List of oxidation states of the elements

List of oxidation states of the elements

This is a list of known oxidation states of the chemical elements, excluding nonintegral values. The most common states appear in bold. The table is based on that of Greenwood and Earnshaw,[1] with additions noted. Oxidation state 0, which occurs for all elements, is implied by the column with the symbol of the element. The format of the table, which was devised by Mendeleev in 1889, shows the periodicity of the oxidation states of the elements.[1]

List

  Element
  Noble gas
Element Negative
oxidation
states
  Positive
oxidation
states
Notes
−4 −3 −2 −1 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 +8 +9
hydrogen −1 H +1
helium He
lithium Li +1
beryllium Be +1 +2 [2]
boron B +1 +2 +3
carbon −4 −3 −2 −1 C +1 +2 +3 +4
nitrogen −3 −2 −1 N +1 +2 +3 +4 +5
oxygen −2 −1 O +1 +2
fluorine −1 F
neon Ne
sodium −1 Na +1
magnesium Mg +1 +2 [3]
aluminium Al +1 +2 +3 [4]
silicon −4 −3 −2 −1 Si +1 +2 +3 +4
phosphorus −3 −2 −1 P +1 +2 +3 +4 +5
sulfur −2 −1 S +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6
chlorine −1 Cl +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7
argon Ar
potassium −1 K +1
calcium Ca +1 +2 [5]
scandium Sc +1 +2 +3
titanium −1 Ti +1 +2 +3 +4 [6]
vanadium −1 V +1 +2 +3 +4 +5
chromium −2 −1 Cr +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6
manganese −3 −2 −1 Mn +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7
iron −2 −1 Fe +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 [7]
cobalt −1 Co +1 +2 +3 +4 +5
nickel −1 Ni +1 +2 +3 +4
copper Cu +1 +2 +3 +4
zinc Zn +1 +2 [8]
gallium Ga +1 +2 +3
germanium −4 −3 −2 −1 Ge +1 +2 +3 +4 [9]
arsenic −3 As +1 +2 +3 +5 [10]
selenium −2 Se +1 +2 +4 +6 [11]
bromine −1 Br +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +7
krypton Kr +2
rubidium −1 Rb +1
strontium Sr +1 +2 [12]
yttrium Y +1 +2 +3 [13][14]
zirconium Zr +1 +2 +3 +4
niobium −1 Nb +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 [15]
molybdenum −2 −1 Mo +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6
technetium −3 −1 Tc +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7
ruthenium −2 Ru +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 +8
rhodium −1 Rh +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6
palladium Pd +1 +2 +4 +6 [16][17]
silver Ag +1 +2 +3 +4 [18]
cadmium Cd +1 +2 [19]
indium In +1 +2 +3
tin −4 Sn +2 +4
antimony −3 Sb +3 +5
tellurium −2 Te +2 +4 +5 +6
iodine −1 I +1 +3 +4 +5 +7 [20]
xenon Xe +1 +2 +4 +6 +8 [21]
caesium −1 Cs +1
barium Ba +2
lanthanum La +2 +3
cerium Ce +2 +3 +4
praseodymium Pr +2 +3 +4
neodymium Nd +2 +3 +4 [22]
promethium Pm +2 +3 [23]
samarium Sm +2 +3
europium Eu +2 +3
gadolinium Gd +1 +2 +3
terbium Tb +1 +2 +3 +4 [24]
dysprosium Dy +2 +3 +4 [25]
holmium Ho +2 +3 [26]
erbium Er +2 +3 [27]
thulium Tm +2 +3
ytterbium Yb +2 +3
lutetium Lu +3
hafnium Hf +2 +3 +4
tantalum −1 Ta +2 +3 +4 +5
tungsten −2 −1 W +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6
rhenium −3 −1 Re +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7
osmium −2 −1 Os +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 +8 [28]
iridium −3 −1 Ir +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 +8 +9 [29][30][31][32]
platinum −2 −1 Pt +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 [33][34]
gold −1 Au +1 +2 +3 +5
mercury Hg +1 +2 +4 [35]
thallium −1 Tl +1 +3 [36]
lead −4 Pb +2 +4
bismuth −3 Bi +1 +3 +5 [37]
polonium −2 Po +2 +4 +5 +6 [38]
astatine −1 At +1 +3 +5 +7
radon Rn +2 +6 [39][40][41]
francium Fr +1
radium Ra +2
actinium Ac +2 +3 [42]
thorium Th +1 +2 +3 +4 [43]
protactinium Pa +2 +3 +4 +5 [44]
uranium U +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 [45]
neptunium Np +3 +4 +5 +6 +7
plutonium Pu +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 +8 [46]
americium Am +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 [47]
curium Cm +2 +3 +4 +6 +8 [48][49][50]
berkelium Bk +2 +3 +4 [51]
californium Cf +2 +3 +4
einsteinium Es +2 +3 +4 [52]
fermium Fm +2 +3
mendelevium Md +2 +3
nobelium No +2 +3
lawrencium Lr +3
rutherfordium Rf +4
dubnium Db +5 [53]
seaborgium Sg +6 [54]
bohrium Bh +7 [55]
hassium Hs +8 [56]

A figure with a similar format (shown below) was used by Irving Langmuir in 1919 in one of the early papers about the octet rule.[57] The periodicity of the oxidation states was one of the pieces of evidence that led Langmuir to adopt the rule.

References and notes

  1. ^ a b  
  2. ^ Be(I) has been observed in  
  3. ^  
  4. ^ Al(II) has been observed in doi:10.1016/S0065-3055(03)51002-4
  5. ^ Ca(I) has been observed; see Krieck, Sven; Görls, Helmar; Westerhausen, Matthias (2010). "Mechanistic Elucidation of the Formation of the Inverse Ca(I) Sandwich Complex [(thf)3Ca(μ-C6H3-1,3,5-Ph3)Ca(thf)3] and Stability of Aryl-Substituted Phenylcalcium Complexes". Journal of the American Chemical Society 132 (35): 12492–501.  
  6. ^ Ti(I) has been observed in  
  7. ^ Fe(VII) and Fe(VIII) have been reported; see Yurii D. Perfiliev; Virender K. Sharma (2008). "Higher Oxidation States of Iron in Solid State: Synthesis and Their Mössbauer Characterization – Ferrates – ACS Symposium Series (ACS Publications)". Platinum Metals Review 48 (4): 157.   However, their existence has been disputed.
  8. ^ Zn(I) has been observed in Zn2Cl2; see Holleman, Arnold F.; Wiberg, Egon; Wiberg, Nils; (1985). "Zink". Lehrbuch der Anorganischen Chemie (in German) (91–100 ed.). Walter de Gruyter. pp. 1034–1041.  
  9. ^ Ge(−1), Ge(−2), and Ge(−3) have been observed in  .
  10. ^ As(I) has been observed in  
  11. ^ Se(I) has been observed in  
  12. ^ Sr(I) has been observed in  
  13. ^ Y(I) has been observed in  
  14. ^ Y(II) has been observed in  
  15. ^ Nb(I) has been observed in  
  16. ^ Pd(I) has been observed; see Crabtree, R. H. (2002). "CHEMISTRY: A New Oxidation State for Pd?".  
  17. ^ Pd(VI) complexes have been observed; see Chen, W.; Shimada, Shigeru; Tanaka, Masato (2002). "Synthesis and Structure of Formally Hexavalent Palladium Complexes".  
  18. ^ Ag(IV) has been observed in  
  19. ^ Cd(I) has been observed in  
  20. ^ I(IV) has been observed in  
  21. ^ Xe(I) has been observed in  
  22. ^ Nd(IV) has been observed in unstable solid state compounds; see Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. (2001), Inorganic Chemistry, San Diego: Academic Press,  
  23. ^ Pm(II) has been observed in dilute, solid solutions of promethium dihalides in alkaline earth dihalides; see Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. (2001), Inorganic Chemistry, San Diego: Academic Press,  
  24. ^ Tb(II) has been observed in  
  25. ^ Dy(IV) has been observed in unstable solid state compounds; see Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. (2001), Inorganic Chemistry, San Diego: Academic Press,  
  26. ^ Ho(II) has been observed in dilute, solid solutions of holmium dihalides in alkaline earth dihalides; see Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. (2001), Inorganic Chemistry, San Diego: Academic Press,  
  27. ^ Er(II) has been observed in dilute, solid solutions of erbium dihalides in alkaline earth dihalides; see Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. (2001), Inorganic Chemistry, San Diego: Academic Press,  
  28. ^ Os(−1) has been observed in Na
    2
    [Os
    4
    (CO)
    13
    ]
    ; see Krause, J.; Siriwardane, Upali; Salupo, Terese A.; Wermer, Joseph R.; Knoeppel, David W.; Shore, Sheldon G. (1993). "Preparation of [Os3(CO)11]2− and its reactions with Os3(CO)12; structures of [Et4N] [HOs3(CO)11] and H2OsS4(CO)". Journal of Organometallic Chemistry 454: 263–271.  
  29. ^ Ir(−3) has been observed in Ir(CO)33−; see  
  30. ^ Ir(VII) has been observed in iridium heptafluoride (IrF7); see Prediction of new compounds and new oxidation states.
  31. ^ Ir(VIII) has been observed in  
  32. ^ Ir(IX) has been observed in IrO+
    4
    ; see Wang, Guanjun; Zhou, Mingfei; Goettel, James T.; Schrobilgen, Gary G.; Su, Jing; Li, Jun; Schlöder, Tobias; Riedel, Sebastian (21 August 2014). "Identification of an iridium-containing compound with a formal oxidation state of IX". Nature 514: 475–477.  
  33. ^ Pt(−1) and Pt(−2) have been observed in the  
  34. ^ Pt(I) and Pt(III) have been observed in bimetallic and polymetallic species; see  
  35. ^ Hg(IV) has been observed in  .
  36. ^ Tl(−1) has been observed in caesium thallide (CsTl); see Bashilova NI & Khomutova, TV 1984, 'Thallates of alkali metals and monovalent thallium formed in aqueous solutions of their hydroxides', Russian Chemical Bulletin, vol. 33, no. 8, August, pp. 1543–47.
  37. ^ Bi(I) has been observed in  
  38. ^ Po(V) has been observed in dioxidopolonium(1+) (PoO+
    2
    ); see Thayer, John S. (2010). Chemistry of heavier main group elements. p. 78.  
  39. ^ Rn(II) has been observed in  
  40. ^ Rn(IV) is reported by Greenwood and Earnshaw, but is not known to exist; see Sykes, A. G. (1998). "Recent Advances in Noble-Gas Chemistry". Advances in Inorganic Chemistry 46. Academic Press. pp. 91–93.  
  41. ^ Rn(VI) is known in  
  42. ^ Ac(II) is known in  
  43. ^ Th(I) is known in thorium(I) bromide (ThBr); see Wickleder, Mathias S.; Fourest, Blandine; Dorhout, Peter K. (2006). "Thorium". In Morss, Lester R.; Edelstein, Norman M.; Fuger, Jean. The Chemistry of the Actinide and Transactinide Elements 3 (3rd ed.). Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Springer. pp. 52–160.  
  44. ^ Pa(II) is known in  
  45. ^ U(II) has been observed in  
  46. ^ Unstable Pu(VIII) complexes can form in alkaline solutions; see Kiselev, Yu. M.; Nikonov, M. V.; Tananaev, I. G.; Myasoedov, B. F. (2009). "On the Existence of Plutonium Tetroxide". Doklady Akademii Nauk (Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.) 425 (5): 634–637.  
  47. ^ Am(VII) has been observed in AmO5−
    6
    ; see Americium, Das Periodensystem der Elemente für den Schulgebrauch (The periodic table of elements for schools) chemie-master.de (in German), Retrieved 28 November 2010 and  
  48. ^ Cm(II) has been observed in curium(II) oxide (CmO); see Holleman, Arnold F. and Wiberg, Nils Textbook of Inorganic Chemistry, p.1972, 102 Edition, de Gruyter, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-11-017770-1.
  49. ^ Cm(VI) has been observed in curium trioxide (CmO3) and dioxidocurium(2+) (CmO2+
    2
    ); see Domanov, V. P.; Lobanov, Yu. V. (October 2011). "Formation of volatile curium(VI) trioxide CmO3". Radiochemistry (SP MAIK Nauka/Interperiodica) 53 (5): 453–6.  
  50. ^ Cm(VIII) has been observed in  
  51. ^ Bk(II) has been observed in doi:10.1016/S0898-8838(08)60204-4
  52. ^ Es(IV) is known in  
  53. ^ Db(V) has been observed in dubnium pentachloride (DbCl5); see H. W. Gäggeler (2007). "Gas Phase Chemistry of Superheavy Elements".  
  54. ^ Sg(VI) has been observed in seaborgium oxide hydroxide (SgO2(OH)2); see Huebener et al.; Taut, S.; Vahle, A.; Dressler, R.; Eichler, B.; Gäggeler, H. W.; Jost, D.T.; Piguet, D. et al. (2001). "Physico-chemical characterization of seaborgium as oxide hydroxide". Radiochim. Acta 89 (11–12_2001): 737–741.  
  55. ^ Bh(VII) has been observed in bohrium oxychloride (BhO3Cl); see "Gas chemical investigation of bohrium (Bh, element 107)", Eichler et al., GSI Annual Report 2000. Retrieved on 2008-02-29
  56. ^ Hs(VIII) has been observed in hassium tetroxide (HsO4); see "Chemistry of Hassium" (PDF). Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung mbH. 2002. Retrieved 2007-01-31. 
  57. ^ Langmuir, Irving (1919). "The arrangement of electrons in atoms and molecules". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 41 (6): 868–934.  

See also

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