- Opposition, 2010–present 1.15
- Symbols 2.1
Constitution and structure 3
- Membership 3.1
- Trade union link 3.2
- European and international affiliation 3.3
- Electoral performance 4
- Leaders of the Labour Party since 1906 5.1
- Deputy Leaders of the Labour Party since 1922 5.2
- Leaders in the House of Lords since 1924 5.3
- Labour Prime Ministers 5.4
- Current elected MPs 5.5
- See also 6
- References 7
- Bibliography 8
- Further reading 9
- External links 10
The Labour Party's origins lie in the late 19th century, around which time it became apparent that there was a need for a new political party to represent the interests and needs of the urban proletariat, a demographic which had increased in number and had recently been given Southwark by-election of 1870. In addition, several small socialist groups had formed around this time, with the intention of linking the movement to political policies. Among these were the Independent Labour Party, the intellectual and largely middle-class Fabian Society, the Marxist Social Democratic Federation and the Scottish Labour Party.
In the 
Labour Representation Committee
In 1899, a lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) and labour groups, as well as the Labour Party itself, also proved to be an important turning point in the progression of LGBT issues in the UK. At the 1985 Labour Party conference in Bournemouth, a resolution committing the party to support LGBT equality rights passed for the first time due to block voting support from the National Union of Mineworkers.
Labour improved its performance in 1987, gaining 20 seats and so reducing the Conservative majority from 143 to 102. They were now firmly re-established as the second political party in Britain as the Alliance had once again failed to make a breakthrough with seats. A merger of the SDP and Liberals formed the Liberal Democrats. Following the 1987 election, the National Executive Committee resumed disciplinary action against members of Militant, who remained in the party, leading to further expulsions of their activists and the two MPs who supported the group.
In November 1990 following a contested leadership election, Margaret Thatcher resigned as leader of the Conservative Party and was succeeded as leader and Prime Minister by John Major. Most opinion polls had shown Labour comfortably ahead of the Tories for more than a year before Mrs Thatcher's resignation, with the fall in Tory support blamed largely on her introduction of the unpopular poll tax, combined with the fact that the economy was sliding into recession at the time.
The change of leader in the Tory government saw a turnaround in support for the Tories, who regularly topped the opinion polls throughout 1991 although Labour regained the lead more than once.
The "yo yo" in the opinion polls continued into 1992, though after November 1990 any Labour lead in the polls was rarely sufficient for a majority. Major resisted Kinnock's calls for a general election throughout 1991. Kinnock campaigned on the theme "It's Time for a Change", urging voters to elect a new government after more than a decade of unbroken Conservative rule. However, the Conservatives themselves had undergone a dramatic change in the change of leader from Thatcher to Major, at least in terms of style if not substance. From the outset, it was clearly a well-received change, as Labour's 14-point lead in the November 1990 "Poll of Polls" was replaced by an 8% Tory lead a month later.
The 1992 general election was widely tipped to result in a hung parliament or a narrow Labour majority, but in the event the Conservatives were returned to power, though with a much reduced majority of 21. Despite the increased number of seats and votes, it was still an incredibly disappointing result for supporters of the Labour party. For the first time in over 30 years there was serious doubt among the public and the media as to whether Labour could ever return to government.
Kinnock then resigned as leader and was replaced by John Smith. Smith's leadership once again saw the re-emergence of tension between those on the party's left and those identified as "modernisers", both of whom advocated radical revisions of the party's stance albeit in different ways. At the 1993 conference, Smith successfully changed the party rules and lessened the influence of the trade unions on the selection of candidates to stand for Parliament by introducing a one member, one vote system called "OMOV" — but only barely, after a barnstorming speech by John Prescott which required Smith to compromise on other individual negotiations.
The Black Wednesday economic disaster in September 1992 left the Conservative government's reputation for monetary excellence in tatters, and by the end of that year Labour had a comfortable lead over the Tories in the opinion polls. Although the recession was declared over in April 1993 and a period of strong and sustained economic growth followed, coupled with a relatively swift fall in unemployment, the Labour lead in the opinion polls remained strong. However, Smith died from a heart attack in May 1994.
"New Labour" government, 1997–2010
Tony Blair continued to move the party further to the centre, abandoning the largely symbolic Clause Four at the 1995 mini-conference in a strategy to increase the party's appeal to "middle England". More than a simple re-branding, however, the project would draw upon the Third Way strategy, informed by the thoughts of the British sociologist Anthony Giddens.
"New Labour" was first termed as an alternative branding for the Labour Party, dating from a conference slogan first used by the Labour Party in 1994, which was later seen in a draft manifesto published by the party in 1996, called New Labour, New Life For Britain. It was a continuation of the trend that had begun under the leadership of Neil Kinnock. "New Labour" as a name has no official status, but remains in common use to distinguish modernisers from those holding to more traditional positions, normally referred to as "Old Labour".
New Labour is a party of ideas and ideals but not of outdated ideology. What counts is what works. The objectives are radical. The means will be modern.
The Labour Party won the 1997 general election with a landslide majority of 179; it was the largest Labour majority ever, and the largest swing to a political party achieved since 
Among the early acts of Blair's government were the establishment of the national minimum wage, the devolution of power to Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, major changes to the regulation of the banking system, and the re-creation of a city-wide government body for London, the Greater London Authority, with its own elected-Mayor.
Combined with a Conservative opposition that had yet to organise effectively under William Hague, and the continuing popularity of Blair, Labour went on to win the 2001 election with a similar majority, dubbed the "quiet landslide" by the media. In 2003 Labour introduced tax credits, government top-ups to the pay of low-wage workers.
A perceived turning point was when Blair controversially allied himself with US President Iraq War, which caused him to lose much of his political support. The UN Secretary-General, among many, considered the war illegal. The Iraq War was deeply unpopular in most western countries, with Western governments divided in their support and under pressure from worldwide popular protests. The decisions that led up to the Iraq war and its subsequent conduct are currently the subject of Sir John Chilcot's Iraq Inquiry.
In the 2005 general election, Labour was re-elected for a third term, but with a reduced majority of 66.
Blair announced in September 2006 that he would quit as leader within the year, though he had been under pressure to quit earlier than May 2007 in order to get a new leader in place before the May elections which were expected to be disastrous for Labour. In the event, the party did lose power in Scotland to a minority Scottish National Party government at the 2007 elections and, shortly after this, Blair resigned as Prime Minister and was replaced by his Chancellor, Gordon Brown. Although the party experienced a brief rise in the polls after this, its popularity soon slumped to its lowest level since the days of Michael Foot. During May 2008, Labour suffered heavy defeats in the London mayoral election, local elections and the loss in the Crewe and Nantwich by-election, culminating in the party registering its worst ever opinion poll result since records began in 1943, of 23%, with many citing Brown's leadership as a key factor. Membership of the party also reached a low ebb, falling to 156,205 by the end of 2009: over 40 per cent of the 405,000 peak reached in 1997 and thought to be the lowest total since the party was founded.
Finance proved a major problem for the Labour Party during this period; a "
In the 2010 general election on 6 May that year, Labour with 29.0% of the vote won the second largest number of seats (258). The Conservatives with 36.5% of the vote won the largest number of seats (307), but no party had an overall majority, meaning that Labour could still remain in power if they managed to form a coalition with at least one smaller party. However, the Labour Party would have had to form a coalition with more than one other smaller party to gain an overall majority; anything less would result in a minority government. On 10 May 2010, after talks to form a coalition with the Liberal Democrats broke down, Brown announced his intention to stand down as Leader before the Labour Party Conference but a day later resigned as both Prime Minister and party leader.
Harriet Harman became the Leader of the Opposition and acting Leader of the Labour Party following the resignation of Gordon Brown on 11 May 2010, pending a leadership election subsequently won by Ed Miliband. Miliband emphasised "responsible capitalism" and greater state intervention to change the balance of the UK economy away from financial services. Tackling vested interests and opening up closed circles in British society were also themes he returned to a number of times. Miliband also argued for greater regulation on banks and the energy companies.
The party's performance held up in local elections in 2012 with Labour consolidating its position in the North and Midlands, while also regaining some ground in Southern England. The party took overall control of several high profile English councils including Birmingham, Southampton, Plymouth, Norwich and Carlisle. In Wales the party enjoyed good successes, regaining control of most Welsh Councils lost in 2008 including the cities of Cardiff and Swansea. In Scotland, Labour's held overall control of Glasgow City Council despite some predictions to the contrary, and also enjoyed a +3.26 swing across Scotland. In London, results were mixed for the party; Ken Livingstone lost the election for Mayor of London, but the party gained its highest ever representation in the Greater London Authority in the concurrent assembly election.
On 1 March 2014, at a special conference the party reformed internal Labour election procedures, including replacing the electoral college system for selecting new leaders with a "one member, one vote" system following the recommendation of a review by former general-secretary Ray Collins. Mass membership would be encouraged by allowing "registered supporters" to join at a low cost, as well as full membership. Members from the trade unions would also have to explicitly "opt in" rather than "opt out" of paying a political levy to Labour.
The party edged out the Conservatives in the May 2014 European parliamentary elections winning 20 seats versus the Conservatives 19. However the UK Independence Party won 24 seats. Labour also won a majority of seats in the local council elections of 2014, gaining 324 more councillors than they had before the election.
In September 2014, Shadow Chancellor Ed Balls outlined his plans to cut the government's current account deficit, and the party carried these plans into the 2015 general election. Whereas Conservatives campaigned for a surplus on all government spending, including investment, by 2018/19, Labour stated it would balance the budget, excluding investment, by 2020.
The 2015 General Election resulted in a net loss of 48 seats throughout Great Britain, with Labour representation falling to 232 seats in the House of Commons. 40 of those losses were in Scotland where the party was reduced to a single seat in the face of massive swings to the Scottish National Party. The scale of the decline in Labour's support was much greater than what had occurred at the 2011 elections for the Scottish parliament. Though Labour gained more than 20 seats in England and Wales, mostly from the Liberal Democrats but also from the Conservative Party, it lost more seats to Conservative challengers, including that of Ed Balls, for net losses overall.
The day after the 7 May 2015 election, Miliband resigned as party leader. Harriet Harman again took charge as interim leader. On 12 September 2015, Jeremy Corbyn was announced as the new party leader as result of the 2015 Labour leadership election.
The Labour Party is considered to be left of centre. It was initially formed as a means for the trade union movement to establish political representation for itself at Westminster. It only gained a 'socialist' commitment with the original party constitution of 1918. That 'socialist' element, the original Clause IV, was seen by its strongest advocates as a straightforward commitment to the "common ownership", or nationalisation, of the "means of production, distribution and exchange". Although about a third of British industry was taken into public ownership after the Second World War, and remained so until the 1980s, the right of the party were questioning the validity of expanding on this objective by the late 1950s. Influenced by Anthony Crosland's book, The Future of Socialism (1956), the circle around party leader Hugh Gaitskell felt that the commitment was no longer necessary. While an attempt to remove Clause IV from the party constitution in 1959 failed, Tony Blair, and the 'modernisers' saw the issue as putting off potential voters, and were successful thirty-five years later, with only limited opposition from senior figures in the party.
Party electoral manifestos have not contained the term socialism since 1992. The new version of Clause IV, though affirming a commitment to democratic socialism, no longer mentions the public ownership of industry: in its place it advocates "the enterprise of the market and the rigour of competition" with "high quality public services" not necessarily themselves in the public sector.
Historically, influenced by Keynesian economics, the party favoured government intervention in the economy, and the redistribution of wealth. Taxation was seen as a means to achieve a "major redistribution of wealth and income" in the October 1974 election manifesto. The party also desired increased rights for workers, and a welfare state including publicly funded healthcare.
From the late-1980s onwards, the party adopted free market policies, leading many observers to describe the Labour Party as social democratic or the Third Way, rather than democratic socialist. Other commentators go further and argue that traditional social democratic parties across Europe, including the British Labour Party, have been so deeply transformed in recent years that it is no longer possible to describe them ideologically as 'social democratic', and claim that this ideological shift has put new strains on the party's traditional relationship with the trade unions.
Historically within the party, differentiation was made between the "
Labour has long been identified with red, a political colour traditionally affiliated with socialism and the labour movement. The party conference in 1931 passed a motion "That this conference adopts Party Colours, which should be uniform throughout the country, colours to be red and gold". Since the party's inception, the red flag has been Labour's official symbol; the flag has been associated with socialism and revolution ever since the 1789 French Revolution and the revolutions of 1848. The red rose, a symbol of social democracy, was adopted as the party symbol in 1986 as part of a rebranding exercise and is now incorporated into the party logo.
The red flag became an inspiration which resulted in the composition of "The Red Flag", the official party anthem since its inception, being sung at the end of party conferences and on various occasions such as in parliament on February 2006 to mark the centenary of the Labour Party’s founding. During New Labour attempts were made to play down the role of the song, however it still remains to be used.
Constitution and structure
The Labour Party is a membership organisation consisting of Constituency Labour Parties, affiliated trade unions, socialist societies and the Co-operative Party, with which it has an electoral agreement. Members who are elected to parliamentary positions take part in the Parliamentary Labour Party (PLP) and European Parliamentary Labour Party (EPLP).
The party's decision-making bodies on a national level formally include the National Executive Committee (NEC), Labour Party Conference and National Policy Forum (NPF)—although in practice the Parliamentary leadership has the final say on policy. The 2008 Labour Party Conference was the first at which affiliated trade unions and Constituency Labour Parties did not have the right to submit motions on contemporary issues that would previously have been debated. Labour Party conferences now include more "keynote" addresses, guest speakers and question-and-answer sessions, while specific discussion of policy now takes place in the National Policy Forum.
The Labour Party is an
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- Lavelle, Ashley (2008). The Death of Social Democracy, Political Consequences for the 21st Century. Ashgate.
- Daniels & McIlroy (Eds) (2009) Trade Unions in a Neoliberal World; British Trade Unions Under New Labour. Routledge
- McIlRoy (2011) Britain; How neoliberalism cut unions down to size. IN Gall, Wilkinson, Hurd (eds) The International Handbook of Labour Unions; Responses to Neoliberalism Pp 82 – 104
- Paul Smith and Gary Morton (2006) Nine years of New Labour; Neoliberalism and Worker's Rights, British Journal of Industrial Relations 44(3) Pp401-420
- Paul Smith (2009) New Labour and the commonsense of neoliberalism: trade unionism, collective bargaining and workers' rights. Industrial Relations Journal vol 40(4) Pp 337 – 355
- Crines, Andrew Scott (2011). Michael Foot and the Labour leadership. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars. p. 161.
- "What’s left of the Labour left?". Total Politics. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- Julian Petley (2005). "Hit and Myth". In James Curran, Julian Petley, and Ivor Gaber. Culture wars: the media and the British left. Edinburgh University Press. pp. 85–107.
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- "Labour Party Annual Conference Report", 1931, p. 233.
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- Grady, Helen (21 March 2011). "Blue Labour: Party's radical answer to the Big Society?". BBC News.
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- Labour Party membership form at the Wayback Machine, ca. 1999. via Internet Archive. Retrieved 31 March 2007. "Residents of Northern Ireland are not eligible for membership."
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- Dunton, Jim (17 June 2009). "Unison: "no more blank cheques' for Labour". Local Government Chronicle. Retrieved 13 April 2010.
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- Kowalski, Werner. Geschichte der sozialistischen arbeiter-internationale: 1923 – 19 Berlin: Dt. Verl. d. Wissenschaften, 1985
- Black, Ann (6 February 2013). "Report from Labour’s January executive". Leftfutures.org. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
- "Progressive Alliance: Sozialdemokraten gründen weltweites Netzwerk – SPIEGEL ONLINE". Spiegel.de. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
- """Vorwurf: SPD "spaltet die Linken. Kurier.At. 22 May 2013. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
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"Labour Party Rule Book 2008" (PDF). The Labour Party. Retrieved 12 May 2010.
When the party is in opposition and the party leader, for whatever reason, becomes permanently unavailable, the deputy leader shall automatically become party leader on a pro-tem basis.
- "Rushanara Ali becomes first Bangladeshi MP".
- Adetunji, Jo; Tran, Mark (7 May 2010). "General election 2010: first female Muslim MPs elected".
- Labour Co-operative
- Labour Party in Northern Ireland
- Labour Representation Committee election results
- List of Labour Parties
- List of Labour Party (UK) MPs
- List of organisations associated with the British Labour Party
- List of UK Labour Party general election manifestos
- Politics of the United Kingdom
- Scottish Labour Party
- Socialist Labour Party (UK)
- Socialist Party (England and Wales)
- Welsh Labour
|Member of Parliament||Constituency||First elected||Notes|
|Diane Abbott||Hackney North and Stoke Newington||1987|
|Debbie Abrahams||Oldham East and Saddleworth||2011|
|Heidi Alexander||Lewisham East||2010|
|Rushanara Ali||Bethnal Green and Bow||2010||First person of Bangladeshi origin to be elected to the House of Commons, and one of first three Muslim women to be elected as an Member of Parliament.|
|Graham Allen||Nottingham North||1987|
|Jon Ashworth||Leicester South||2011|
|Ian Austin||Dudley North||2005|
|Adrian Bailey||West Bromwich West||2000|
|Kevin Barron||Rother Valley||1983|
|Margaret Beckett||Derby South||1974||Member for Lincoln 1974–79, Derby South 1983–|
|Hilary Benn||Leeds Central||1999|
|Luciana Berger||Liverpool Wavertree||2010|
|Clive Betts||Sheffield South East||1992||Member for Sheffield Attercliffe 1992–2010, Sheffield South East 2010–|
|Roberta Blackman-Woods||City of Durham||2005|
|Tom Blenkinsop||Middlesbrough South and East Cleveland||2010|
|Paul Blomfield||Sheffield Central||2010|
|Kevin Brennan||Cardiff West||2001|
|Lyn Brown||West Ham||2005|
|Nick Brown||Newcastle upon Tyne East||1983||Member for Newcastle upon Tyne East 1983–97, Newcastle upon Tyne East and Wallsend 1997–2010, Newcastle upon Tyne East 2010–|
|Karen Buck||Westminster North||1997||Member for Regent’s Park and Kensington North 1997–2010, Westminster North 2010–|
|Richard Burden||Birmingham Northfield||1992|
|Richard Burgon||Leeds East||2015|
|Dawn Butler||Brent Central||2015|
|Liam Byrne||Birmingham Hodge Hill||2004|
|Ruth Cadbury||Brentford & Isleworth||2015|
|Ronnie Campbell||Blyth Valley||1987|
|Ann Clwyd||Cynon Valley||1984|
|Rosie Cooper||West Lancashire||2005|
|Yvette Cooper||Normanton, Pontefract and Castleford||1997||Member for Pontefract and Castleford 1997–2010, Normanton, Pontefract and Castleford 2010–|
|Jeremy Corbyn||Islington North||1983|
|Jo Cox||Batley and Spen||2015|
|Neil Coyle||Bermondsey and Old Southwark||2015|
|David Crausby||Bolton North East||1997|
|Jon Cruddas||Dagenham and Rainham||2001||Member for Dagenham 2001–2010, Dagenham and Rainham 2010–|
|John Cryer||Leyton and Wanstead||1997||Member for Hornchurch 1997–2005, Leyton and Wanstead 2010–|
|Judith Cummins||Bradford South||2015|
|Alex Cunningham||Stockton North||2010|
|Jim Cunningham||Coventry South||1992||Member for Coventry South East 1992–97, Coventry South 1997–|
|Geraint Davies||Swansea West||1997||Member for Croydon Central 1997–2005, Swansea West 2010–|
|Thangam Debbonaire||Bristol West||2015|
|Gloria De Piero||Ashfield||2010|
|Stephen Doughty||Cardiff South and Penarth||2012|
|Jim Dowd||Lewisham West and Penge||1992||Member for Lewisham West 1992–2010, Lewisham West and Penge 2010–|
|Jack Dromey||Birmingham Erdington||2010|
|Michael Dugher||Barnsley East||2010|
|Maria Eagle||Garston and Halewood||1997||Member for Liverpool Garston 1997–2010, Garston and Halewood 2010–|
|Julie Elliott||Sunderland Central||2010|
|Louise Ellman||Liverpool Riverside||1997|
|Natascha Engel||North East Derbyshire||2005|
|Bill Esterson||Sefton Central||2010|
|Jim Fitzpatrick||Poplar and Limehouse||1997||Member for Poplar and Canning Town 1997–2010, Poplar and Limehouse 2010–|
|Robert Flello||Stoke-on-Trent South||2005|
|Colleen Fletcher||Coventry North East||2015|
|Caroline Flint||Don Valley||1997|
|Paul Flynn||Newport West||1987|
|Vicky Foxcroft||Lewisham Deptford||2015|
|Mike Gapes||Ilford South||1992|
|Barry Gardiner||Brent North||1997|
|Pat Glass||North West Durham||2010|
|Mary Glindon||North Tyneside||2010|
|Roger Godsiff||Birmingham Hall Green||1992||Member for Birmingham Small Heath 1992–97, Birmingham Sparkbrook and Small Heath 1997–2010, Birmingham Hall Green 2010–|
|Helen Goodman||Bishop Auckland||2005|
|Kate Green||Stretford and Urmston||2010|
|Margaret Greenwood||Wirral West||2015|
|Lilian Greenwood||Nottingham South||2010|
|Andrew Gwynne||Denton and Reddish||2005|
|Louise Haigh||Sheffield Heeley||2015|
|Fabian Hamilton||Leeds North East||1997|
|Harriet Harman||Camberwell and Peckham||1982||Member for Peckham 1982–97, Camberwell and Peckham 1997–|
|Harry Harpham||Sheffield Brightside and Hillsborough||2015|
|Carolyn Harris||Swansea East||2015|
|Helen Hayes||Dulwich and West Norwood||2015|
|John Healey||Wentworth and Dearne||1997||Member for Wentworth 1997–2010, Wentworth and Dearne 2010–|
|Meg Hillier||Hackney South and Shoreditch||2005|
|Sharon Hodgson||Washington and Sunderland West||2005||Member for Gateshead East and Washington West 2005–2010, Washington and Sunderland West 2010–|
|Kelvin Hopkins||Luton North||1997|
|George Howarth||Knowsley||1986||Member for Knowsley North 1986–97, Knowsley North and Sefton East 1997–2010, Knowsley 2010–|
|Tristram Hunt||Stoke-on-Trent Central||2010|
|Rupa Huq||Ealing Central & Acton||2015|
|Imran Hussain||Bradford East||2015|
|Dan Jarvis||Barnsley Central||2011|
|Alan Johnson||Kingston upon Hull West and Hessle||1997|
|Diana Johnson||Kingston upon Hull North||2005||Member for Hull North 2005–2010, Kingston upon Hull North 2010–|
|Gerald Jones||Merthyr Tydfil and Rhymney||2015|
|Helen Jones||Warrington North||1997|
|Kevan Jones||North Durham||2001|
|Susan Elan Jones||Clwyd South||2010|
|Mike Kane||Wythenshawe and Sale East||2014|
|Gerald Kaufman||Manchester Gorton||1970||Member for Ardwick 1970–83, Manchester Gorton 1983–|
|Barbara Keeley||Worsley and Eccles South||2005||Member for Worsley 2005–2010, Worsley and Eccles South 2010–|
|Liz Kendall||Leicester West||2010|
|Christopher Leslie||Nottingham East||1997||Member for Shipley 1997–2005, Nottingham East 2010–|
|Emma Lewell-Buck||South Shields||2013|
|Clive Lewis||Norwich South||2015|
|Ivan Lewis||Bury South||1997|
|Rebecca Long-Bailey||Salford and Eccles||2015|
|Justin Madders||Ellesmere Port and Neston||2015|
|Khalid Mahmood||Birmingham Perry Barr||2001|
|Shabana Mahmood||Birmingham Ladywood||2010|
|Seema Malhotra||Feltham and Heston||2011|
|Rob Marris||Wolverhampton South West||2001||Member 2001-2010, 2015-|
|Gordon Marsden||Blackpool South||1997|
|Rachael Maskell||York Central||2015|
|Chris Matheson||City of Chester||2015|
|Steve McCabe||Birmingham Selly Oak||2010||Member for Birmingham Hall Green 1997–2010, Birmingham Selly Oak 2010–|
|Kerry McCarthy||Bristol East||2005|
|Siobhain McDonagh||Mitcham and Morden||1997|
|John McDonnell||Hayes and Harlington||1997|
|Pat McFadden||Wolverhampton South East||2005|
|Conor McGinn||St Helens North||2015|
|Alison McGovern||Wirral South||2010|
|Liz McInnes||Heywood and Middleton||2014|
|Catherine McKinnell||Newcastle upon Tyne North||2010|
|Michael Meacher||Oldham West and Royton||1970||Member for Oldham West 1970–97, Oldham West and Royton 1997–|
|Ed Miliband||Doncaster North||2005|
|Jessica Morden||Newport East||2005|
|Ian Murray||Edinburgh South||2010|
|Melanie Onn||Great Grimsby||2015|
|Chi Onwurah||Newcastle upon Tyne Central||2010|
|Albert Owen||Ynys Mon||2001|
|Teresa Pearce||Erith and Thamesmead||2010|
|Matthew Pennycook||Greewich and Woolwich||2015|
|Jess Phillips||Birmingham Yardley||2015|
|Bridget Phillipson||Houghton and Sunderland South||2010|
|Stephen Pound||Ealing North||1997|
|Lucy Powell||Manchester Central||2012|
|Yasmin Qureshi||Bolton South East||2010|
|Steve Reed||Croydon North||2012|
|Rachel Reeves||Leeds West||2010|
|Emma Reynolds||Wolverhampton North East||2010|
|Jonathan Reynolds||Stalybridge and Hyde||2010|
|Marie Rimmer||St Helens South and Whiston||2015|
|Geoffrey Robinson||Coventry North West||1976|
|Steve Rotherham||Liverpool Walton||2010|
|Joan Ryan||Enfield North||2015|
|Naseem Shah||Bradford West||2015|
|Virendra Sharma||Ealing Southall||2007|
|Barry Sheerman||Huddersfield||1979||Member for Huddersfield East 1979–83, Huddersfield 1983–|
|Gavin Shuker||Luton South||2010|
|Tulip Siddiq||Hampstead and Kilburn||2015|
|Andy Slaughter||Hammersmith||2005||Member for Ealing, Acton and Shepherd’s Bush 2005–2010, Hammersmith 2010–|
|Ruth Smeeth||Stoke-on-Trent North||2015|
|Andrew Smith||Oxford East||1987|
|Angela Smith||Penistone and Stocksbridge||2005||Member for Sheffield Hillsborough 2005–2010, Penistone and Stocksbridge 2010–|
|Cat Smith||Lancaster & Fleetwood||2015|
|Jeff Smith||Manchester Withington||2015|
|Nick Smith||Blaenau Gwent||2010|
|Karin Smyth||Bristol South||2015|
|John Spellar||Warley||1982||Member for Birmingham Northfield 1982–83, Warley West 1992–97, Warley 1997–|
|Sir Keir Starmer||Holborn and St Pancras||2015|
|Jo Stevens||Cardiff Central||2015|
|Wes Streeting||Ilford North||2015|
|Graham Stringer||Blackley and Broughton||1997||Member for Manchester Blackley, Blackley and Broughton 2010–|
|Gisela Stuart||Birmingham Edgbaston||1997|
|Mark Tami||Alyn and Deeside||2001|
|Gareth Thomas||Harrow West||1997|
|Emily Thornberry||Islington South and Finsbury||2005|
|Stephen Timms||East Ham||1994||Member for Newham North East 1994–97, East Ham 1997–|
|Karl Turner||Kingston upon Hull East||2010|
|Stephen Twigg||Liverpool West Derby||1997||Member for Enfield Southgate 1997–2005, Liverpool West Derby 2010–|
|Keith Vaz||Leicester East||1987|
|Valerie Vaz||Walsall South||2010|
|Tom Watson||West Bromwich East||2001|
|Catherine West||Hornsey & Wood Green||2015|
|Alan Whitehead||Southampton Test||1997|
|David Winnick||Walsall North||1966||Member for Croydon South 1966–70, Walsall North 1979–|
|Rosie Winterton||Doncaster Central||1997|
|John Woodcock||Barrow and Furness||2010|
232 Labour MPs were elected at the 2015 election. The MPs as of June 2015 are:
Current elected MPs
|Name||Portrait||Country of birth||Periods in office|
(First and Second MacDonald Ministry)
1964–1966; 1966–1970; 1974; 1974–1976
(First and Second Wilson Ministry)
1997–2001; 2001–2005; 2005–2007
Labour Prime Ministers
- Richard Haldane, 1st Viscount Haldane, 1924–28
- Charles Cripps, 1st Baron Parmoor, 1928–31
- Arthur Ponsonby, 1st Baron Ponsonby of Shulbrede, 1931–35
- Harry Snell, 1st Baron Snell, 1935–40
- Christopher Addison, 1st Viscount Addison, 1940–52
- William Jowitt, 1st Earl Jowitt, 1952–55
- Albert Victor Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Hillsborough, 1955–64
- Frank Pakenham, 7th Earl of Longford, 1964–68
- Edward Shackleton, Baron Shackleton, 1968–74
- Malcolm Shepherd, 2nd Baron Shepherd, 1974–76
- Fred Peart, Baron Peart, 1976–82
- Cledwyn Hughes, Baron Cledwyn of Penrhos, 1982–92
- Ivor Richard, Baron Richard, 1992–98
- Margaret Jay, Baroness Jay of Paddington, 1998–2001
- Gareth Williams, Baron Williams of Mostyn, 2001–2003
- Valerie Amos, Baroness Amos, 2003–2007
- Catherine Ashton, Baroness Ashton of Upholland, 2007–2008
- Janet Royall, Baroness Royall of Blaisdon, 2008–2015
- Angela Smith, Baroness Smith of Basildon, 2015–present
Leaders in the House of Lords since 1924
- John Robert Clynes, 1922–32
- William Graham, 1931–32
- Clement Attlee, 1932–35
- Arthur Greenwood, 1935–45
- Herbert Morrison, 1945–55
- Jim Griffiths, 1955–59
- Aneurin Bevan, 1959–60
- George Brown, 1960–70
- Roy Jenkins, 1970–72
- Edward Short, 1972–76
- Michael Foot, 1976–80
- Denis Healey, 1980–83
- Roy Hattersley, 1983–92
- Margaret Beckett, 1992–94
- John Prescott, 1994–2007
- Harriet Harman, 2007–15
- Tom Watson, 2015–present
Deputy Leaders of the Labour Party since 1922
- Keir Hardie, 1906–08
- Arthur Henderson, 1908–10
- George Nicoll Barnes, 1910–11
- Ramsay MacDonald, 1911–14
- Arthur Henderson, 1914–17
- William Adamson, 1917–21
- John Robert Clynes, 1921–22
- Ramsay MacDonald, 1922–31
- Arthur Henderson, 1931–32
- George Lansbury, 1932–35
- Clement Attlee, 1935–55
Hugh Gaitskell, 1955–63
- George Brown, 1963 (acting)
- Harold Wilson, 1963–76
- James Callaghan, 1976–80
- Michael Foot, 1980–83
- Neil Kinnock, 1983–92
John Smith, 1992–94
- Margaret Beckett, 1994 (acting)
- Tony Blair, 1994–2007
Gordon Brown, 2007–2010
- Harriet Harman, 2010 (acting)
Ed Miliband, 2010–2015
- Harriet Harman, 2015 (acting)
- Jeremy Corbyn, 2015—
Leaders of the Labour Party since 1906
#Franchise extended to all 18 to 20 year-olds under the Representation of the People Act 1969
‡The first election under universal suffrage in which all women aged over 21 could vote
†The first election held under the Representation of the People Act 1918 in which all men over 21, and most women over the age of 30 could vote, and therefore a much larger electorate
|Election||Number of votes for Labour||Share of votes||Seats||Outcome of election|
2 / 670
29 / 670
40 / 670
|Hung parliament (Lib. minority government)|
42 / 670
|Hung parliament (Lib. minority government)|
57 / 707
142 / 615
191 / 625
|Hung parliament (Lab. minority government)|
151 / 615
287 / 615
|Hung parliament (Lab. minority government)|
52 / 615
|National Government victory|
154 / 615
|National Government victory|
393 / 640
315 / 625
295 / 625
277 / 630
258 / 630
317 / 630
364 / 630
288 / 630
301 / 635
|Hung parliament (Lab. minority government)|
319 / 635
269 / 635
209 / 650
229 / 650
271 / 651
419 / 659
413 / 659
356 / 646
258 / 650
|Hung parliament (Con./Lib Dem coalition)|
232 / 650
The party was a member of the 
The Labour Party is a founder member of the Party of European Socialists (PES). The European Parliamentary Labour Party's 20 MEPs are part of the Socialists and Democrats (S&D), the second largest group in the European Parliament. The Labour Party is represented by Emma Reynolds MP in the PES Presidency.
European and international affiliation
As it was founded by the unions to represent the interests of working-class people, Labour's link with the unions has always been a defining characteristic of the party. In recent years this link has come under increasing strain, with the RMT being expelled from the party in 2004 for allowing its branches in Scotland to affiliate to the left-wing Scottish Socialist Party. Other unions have also faced calls from members to reduce financial support for the Party and seek more effective political representation for their views on privatisation, public spending cuts and the anti-trade union laws. Unison and GMB have both threatened to withdraw funding from constituency MPs and Dave Prentis of UNISON has warned that the union will write "no more blank cheques" and is dissatisfied with "feeding the hand that bites us". Union funding was redesigned in 2013 after the Falkirk candidate-selection controversy.
For many years Labour held to a policy of not allowing residents of  instead supporting the Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) which informally takes the Labour whip in the House of Commons. The 2003 Labour Party Conference accepted legal advice that the party could not continue to prohibit residents of the province joining, and whilst the National Executive has established a regional constituency party it has not yet agreed to contest elections there.
In August 2015, prior to the 2015 leadership election, the Labour Party reported 292,505 full members, 147,134 affiliated supporters (mostly from affiliated trade unions), and 110,827 registered supporters; a total of about 550,000 members and supporters.
 represents the party on behalf of the other members of the Labour Party in any legal matters or actions.General Secretary The  The alliances which campaigns such as
Foot resigned and was replaced as leader by Neil Kinnock, with Roy Hattersley as his deputy. The new leadership progressively dropped unpopular policies. The miners strike of 1984–85 over coal mine closures, for which miners' leader Arthur Scargill was blamed, and the Wapping dispute led to clashes with the left of the party, and negative coverage in most of the press. Tabloid vilification of the so-called loony left continued to taint the parliamentary party by association from the activities of 'extra-parliamentary' militants in local government.
The Labour Party was defeated heavily in the 1983 general election, winning only 27.6% of the vote, its lowest share since 1918, and receiving only half a million votes more than the SDP-Liberal Alliance who leader Michael Foot condemned for "siphoning" Labour support and enabling the Conservatives to greatly increase their majority of parliamentary seats.
After its defeat in the 1979 election the Labour Party underwent a period of internal rivalry between the left-wing, represented by Tony Benn, and the right-wing represented by Denis Healey. The election of Michael Foot as leader in 1980, and the left policies they opposed, led in 1981 to four former cabinet ministers from the right of the Labour Party (Shirley Williams, William Rodgers, Roy Jenkins and David Owen) forming the Social Democratic Party. Benn was only narrowly defeated by Healey in a subsequent deputy leadership election after the introduction of an electoral college intended to widen the voting franchise to elect the leader and their deputy. By 1982, the National Executive Committee had concluded that the entryist Militant tendency group were in contravention of the party's constitution. The Militant newspaper's five member editorial board were expelled on 22 February 1983.
"The Wilderness Years", 1979–1997
In the 1979 general election Labour was heavily defeated by the Conservatives now led by Margaret Thatcher. The number of people voting Labour hardly changed between February 1974 and 1979 but the Conservative Party achieved big increases in support in the Midlands and South of England, benefiting from both a surge in turnout and votes lost by the ailing Liberals.
Callaghan had been widely expected to call a general election in the autumn of 1978 when most opinion polls showed Labour to have a narrow lead. However he decided to extend his wage restraint policy for another year hoping that the economy would be in a better shape for a 1979 election. But during the winter of 1978–79 there were widespread strikes among lorry drivers, railway workers, car workers and local government and hospital workers in favour of higher pay-rises that caused significant disruption to everyday life. These events came to be dubbed the "Winter of Discontent".
The nationalist parties, in turn, demanded devolution to their respective constituent countries in return for their supporting the government. When referendums for Scottish and Welsh devolution were held in March 1979 Welsh devolution was rejected outright while the Scottish referendum returned a narrow majority in favour without reaching the required threshold of 40% support. When the Labour government duly refused to push ahead with setting up the proposed Scottish Assembly, the SNP withdrew its support for the government: this finally brought the government down as it triggered a vote of confidence in Callaghan's government that was lost by a single vote on 28 March 1979, necessitating a general election.
Fear of advances by the nationalist parties, particularly in Scotland, led to the suppression of a Scottish National Party and the Welsh nationalist Plaid Cymru, prolonging the life of the government.
Harold Wilson's personal popularity remained reasonably high but he unexpectedly resigned as Prime Minister in 1976 citing health reasons, and was replaced by James Callaghan. The Wilson and Callaghan governments of the 1970s tried to control inflation (which reached 23.7% in 1975) by a policy of wage restraint. This was fairly successful, reducing inflation to 7.4% by 1978. However it led to increasingly strained relations between the government and the trade unions.
For much of its time in office the Labour government struggled with serious economic problems and a precarious majority in the Commons, while the party's internal dissent over Britain's membership of the European Economic Community (EEC), which Britain had entered under Edward Heath in 1972, led in 1975 to a national referendum on the issue in which two thirds of the public supported continued membership.
Majority to minority, 1974–1979
After losing the 1970 general election, Labour returned to opposition, but retained Harold Wilson as Leader. Heath's government soon ran into trouble over Northern Ireland and a dispute with miners in 1973 which led to the "three-day week". The 1970s proved a difficult time to be in government for both the Conservatives and Labour due to the 1973 oil crisis which caused high inflation and a global recession. The Labour Party was returned to power again under Wilson a few weeks after the February 1974 general election, forming a minority government with the support of the Ulster Unionists. The Conservatives were unable to form a government alone as they had fewer seats despite receiving more votes numerically. It was the first general election since 1924 in which both main parties had received less than 40% of the popular vote and the first of six successive general elections in which Labour failed to reach 40% of the popular vote. In a bid to gain a majority, a second election was soon called for October 1974 in which Labour, still with Harold Wilson as leader, won a majority of three, gaining just 18 seats taking its total to 319.
Spell in opposition, 1970–1974
Wilson's government was responsible for a number of sweeping social and educational reforms under the leadership of Home Secretary Roy Jenkins such as the abolishment of the death penalty in 1964, the legalisation of abortion and homosexuality (initially only for men aged 21 or over, and only in England and Wales) in 1967 and the abolition of theatre censorship in 1968. Comprehensive education was expanded and the Open University created. However Wilson's government had inherited a large trade deficit that led to a currency crisis and ultimately a doomed attempt to stave off devaluation of the pound. Labour went on to lose the 1970 general election to the Conservatives under Edward Heath.
A downturn in the economy and a series of scandals in the early 1960s (the most notorious being the Profumo affair) had engulfed the Conservative government by 1963. The Labour Party returned to government with a 4-seat majority under Wilson in the 1964 general election but increased its majority to 96 in the 1966 general election.
Wilson government, 1964–1970
His replacement, Hugh Gaitskell, associated with the right wing of the party, struggled in dealing with internal party divisions (particularly over Clause IV of the Labour Party Constitution, which was viewed as Labour's commitment to nationalisation and Gaitskell wanted scrapped) in the late 1950s and early 1960s and Labour lost the 1959 general election. In 1963, Gaitskell's sudden death from a heart attack made way for Harold Wilson to lead the party.
Following the defeat of 1951 the party spent 13 years in opposition. The party suffered an ideological split, while the postwar economic recovery and the social effects of Attlee's reforms made the public broadly content with the Conservative governments of the time. Attlee remained as leader until his retirement in 1955.
Post-war consensus, 1951–1964
In the 1951 general election, Labour narrowly lost to Churchill's Conservatives, despite receiving the larger share of the popular vote - its highest ever vote numerically. Most of the changes introduced by the 1945–51 Labour government were accepted by the Conservatives and became part of the "post-war consensus" that lasted until the late 1970s. Food and clothing rationing, however, still in place since the war, were swiftly relaxed, then abandoned from about 1953.
Labour went on to win the  straining public finances and forcing savings elsewhere. The Chancellor of the Exchequer, Hugh Gaitskell, introduced charges for NHS dentures and spectacles, causing Bevan, along with Harold Wilson (then President of the Board of Trade), to resign over the dilution of the principle of free treatment on which the NHS had been established.
Clement Attlee's proved one of the most radical British governments of the 20th century, enacting Keynesian economic policies, presiding over a policy of nationalising major industries and utilities including the Bank of England, coal mining, the steel industry, electricity, gas, and inland transport (including railways, road haulage and canals). It developed and implemented the "cradle to grave" welfare state conceived by the economist William Beveridge. To this day, the party considers the 1948 creation of Britain's publicly funded National Health Service (NHS) under health minister Aneurin Bevan its proudest achievement. Attlee's government also began the process of dismantling the British Empire when it granted independence to India and Pakistan in 1947, followed by Burma (Myanmar) and Ceylon (Sri Lanka) the following year. At a secret meeting in January 1947, Attlee and six cabinet ministers, including Foreign Secretary Ernest Bevin, decided to proceed with the development of Britain's nuclear weapons programme, in opposition to the pacifist and anti-nuclear stances of a large element inside the Labour Party.
At the end of the war in Europe, in May 1945, Labour resolved not to repeat the Liberals' error of 1918, and promptly withdrew from government, on trade union insistence, to contest the 1945 general election in opposition to Churchill's Conservatives. Surprising many observers, Labour won a formidable victory, winning just under 50% of the vote with a majority of 159 seats.
Attlee government, 1945–1951
A number of other senior Labour figures also took up senior positions: the trade union leader Ernest Bevin, as Minister of Labour, directed Britain's wartime economy and allocation of manpower, the veteran Labour statesman Herbert Morrison became Home Secretary, Hugh Dalton was Minister of Economic Warfare and later President of the Board of Trade, while A. V. Alexander resumed the role he had held in the previous Labour Government as First Lord of the Admiralty.
The party returned to government in 1940 as part of the wartime coalition. When Neville Chamberlain resigned in the spring of 1940, incoming Prime Minister Winston Churchill decided to bring the other main parties into a coalition similar to that of the First World War. Clement Attlee was appointed Lord Privy Seal and a member of the war cabinet, eventually becoming the United Kingdom's first Deputy Prime Minister.
Wartime coalition, 1940–1945
As the threat from Nazi Germany increased, in the late 1930s the Labour Party gradually abandoned its pacifist stance and supported re-armament, largely due to the efforts of Ernest Bevin and Hugh Dalton who by 1937 had also persuaded the party to oppose Neville Chamberlain's policy of appeasement.
Lansbury resigned as leader in 1935 after public disagreements over foreign policy. He was promptly replaced as leader by his deputy, Clement Attlee, who would lead the party for two decades. The party experienced a revival in the 1935 general election, winning 154 seats and 38% of the popular vote, the highest that Labour had achieved.
The party experienced another split in 1932 when the Independent Labour Party, which for some years had been increasingly at odds with the Labour leadership, opted to disaffiliate from the Labour Party and embarked on a long, drawn-out decline.
George Lansbury, accordingly became party leader.
As the economic situation worsened MacDonald agreed to form a "Arthur Henderson) and a few Liberals went into opposition. The ensuing 1931 general election resulted in overwhelming victory for the National Government and disaster for the Labour Party which won only 52 seats, 225 fewer than in 1929.
The government, however, soon found itself engulfed in crisis: the Wall Street Crash of 1929 and eventual Great Depression occurred soon after the government came to power, and the crisis hit Britain hard. By the end of 1930 unemployment had doubled to over two and a half million. The government had no effective answers to the crisis. By the summer of 1931 a dispute over whether or not to reduce public spending had split the government.
In the 1929 general election, the Labour Party became the largest in the House of Commons for the first time, with 287 seats and 37.1% of the popular vote. However MacDonald was still reliant on Liberal support to form a minority government. MacDonald went on to appoint Britain's first female cabinet minister, Margaret Bondfield, who was appointed Minister of Labour.
Second Labour government, 1929–1931
In opposition MacDonald continued his policy of presenting the Labour Party as a moderate force. During the General Strike of 1926 the party opposed the general strike, arguing that the best way to achieve social reforms was through the ballot box. The leaders were also fearful of Communist influence orchestrated from Moscow.
The government collapsed after only nine months when the Liberals voted for a Select Committee inquiry into the Campbell Case, a vote which MacDonald had declared to be a vote of confidence. The ensuing 1924 general election saw the publication, four days before polling day, of the Zinoviev letter, in which Moscow talked about a Communist revolution in Britain. The letter had little impact on the Labour vote—which held up. It was the collapse of the Liberal party that led to the Conservative landslide. The Conservatives were returned to power although Labour increased its vote from 30.7% to a third of the popular vote, most Conservative gains being at the expense of the Liberals. However many Labourites for years blamed their defeat on foul play (the Zinoviev Letter), thereby according to A. J. P. Taylor misunderstanding the political forces at work and delaying needed reforms in the party.
While there were no major labour strikes during his term, MacDonald acted swiftly to end those that did erupt. When the Labour Party executive criticized the government, he replied that, "public doles, Poplarism [local defiance of the national government], strikes for increased wages, limitation of output, not only are not Socialism, but may mislead the spirit and policy of the Socialist movement."
Because the government had to rely on the support of the Liberals it was unable to get any socialist legislation passed by the House of Commons. The only significant measure was the Wheatley Housing Act, which began a building programme of 500,000 homes for rental to working-class families. Legislation on education, unemployment and social insurance were also passed.
The 1923 general election was fought on the Conservatives' protectionist proposals but, although they got the most votes and remained the largest party, they lost their majority in parliament, necessitating the formation of a government supporting free trade. Thus, with the acquiescence of Asquith's Liberals, Ramsay MacDonald became the first ever Labour Prime Minister in January 1924, forming the first Labour government, despite Labour only having 191 MPs (less than a third of the House of Commons).
First Labour government, 1924
The Communist Party of Great Britain was refused affiliation to the Labour Party between 1921 and 1923. Meanwhile, the Liberal Party declined rapidly, and the party also suffered a catastrophic split which allowed the Labour Party to gain much of the Liberals' support. With the Liberals thus in disarray, Labour won 142 seats in 1922, making it the second largest political group in the House of Commons and the official opposition to the Conservative government. After the election the now-rehabilitated Ramsay MacDonald was voted the first official leader of the Labour Party.
With the Representation of the People Act 1918, almost all adult men (excepting only peers, criminals and lunatics) and most women over the age of thirty were given the right to vote, almost tripling the British electorate at a stroke, from 7.7 million in 1912 to 21.4 million in 1918. This set the scene for a surge in Labour representation in parliament.
co-operative movement now providing its own resources to the Co-operative Party