Magnetohydrodynamics
Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) (magneto fluid dynamics or hydromagnetics) is the study of the dynamics of electrically conducting fluids. Examples of such fluids include plasmas, liquid metals, and salt water or electrolytes. The word magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is derived from magneto meaning magnetic field, hydro meaning liquid, and dynamics meaning movement. The field of MHD was initiated by Hannes Alfvén,^{[1]} for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1970.
The fundamental concept behind MHD is that magnetic fields can induce currents in a moving conductive fluid, which in turn creates forces on the fluid and also changes the magnetic field itself. The set of equations that describe MHD are a combination of the NavierStokes equations of fluid dynamics and Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism. These differential equations have to be solved simultaneously, either analytically or numerically.
Contents
History
The first recorded use of the word magnetohydrodynamics is by Hannes Alfvén in 1942:
 "At last some remarks are made about the transfer of momentum from the Sun to the planets, which is fundamental to the theory (§11). The importance of the magnetohydrodynamic waves in this respect are pointed out."^{[2]}
The ebbing salty water flowing past London's Waterloo Bridge interacts with the Earth's magnetic field to produce a potential difference between the two riverbanks. Michael Faraday tried this experiment in 1832 but the current was too small to measure with the equipment at the time,^{[3]} and the river bed contributed to shortcircuit the signal. However, by a similar process the voltage induced by the tide in the English Channel was measured in 1851.^{[4]}
Ideal and resistive MHD
The simplest form of MHD, Ideal MHD, assumes that the fluid has so little resistivity that it can be treated as a perfect conductor. This is the limit of infinite magnetic Reynolds number. In ideal MHD, Lenz's law dictates that the fluid is in a sense tied to the magnetic field lines. To explain, in ideal MHD a small ropelike volume of fluid surrounding a field line will continue to lie along a magnetic field line, even as it is twisted and distorted by fluid flows in the system. This is sometimes referred to as the magnetic field lines being "frozen" in the fluid.^{[5]} The connection between magnetic field lines and fluid in ideal MHD fixes the topology of the magnetic field in the fluid—for example, if a set of magnetic field lines are tied into a knot, then they will remain so as long as the fluid/plasma has negligible resistivity. This difficulty in reconnecting magnetic field lines makes it possible to store energy by moving the fluid or the source of the magnetic field. The energy can then become available if the conditions for ideal MHD break down, allowing magnetic reconnection that releases the stored energy from the magnetic field.
Ideal MHD equations
The ideal MHD equations consist of the continuity equation, the Cauchy momentum equation, Ampere's Law neglecting displacement current, and a temperature evolution equation. As with any fluid description to a kinetic system, a closure approximation must be applied to highest moment of the particle distribution equation. This is often accomplished with approximations to the heat flux through a condition of adiabaticity or isothermality.
In the following, \mathbf{B} is the magnetic field, \mathbf{E} is the electric field, \mathbf{v} is the bulk plasma velocity, \mathbf{J} is the current density, \rho is the mass density, p is the plasma pressure, and t is time. The continuity equation is
 \frac{\partial \rho}{\partial t} + \nabla \cdot \left(\rho\mathbf{v}\right)=0.
The Cauchy momentum equation is
 \rho\left(\frac{\partial }{\partial t} + \mathbf{v}\cdot\nabla \right)\mathbf{v} = \mathbf{J}\times\mathbf{B}  \nabla p.
The Lorentz force term \mathbf{J}\times\mathbf{B} can be expanded using Ampere's law and the identity \frac{1}{2}\nabla(\mathbf{B}\cdot \mathbf{B})=(\mathbf{B}\cdot\nabla)\mathbf{B}+\mathbf{B}\times(\nabla\times \mathbf{B}) to give
 \mathbf{J}\times\mathbf{B} = \frac{\left(\mathbf{B}\cdot\nabla\right)\mathbf{B}}{\mu_0}  \nabla\left(\frac{B^2}{2\mu_0}\right),
where the first term on the right hand side is the magnetic tension force and the second term is the magnetic pressure force. The ideal Ohm's law for a plasma is given by
 \mathbf{E} + \mathbf{v}\times\mathbf{B} = 0.
Faraday's law is
 \frac{\partial \mathbf{B}}{\partial t} =  \nabla \times \mathbf{E}.
The lowfrequency Ampere's law neglects displacement current and is given by
 \mu_0 \mathbf{J} = \nabla\times\mathbf{B}.
The magnetic divergence constraint is
 \nabla\cdot\mathbf{B} = 0.
The energy equation is given by
 \frac{\mathrm{d}}{\mathrm{d}t} \left(\frac{p}{\rho^\gamma}\right) = 0,
where \gamma=5/3 is the ratio of specific heats for an adiabatic equation of state. This energy equation is, of course, only applicable in the absence of shocks or heat conduction as it assumes that the entropy of a fluid element does not change.
Applicability of ideal MHD to plasmas
Ideal MHD is only strictly applicable when:
 The plasma is strongly collisional, so that the time scale of collisions is shorter than the other characteristic times in the system, and the particle distributions are therefore close to Maxwellian.
 The resistivity due to these collisions is small. In particular, the typical magnetic diffusion times over any scale length present in the system must be longer than any time scale of interest.
 Interest in length scales much longer than the ion skin depth and Larmor radius perpendicular to the field, long enough along the field to ignore Landau damping, and time scales much longer than the ion gyration time (system is smooth and slowly evolving).
Importance of resistivity
In an imperfectly conducting fluid the magnetic field can generally move through the fluid following a diffusion law with the resistivity of the plasma serving as a diffusion constant. This means that solutions to the ideal MHD equations are only applicable for a limited time for a region of a given size before diffusion becomes too important to ignore. One can estimate the diffusion time across a solar active region (from collisional resistivity) to be hundreds to thousands of years, much longer than the actual lifetime of a sunspot—so it would seem reasonable to ignore the resistivity. By contrast, a metersized volume of seawater has a magnetic diffusion time measured in milliseconds.
Even in physical systems which are large and conductive enough that simple estimates of the Lundquist number suggest that we can ignore the resistivity, resistivity may still be important: many instabilities exist that can increase the effective resistivity of the plasma by factors of more than a billion. The enhanced resistivity is usually the result of the formation of small scale structure like current sheets or fine scale magnetic turbulence, introducing small spatial scales into the system over which ideal MHD is broken and magnetic diffusion can occur quickly. When this happens, magnetic reconnection may occur in the plasma to release stored magnetic energy as waves, bulk mechanical acceleration of material, particle acceleration, and heat.
Magnetic reconnection in highly conductive systems is important because it concentrates energy in time and space, so that gentle forces applied to a plasma for long periods of time can cause violent explosions and bursts of radiation.
When the fluid cannot be considered as completely conductive, but the other conditions for ideal MHD are satisfied, it is possible to use an extended model called resistive MHD. This includes an extra term in Ohm's Law which models the collisional resistivity. Generally MHD computer simulations are at least somewhat resistive because their computational grid introduces a numerical resistivity.
Importance of kinetic effects
Another limitation of MHD (and fluid theories in general) is that they depend on the assumption that the plasma is strongly collisional (this is the first criterion listed above), so that the time scale of collisions is shorter than the other characteristic times in the system, and the particle distributions are Maxwellian. This is usually not the case in fusion, space and astrophysical plasmas. When this is not the case, or we are interested in smaller spatial scales, it may be necessary to use a kinetic model which properly accounts for the nonMaxwellian shape of the distribution function. However, because MHD is relatively simple and captures many of the important properties of plasma dynamics it is often qualitatively accurate and is almost invariably the first model tried.
Effects which are essentially kinetic and not captured by fluid models include double layers, Landau damping, a wide range of instabilities, chemical separation in space plasmas and electron runaway.
Structures in MHD systems
In many MHD systems most of the electric current is compressed into thin nearlytwodimensional ribbons termed current sheets. These can divide the fluid into magnetic domains, inside of which the currents are relatively weak. Current sheets in the solar corona are thought to be between a few meters and a few kilometers in thickness, which is quite thin compared to the magnetic domains (which are thousands to hundreds of thousands of kilometers across). Another example is in the Earth's magnetosphere, where current sheets separate topologically distinct domains, isolating most of the Earth's ionosphere from the solar wind.
MHD waves
The wave modes derived using MHD plasma theory are called magnetohydrodynamic waves or MHD waves. In general there are three MHD wave modes:
 Pure (or oblique) Alfvén wave
 Slow MHD wave
 Fast MHD wave
name  type  propagation  phase velocity  association  medium  other names 

Sound wave  longitudinal  \vec k\\vec B  adiabatic sound velocity  none  compressible, nonconducting fluid  
Alfvén wave  transverse  \vec k\\vec B  Alfvén velocity  B  shear Alfvén wave, the slow Alfvén wave, torsional Alfvén wave  
Magnetosonic wave  longitudinal  \vec k\perp\vec B  B, E  compressional Alfvén wave, fast Alfvén wave, magnetoacoustic wave 
The MHD oscillations will be damped if the fluid is not perfectly conducting but has a finite conductivity, or if viscous effects are present.
MHD waves and oscillations are a popular tool for the remote diagnostics of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas, e.g. the corona of the Sun (Coronal seismology).
Extensions to magnetohydrodynamics
Resistive MHD
Resistive MHD describes magnetized fluids with finite electron diffusivity (\eta \neq 0). This diffusivity leads to a breaking in the magnetic topology; magnetic field lines can 'reconnect' when they collide. Usually this term is small and reconnections can be handled by thinking of them as not dissimilar to shocks; this process has been shown to be important in the EarthSolar magnetic interactions.
Extended MHD
Extended MHD describes a class of phenomena in plasmas that are higher order than resistive MHD, but which can adequately be treated with a single fluid description. These include the effects of Hall physics, electron pressure gradients, finite Larmor Radii in the particle gyromotion, and electron inertia.
TwoFluid MHD
TwoFluid MHD describes plasmas that include a nonnegligible Hall electric field. As a result, the electron and ion momenta must be treated separately. This description is more closely tied to Maxwell's equations as an evolution equation for the electric field exists.
Hall MHD
In 1960, M. J. Lighthill criticized the applicability of ideal or resistive MHD theory for plasmas.^{[7]} It concerned the neglect of the "Hall current term", a frequent simplification made in magnetic fusion theory. Hallmagnetohydrodynamics (HMHD) takes into account this electric field description of magnetohydrodynamics. The most important difference is that in the absence of field line breaking, the magnetic field is tied to the electrons and not to the bulk fluid.^{[8]}
Collisionless MHD
MHD is also often used for collisionless plasmas. In that case the MHD equations are derived from the Vlasov equation.^{[9]}
Applications
Geophysics
Beneath the Earth's mantle lies the core, which is made up of two parts: the solid inner core and liquid outer core. Both have significant quantities of iron. The liquid outer core moves in the presence of the magnetic field and eddies are set up into the same due to the Coriolis effect. These eddies develop a magnetic field which boosts Earth's original magnetic field—a process which is selfsustaining and is called the geomagnetic dynamo.^{[10]}
Based on the MHD equations, Glatzmaier and Paul Roberts have made a supercomputer model of the Earth's interior. After running the simulations for thousands of years in virtual time, the changes in Earth's magnetic field can be studied. The simulation results are in good agreement with the observations as the simulations have correctly predicted that the Earth's magnetic field flips every few hundred thousands of years. During the flips, the magnetic field does not vanish altogether—it just gets more complicated. ^{[11]}
Earthquakes
Some monitoring stations have reported that earthquakes are sometimes preceded by a spike in ULF activity. A remarkable example of this occurred before the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake in California,^{[12]} although a subsequent study indicates that this was little more than a sensor malfunction.^{[13]} On December 9, 2010, geoscientists announced that the DEMETER satellite observed a dramatic increase in ULF radio waves over Haiti in the month before the magnitude 7.0 M_{w} 2010 earthquake.^{[14]} Researchers are attempting to learn more about this correlation to find out whether this method can be used as part of an early warning system for earthquakes.
Astrophysics and cosmology
MHD applies quite well to astrophysics and cosmology since over 99% of baryonic matter content of the Universe is made up of plasma, including stars, the interplanetary medium (space between the planets), the interstellar medium (space between the stars), the intergalactic medium, nebulae and jets. Many astrophysical systems are not in local thermal equilibrium, and therefore require an additional kinematic treatment to describe all the phenomena within the system (see Astrophysical plasma).
Sunspots are caused by the Sun's magnetic fields, as Joseph Larmor theorized in 1919. The solar wind is also governed by MHD. The differential solar rotation may be the long term effect of magnetic drag at the poles of the Sun, an MHD phenomenon due to the Parker spiral shape assumed by the extended magnetic field of the Sun.
Previously, theories describing the formation of the Sun and planets could not explain how the Sun has 99.87% of the mass, yet only 0.54% of the angular momentum in the solar system. In a closed system such as the cloud of gas and dust from which the Sun was formed, mass and angular momentum are both conserved. That conservation would imply that as the mass concentrated in the center of the cloud to form the Sun, it would spin up, much like a skater pulling their arms in. The high speed of rotation predicted by early theories would have flung the protoSun apart before it could have formed. However, magnetohydrodynamic effects transfer the Sun's angular momentum into the outer solar system, slowing its rotation.
Breakdown of ideal MHD (in the form of magnetic reconnection) is known to be the cause of solar flares, the largest explosions in the solar system. The magnetic field in a solar active region over a sunspot can become quite stressed over time, storing energy that is released suddenly as a burst of motion, Xrays, and radiation when the main current sheet collapses, reconnecting the field.
A paper by Kohli and Haslam ^{[15]} includes a detailed summary of the work done in studying primordial magnetic fields in the cosmological context. A part of this summary is displayed below.
Magnetic fields have been thought to play a major role in the early universe, as it is well known that after inflation, the early universe was a good conductor, even though the number density of free electrons dropped dramatically during recombination, its residual value was enough to maintain high conductivity in baryonic matter. As a result, cosmic magnetic fields have remained frozen into the expanding baryonic fluid during most of their evolution.^{[16]} One can then analyze the magnetic effects on the dynamics of the early universe through the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (hereafter, referred to as MHD), in which the magnetic field source is considered to be a perfect conductor, such that the energy momentum tensor is that for an ordinary magnetic field.
Hughston and Jacobs ^{[17]} showed that in the case of a pure magnetic field, only Bianchi Types I, II, VI(h = 1) (which is the same as Type III), and VII (h=0) admit field components, whereas Types IV, V, VI (h=1), VII (h\neq0), VIII, and IX admit no field components. These results led to a number of papers of Bianchi models with a perfectfluid magnetic field source.
With respect to the dynamical systems approach applied to the latter, LeBlanc studied Bianchi Type II magnetic cosmologies in which he provided an analysis on the future and past asymptotic states of the resulting dynamical system ^{[18]} LeBlanc also studied the asymptotic states of magnetic perfectfluid Bianchi Type I cosmologies.^{[19]} In this paper, a new solution to the Einstein field equations was discovered. Using phase plane analysis techniques, Collins studied the behaviour of a class of perfectfluid anisotropic cosmological models, and established a correspondence between magnetic models of Bianchi Type I and perfect fluid models of Bianchi Type II.^{[20]} In addition, LeBlanc, Kerr, and Wainwright studied the asymptotic states of magnetic Bianchi Type VI cosmologies. In their work, they showed that there is a finite probability that an arbitrarily selected model will be close to isotropy during some time interval in its evolution.^{[21]} We should note that Barrow, Maartens, and Tsagas did significant work in the reformulation of a 1+3 covariant description of the magnetohydrodynamic equations that has provided further understanding and clarity on the role of largevale electromagnetic fields in the perturbed FriedmannLemaitreRobertsonWalker models.^{[22]}
Viscous MHD Bianchi models, which are of special interest with regards to earlyuniverse cosmologies have been presented in the literature on a number of occasions. van Leeuwen and Salvati studied the dynamics of general Bianchi class A models containing a magnetoviscous fluid and a largescale magnetic field.^{[23]} Banerjee and Sanyal presented some exact solutions of Bianchi Types I and III cosmological models consisting of a viscous fluid and axial magnetic field.^{[24]} Benton and Tupper studied Bianchi Type I models with a powersoft metric under the influence of a viscous fluid with a magnetic field.^{[25]} Salvati, Schelling, and van Leeuwen numerically analyzed the evolution of the Bianchi type I universe with a viscous fluid and largescale magnetic field.^{[26]} Ribeiro and Sanyal studied a Bianchi Type $VI_{0}$ viscous fluid cosmology with an axial magnetic field in which they obtained exact solutions to the Einstein field equations assuming linear relations among the square root of matter density and the shear and expansion scalars.^{[27]} The work of Kohli and Haslam ^{[15]} also gives a detailed analysis based on dynamical systems theory, the evolution of a Bianchi type I model in the presence of a viscous fluid, in which they also discovered a new solution to the Einstein field equations.
Sensors
Magnetohydrodynamic sensors are used for precision measurements of angular velocities in inertial navigation systems such as in aerospace engineering. Accuracy improves with the size of the sensor. The sensor is capable of surviving in harsh environments.^{[28]}
Engineering
MHD is related to engineering problems such as plasma confinement, liquidmetal cooling of nuclear reactors, and electromagnetic casting (among others).
A magnetohydrodynamic drive or MHD propulsor is a method for propelling seagoing vessels using only electric and magnetic fields with no moving parts, using magnetohydrodynamics. The working principle involves electrification of the propellant (gas or water) which can then be directed by a magnetic field, pushing the vehicle in the opposite direction. Although some working prototypes exist, MHD drives remain impractical.
The first prototype of this kind of propulsion was built and tested in 1965 by Steward Way, a professor of mechanical engineering at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Way, on leave from his job at Westinghouse Electric, assigned his senior year undergraduate students to develop a submarine with this new propulsion system.^{[29]} In early 1990s, Mitsubishi built a boat, the 'Yamato,' which uses a magnetohydrodynamic drive, is driven by a liquid heliumcooled superconductor, and can travel at 15 km/h. ^{[30]}
MHD power generation fueled by potassiumseeded coal combustion gas showed potential for more efficient energy conversion (the absence of solid moving parts allows operation at higher temperatures), but failed due to cost prohibitive technical difficulties.^{[31]}
One major engineering problem was the failure of the primary coal combustion chamber's wall due to abrasion.
In microfluidics, MHD is studied as a fluid pump for producing a continuous, nonpulsating flow in a complex microchannel design.^{[32]}
Magnetic drug targeting
An important task in cancer research is developing more precise methods for delivery of medicine to affected areas. One method involves the binding of medicine to biologically compatible magnetic particles (e.g. ferrofluids), which are guided to the target via careful placement of permanent magnets on the external body. Magnetohydrodynamic equations and finite element analysis are used to study the interaction between the magnetic fluid particles in the bloodstream and the external magnetic field. ^{[33]}
See also
 Electrohydrodynamics
 Plasma stability
 Shocks and discontinuities (magnetohydrodynamics)
 Computational magnetohydrodynamics
 Ferrofluid
 MHD generator
 MHD sensor
 Magnetic flow meter
 Lorentz force velocity meter
 Magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
 Molten salt
 Electromagnetic pump
 List of plasma (physics) articles
Notes
 ^ Alfvén, H., "Existence of electromagnetichydrodynamic waves" (1942) Nature, Vol. 150, pp. 405
 ^ Alfvén, H., "Stockholms Observatoriums AnnalerOn the cosmogony of the solar system III", , vol. 14, pp.9.19.29
 ^ Dynamos in Nature by David P. Stern
 ^ McKetta J McKetta, "Encyclopedia of Chemical Processing and Design: Volume 66" (1999)
 ^ Eric Priest and Terry Forbes, "Magnetic Reconnection: MHD Theory and Applications", Cambridge University Press, First Edition, 2000, pp 25.
 ^ MHD waves [Oulu]
 ^ M. J. Lighthill, "Studies on MHD waves and other anisotropic wave motion," Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc., London, vol. 252A, pp. 397430, 1960.
 ^ E.A. Witalis, "Hall Magnetohydrodynamics and Its Applications to Laboratory and Cosmic Plasma", IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science (ISSN 00933813), vol. PS14, Dec. 1986, p. 842848.
 ^ W. Baumjohann and R. A. Treumann, Basic Space Plasma Physics, Imperial College Press, 1997
 ^ NOVA  Magnetic Storm  What Drives Earth's Magnetic Field?  PBS
 ^ Earth's Inconstant Magnetic Field  NASA Science
 ^ FraserSmith, Antony C.; Bernardi, A.; McGill, P. R.; Ladd, M. E.; Helliwell, R. A.; Villard, Jr., O. G. (August 1990). 7.1 Loma Prieta Earthquake"_{s}"LowFrequency Magnetic Field Measurements Near the Epicenter of the M (PDF).
 ^ Thomas, J. N.; Love, J. J.; Johnston, M. J. S. (April 2009). "On the reported magnetic precursor of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake". Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors 173 (3–4): 207–215.
 ^ KentuckyFC (December 9, 2010). "Spacecraft Saw ULF Radio Emissions over Haiti before January Quake". Physics arXiv Blog.
 ^ ^{}a ^{b} Kohli, Ikjyot Singh and Haslam, Michael C, "Dynamical systems approach to a Bianchi type I viscous magnetohydrodynamic model", Phys. Rev. D 88, 063518 (2013)
 ^ George F.R. Ellis and Roy Maartens and Malcolm A.H. MacCallum, "Relativistic Cosmology", Cambridge University Press, First Edition, 2012
 ^ Lane P. Hughston and Kenneth C. Jacobs, "Homogeneous Electromagnetic and MassiveVector Fields in Bianchi Cosmologies", Astrophysical Journal, 160, 147152, 1970
 ^ LeBlanc, V.G., "Bianchi II magnetic cosmologies", Classical and Quantum Gravity, 15, 6, 16071626, 1998
 ^ LeBlanc, V.G., "Asymptotic states of magnetic Bianchi I cosmologies", Classical and Quantum Gravity, 14, 8, 22812301, 1997
 ^ Collins, C.B., "Qualitative Magnetic Cosmology", Communications in Mathematical Physics, 27, 1, 3743, 1972
 ^ LeBlanc, V.G., Kerr, D, Wainwright, J., "Asymptotic States of Magnetic Bianchi VI_{0} Cosmologies", Classical and Quantum Gravitiy, 12, 2, 513541, 1995
 ^ John D. Barrow and Roy Maartens and Christos G. Tsagas, "Cosmology with Inhomogeneous Magnetic Fields", Physics Reports, 449, 6, 131171, 2007
 ^ W.A. van Leeuwen and G.A.Q. Salvati, "Homogeneous Viscous Universes with Magnetic Field I. Basic equations", Annals of Physics, 165, 1, 214236, 1985
 ^ A. Banerjee and A.K. Sanyal, "Homogeneous anisotropic cosmological models with viscous fluid and magnetic field", General Relativity and Gravitation, 18, 12, 12511262, 1986
 ^ J.B. Benton and B.O.J. Tupper, "A class of viscous magnetohydrodynamic typeI cosmologies", Phys. Rev. D 33, 3534 – Published 15 June 1986
 ^ G.A.Q. Salvati and E.E. Schelling and W.A. van Leeuwen, "Homogeneous viscous universes with magnetic field II. Bianchi type I spaces", Annals of Physics, 179, 1, 5275, 1987
 ^ A.K. Sanyal and M.B. Ribeiro, "Bianchi IV0 Viscous Fluid Cosmology with Magnetic Field", Journal of Mathematical Physics, 28, 3, 657660, 1987
 ^ [1] D.Titterton, J.Weston, Strapdown Inertial Navigation Technology, chapter 4.3.2
 ^ "Run Silent, Run Electromagnetic".
 ^ Setsuo Takezawa et al. (March 1995) Operation of the Thruster for Superconducting Electromagnetohydrodynamic Propu1sion Ship YAMATO 1
 ^ Partially Ionized Gases, M. Mitchner and Charles H. Kruger, Jr., Mechanical Engineering Department, Stanford University. See Ch. 9 "Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Power Generation", pp. 214–230.
 ^ Nguyen, N.T., Wereley, S. (2006). Fundamentals and Applications of Microfluidics.
 ^ Magnetohydrodynamics
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