Norman Perceval Rockwell
February 3, 1894
New York City, U.S.
November 8, 1978
Stockbridge, Massachusetts, U.S.
National Academy of Design
Art Students League
|Known for||Painting, illustration|
Rosie the Riveter
The Problem We All Live With
Norman Perceval Rockwell (February 3, 1894 – November 8, 1978) was a 20th-century American painter and illustrator. His works enjoy a broad popular appeal in the United States for their reflection of American culture. Rockwell is most famous for the cover illustrations of everyday life scenarios he created for The Saturday Evening Post magazine for more than four decades. Among the best-known of Rockwell's works are the Willie Gillis series, Rosie the Riveter, The Problem We All Live With, Saying Grace and the Four Freedoms series. He is also noted for his 64-year relationship with the Boy Scouts of America (BSA), producing covers for their publication Boys' Life, calendars, and other illustrations. These works include popular images that reflect the Scout Oath and Scout Law such as The Scoutmaster, A Scout is Reverent, and A Guiding Hand  among many others.
Life and works
Norman Rockwell was born on February 3, 1894, in New York City, to Jarvis Waring Rockwell and Anne Mary "Nancy" (born Hill) Rockwell. His earliest American ancestor was John Rockwell (1588–1662), from 
Rockwell transferred from high school to the Chase Art School at the age of 14. He then went on to the Frank Vincent DuMond; his early works were produced for St. Nicholas Magazine, the Boy Scouts of America (BSA) publication Boys' Life and other youth publications.
As a student, Rockwell was given smaller, less important jobs. His first major breakthrough came in 1912 at age eighteen with his first book illustration for Carl H. Claudy's Tell Me Why: Stories about Mother Nature.
In 1912, Rockwell was hired as a staff artist for Boys' Life magazine. In this role, he received fifty dollars compensation each month for one completed cover and a set of story illustrations. It is said to have been his first paying job as an artist. In 1913, the nineteen-year-old Rockwell became the art editor for Boys' Life, published by the Boy Scouts of America, a post he held for three years (1913–16). As part of that position, he painted several covers, beginning with his first published magazine cover, Scout at Ship's Wheel, appearing on the Boys' Life September 1913 edition.
Rockwell's family moved to New Rochelle, New York, when Norman was 21 years old and shared a studio with the cartoonist Clyde Forsythe, who worked for The Saturday Evening Post. With Forsythe's help, he submitted his first successful cover painting to the Post in 1916, Mother's Day Off (published on May 20). He followed that success with Circus Barker and Strongman (published on June 3), Gramps at the Plate (August 5), Redhead Loves Hatty Perkins (September 16), People in a Theatre Balcony (October 14) and Man Playing Santa (December 9). Rockwell was published eight times total on the Post cover within the first twelve months. Norman Rockwell published a total of 323 original covers for The Saturday Evening Post over 47 years. His Sharp Harmony appeared on the cover of the issue dated September 26, 1936; it depicts a barber and three clients, enjoying a cappella song. The image was adopted by SPEBSQSA in its promotion of the art.
Rockwell's success on the cover of the Post led to covers for other magazines of the day, most notably The Literary Digest, The Country Gentleman, Leslie's Weekly, Judge, Peoples Popular Monthly and Life Magazine.
When Rockwell's tenure began with The Saturday Evening Post in 1916, Rockwell left his salaried position at Boys' Life, but continued to include Scouts in Post cover images and the monthly magazine of the American Red Cross. He resumed work with the Boy Scouts of America in 1926 with production of his first of fifty-one original illustrations for the official Boy Scouts of America annual calendar, which can still be seen in the Norman Rockwell Art Gallery at the National Scouting Museum in the city of Irving near Dallas, TX.
During World War I, he tried to enlist into the U.S. Navy but was refused entry because, at 6 feet (1.8 m) tall and 140 pounds (64 kg) he was eight pounds underweight. To compensate, he spent one night gorging himself on bananas, liquids and doughnuts, and weighed enough to enlist the next day. However, he was given the role of a military artist and did not see any action during his tour of duty.
World War II
In 1943, during World War II, Rockwell painted the Four Freedoms series, which was completed in seven months and resulted in him losing 15 pounds. The series was inspired by a speech by Franklin D. Roosevelt, in which he described four principles for universal rights: Freedom from Want, Freedom of Speech, Freedom of Worship, and Freedom from Fear. The paintings were published in 1943 by The Saturday Evening Post. Rockwell utilized the Pennell Ship Building family from Brunswick Maine as models for two of the paintings, "Freedom from Want" and "A Thankful Mother" and would combine models from photographs and his own vision to create his idealistic paintings. The United States Department of the Treasury later promoted war bonds by exhibiting the originals in 16 cities. Rockwell himself considered "Freedom of Speech" to be the best of the four. That same year, a fire in his studio destroyed numerous original paintings, costumes, and props. Because the period costumes and props were irreplaceable, the fire split his career into 2 phases, the 2nd phase depicting modern characters and situations. Rockwell was contacted by writer Elliott Caplin, brother of cartoonist Al Capp, with the suggestion that the three of them should make a daily comic strip together, with Caplin and his brother writing and Rockwell drawing. King Features Syndicate is reported to have promised a $1,000/week deal, knowing that a Capp-Rockwell collaboration would gain strong public interest. However, the project was ultimately aborted as it turned out that Rockwell, known for his perfectionism as an artist, could not deliver material as fast as required of him for a daily comic strip.
During the late 1940s, Norman Rockwell spent the winter months as artist-in-residence at Otis College of Art and Design. Students occasionally were models for his Saturday Evening Post covers. In 1949, Rockwell donated an original Post cover, "April Fool", to be raffled off in a library fund raiser.
In 1959, after his wife Mary died unexpectedly from a heart attack, Rockwell took time off from his work to grieve. It was during that break that he and his son Thomas produced Rockwell's autobiography, My Adventures as an Illustrator, which was published in 1960. The Post printed excerpts from this book in eight consecutive issues, the first containing Rockwell's famous Triple Self-Portrait.
Rockwell's last painting for the Post was published in 1963, marking the end of a publishing relationship that had included 321 cover paintings. He spent the next ten years painting for Look magazine, where his work depicted his interests in civil rights, poverty and space exploration. In 1968, Rockwell was commissioned to do an album cover portrait of Mike Bloomfield and Al Kooper for their record The Live Adventures of Mike Bloomfield and Al Kooper. During his long career, he was commissioned to paint the portraits for Presidents Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon, as well as those of foreign figures, including Gamal Abdel Nasser and Jawaharlal Nehru. One of his last works was a portrait of Judy Garland in 1969.
A custodianship of his original paintings and drawings was established with Rockwell's help near his home in Stockbridge, Massachusetts, and the Norman Rockwell Museum is still open today year round. The museum's collection includes more than 700 original Rockwell paintings, drawings, and studies. The Rockwell Center for American Visual Studies at the Norman Rockwell Museum is a national research institute dedicated to American illustration art.
His last commission for the Boy Scouts of America was a calendar illustration titled The Spirit of '76 which was completed when Rockwell was eighty-two, concluding a partnership which generated an astounding four hundred and seventy-one images for periodicals, guidebooks, calendars, and promotional materials. His connection to the BSA spanned sixty-four years, marking the longest professional association of his career. Joseph Csatari has carried on his legacy and style for the BSA.
For "vivid and affectionate portraits of our country," Rockwell received the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the United States of America's highest civilian honor, in 1977.
Rockwell married his first wife, Irene O'Connor, in 1916. Irene was Rockwell's model in Mother Tucking Children into Bed, published on the cover of The Literary Digest on January 19, 1921. However, the couple divorced in 1930. Depressed, he moved briefly to Alhambra, California as a guest of his old friend Clyde Forsythe. There he painted some of his best-known paintings including The Doctor and the Doll. While there he met and married schoolteacher Mary Barstow. The couple returned to New York shortly after their marriage. They had three children: Jarvis Waring, Thomas Rhodes and Peter Barstow. The family lived at 24 Lord Kitchener Road in the Bonnie Crest neighborhood of New Rochelle, New York. For multiple reasons Rockwell and his wife were not regular Church attendees though they were members of St. John's Wilmot Church, an Episcopal church near their home, and had their sons baptized there as well. Rockwell moved to Arlington, Vermont, in 1939 where his work began to reflect small-town life.
In 1953, the Rockwell family moved to Stockbridge, Massachusetts, so that his wife could be treated at the Austen Riggs Center, a psychiatric hospital at 25 Main Street, down Main Street from where Rockwell set up his studio. Rockwell himself received psychiatric treatment from the analyst Erik Erikson, who was on staff at Riggs. Erikson is said to have told the artist that he painted his happiness, but did not live it. In 1959, Mary died unexpectedly of a heart attack. Rockwell married his third wife, retired Milton Academy English teacher Mary Leete "Mollie" Punderson, on October 25, 1961.
From 1961 until his death, Rockwell was a member of the Monday Evening Club, a men's literary group based in Pittsfield, Massachusetts. At his funeral, five members of the club served as pallbearers, along with Jarvis Rockwell.
Body of work
Norman Rockwell was a prolific artist, producing over 4,000 original works in his lifetime. Most of his works are either in public collections, or have been destroyed in fire or other misfortunes. Rockwell was also commissioned to illustrate over 40 books including Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn. His annual contributions for the Boy Scouts' calendars between 1925 and 1976 (Rockwell was a 1939 recipient of the Silver Buffalo Award, the highest adult award given by the Boy Scouts of America), were only slightly overshadowed by his most popular of calendar works: the "Four Seasons" illustrations for Brown & Bigelow that were published for 17 years beginning in 1947 and reproduced in various styles and sizes since 1964. He painted six images for Coca-Cola’s advertising. Illustrations for booklets, catalogs, posters (particularly movie promotions), sheet music, stamps, playing cards, and murals (including "Yankee Doodle Dandy" and "God Bless the Hills", which was completed in 1936 for the Nassau Inn in Princeton, New Jersey) rounded out Rockwell's œuvre as an illustrator.
In 1969, as a tribute to Rockwell's 75th-year birthday, officials of Brown & Bigelow and the Boy Scouts of America asked Rockwell to pose in Beyond the Easel, the calendar illustration that year.
Rockwell's work was dismissed by serious art critics in his lifetime. Many of his works appear overly sweet in modern critics' eyes, especially the Saturday Evening Post covers, which tend toward idealistic or sentimentalized portrayals of American life – this has led to the often-deprecatory adjective "Rockwellesque". Consequently, Rockwell is not considered a "serious painter" by some contemporary artists, who often regard his work as bourgeois and kitsch. Writer Vladimir Nabokov sneered that Rockwell's brilliant technique was put to "banal" use, and wrote in his book Pnin: "That Dalí is really Norman Rockwell's twin brother kidnapped by Gypsies in babyhood". He is called an "illustrator" instead of an artist by some critics, a designation he did not mind, as it was what he called himself.
However, in his later years, Rockwell began receiving more attention as a painter when he chose more serious subjects such as the series on racism for Look magazine. One example of this more serious work is The Problem We All Live With, which dealt with the issue of school racial integration. The painting depicts a young African American girl, Ruby Bridges, flanked by white federal marshals, walking to school past a wall defaced by racist graffiti. This painting was displayed in the White House during Bridges' meeting with President Obama in 2011.
Rockwell's work was exhibited at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in 2001. Rockwell's Breaking Home Ties sold for $15.4 million at a 2006 Sotheby's auction. A twelve-city U.S. tour of Rockwell's works took place in 2008. In 2008, Rockwell was named the official state artist of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The 2013 sale of Saying Grace for $46 million (including buyer's premium) established a new record price for Rockwell. Rockwell's work was exhibited at the Reading Public Museum and the Church History Museum in 2013-2014.
- In the film Empire of the Sun, a young boy (played by Christian Bale) is put to bed by his loving parents in a scene also inspired by a Rockwell painting—a reproduction of which is later kept by the young boy during his captivity in a prison camp ("Freedom from Fear", 1943).
- The 1994 film Forrest Gump includes a shot in a school that re-creates Rockwell's "Girl with Black Eye" with young Forrest in place of the girl. Much of the film drew heavy visual inspiration from Rockwell's art.
- Film director Steven Spielberg owns a sketch of Rockwell's Triple Self-Portrait. Each of the artworks hangs in the respective filmmaker's workspace. Rockwell is a major character in an episode of Lucas’ Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, “Passion for Life.”
- In 2005, Target Co. sold Marshall Field's to Federated Department Stores. After the sale, Federated discovered that Rockwell's The Clock Mender displayed in the store was a reproduction. Rockwell had donated the painting, which depicts a repairman setting the time on one of the Marshall Field and Company Building clocks, and was depicted on the cover of the November 3, 1945 Saturday Evening Post, to the store in 1948. Target has since donated the original to the Chicago History Museum.
- On Norman Rockwell's birthday, February 3, 2010, Google featured Rockwell's iconic image of young love "Boy and Girl Gazing at the Moon", which is also known as "Puppy Love", on its home page. The response was so great that day that the Norman Rockwell museum's servers went down under the onslaught.
- "Dreamland", a track from Canadian alternative rock band Our Lady Peace's 2009 album Burn Burn, was inspired by Rockwell's paintings.
- The cover for the Oingo Boingo album Only a Lad is a parody of the Boy Scouts of America 1960 official handbook cover illustrated by Rockwell.
- Scout at Ship's Wheel (first published magazine cover illustration, Boys' Life, September 1913)
- Santa and Scouts in Snow (1913)
- Boy and Baby Carriage (1916; first Saturday Evening Post cover)
- Circus Barker and Strongman (1916)
- Gramps at the Plate (1916)
- Redhead Loves Hatty Perkins (1916)
- People in a Theatre Balcony (1916)
- Tain't You (1917; first Life magazine cover)
- Cousin Reginald Goes to the Country (1917; first Country Gentleman cover)
- Santa and Expense Book (1920)
- Mother Tucking Children into Bed (1921; first wife Irene is the model)
- No Swimming (1921)
- Santa with Elves (1922)
- Doctor and Doll (1929)
- Deadline (1938)
- The Four Freedoms (1943)
- Rosie the Riveter (1943)
- Going and Coming (1947)
- Bottom of the Sixth (or The Three Umpires; 1949)
- The New Television Set (1949)
- Saying Grace (1951)
- The Young Lady with a Shiner (1953)
- Walking to Church (1953)
- Girl at Mirror (1954)
- Breaking Home Ties (1954)
- The Marriage License (1955)
- The Scoutmaster (1956)
- The Runaway (1958)
- A Family Tree (1959)
- Triple Self-Portrait (1960)
- Golden Rule (1961)
- The Problem We All Live With (1964)
- Southern Justice (Murder in Mississippi) (1965)
- New Kids in the Neighborhood (1967)
- Russian Schoolroom (1967)
- The Rookie
- Spirit of 76 (1976) (stolen in 1978 but recovered in 2001 by the FBI's Robert King Wittman)
- Waiting for the Vet (1952)
- Norman Rockwell World War II posters, hosted by the University of North Texas Libraries Digital Collections
- Rockwell Collection at the National Museum of American Illustration
- Norman Rockwell and the Art of Scouting at the National Scouting Museum, Irving, Texas
- J. C. Leyendecker, Rockwell's predecessor and stylistic inspiration
- James K. Van Brunt, a frequent model for Rockwell
- William Obanhein, another one of Rockwell's models who would later become famous elsewhere
- Norman Rockwell's World... An American Dream, a 1972 short documentary film
- "About Norman Rockwell". Norman Rockwell Museum. Norman Rockwell Museum. 2014. Retrieved July 18, 2014.
- "A Scout is Reverent". National Scouting Museum. Boy Scouts of America. 2010. Retrieved July 18, 2014.
- "A Guiding Hand". National Scouting Museum. Boy Scouts of America. 2010. Retrieved July 18, 2014.
- Boughton, James (1903). Genealogy of the families of John Rockwell, of Stamford, Connecticut 1641, and Ralph Keeler, of Hartford, Connecticut 1939. WF Jones. p. 441.
- Roberts, Gary Boyd; Dearborn, David Curtis (1998). Notable Kin: An Anthology of Columns First Published in the NEHGS Nexus, 1986–1995. Boston,
- Claridge 2001, pp. 20, 29.
- Rockwell, Margaret (1998). Norman Rockwell's Growing Up in America. Metro Books. pp. 10–11.
- SSDI. – SS#: 177-01-3581.
- Claridge 2001, pp. 30, 47, 150.
- Rockwell, Norman; Rockwell, Thomas (1988). Norman Rockwell, My Adventures as an Illustrator. Abrams. p. 27.
- "Norman Rockwell". National Scouting Museum. Boy Scouts of America. 2010. Retrieved July 18, 2014.
- "Rockwell and Csatari: A tour de force".
- "Norman Rockwell". National Scouting Museum. Boy Scouts of America. 2010. Retrieved July 18, 2014.
- Hills, Waring (June 9, 2010). "Norman Rockwell at The Charleston Navy Yard". Retrieved July 18, 2014.
- Caplin, Elliott (1994), Al Capp Remembered.
- Gherman 2000.
- Kamp, David. "Erratum: Norman Rockwell Actually Did Rock Well". Vanity Fair. Retrieved February 24, 2011.
- "A personal recollection". City of Alhambra. Retrieved April 28, 2012.
- Kamp, David (November 2009). "Norman Rockwell’s American Dream". Vanity fair. Retrieved April 28, 2012.
- "A portrait of Norman Rockwell". Berkshire Eagle (online ed.). July 3, 2009. Retrieved April 28, 2012.
- Claridge 2001, p. 581.
- "The Club's historic membership roster, part VII: members joining 1942-1961", Monday Evening Club. Retrieved May 1, 2014.
- "Official List of Silver Buffalo award Recipients", Awards, Scouting, retrieved July 17, 2007.
- Windolf, Jim (February 2008). "Keys to the Kingdom". Vanity fair. Retrieved April 28, 2012.
- "In Praise of Bad Art"Solomon, Deborah, . New York Times. January 24, 1999. Retrieved April 28, 2012.
- "Art of Illustration". Norman Rockwell Museum. Retrieved April 28, 2012.
- "Norman Rockwell Wins Medal of Freedom". Mass moments. Retrieved April 28, 2012.
- Miller, Michelle (November 12, 2010). "Ruby Bridges, Rockwell Muse, Goes Back to School". CBS Evening News with Katie Couric (CBS Interactive). Retrieved November 13, 2010.
- Ruby Bridges visits with the President and her portrait
- Norman Rockwell: Pictures for the American People. Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum Past Exhibitions.
- Business Standard. Norman Rockwell's art, once sniffed at, is becoming prized. James B Stewart. May 24, 2014.
- About Norman Rockwell, NRM.
- "Norman Rockwell's 'Saying Grace' Sells For $46 Million At Auction". National Public Radio. Retrieved December 5, 2013.
- Gates, Anita (November 24, 1999). "Looking Beyond the Myth-Making Easel of Mr. Thanksgiving". The New York Times. Retrieved April 28, 2012.
- Corliss, Richard (June 24, 2001). "The World According to Gump". Time. Retrieved April 28, 2012.
- Aronovich, Hannah (April 20, 2006). "Field's, Federated and More Feuds". Gothamist. Retrieved April 4, 2008.
- "Norman Rockwell of Field's Store Goes Missing". NBC5. April 21, 2006. Retrieved April 4, 2008.
- "Time heals rift over a Rockwell".
- "Dreamland". Song facts. Retrieved May 5, 2010.
- "Rosie the Riveter". Rosie the Riveter. Retrieved April 28, 2012.
- NRM, p. 109
- "The Norman Rockwell collection". Me. Retrieved April 28, 2012.
- "Norman Rockwell: Southern Justice (Murder in Mississippi)". Artchive. Retrieved April 28, 2012.
- "Norman Rockwell and the Art of Scouting" (exhibition). Irving,
- Claridge, Laura P (2001). Norman Rockwell: A Life. Random House. pp. 20, 29.
- Gherman, Beverly (2000). Norman Rockwell: Storyteller with a Brush.
- Buechner, Thomas S (1992). The Norman Rockwell Treasury. Galahad.
- Finch, Christopher (1990). Norman Rockwell: 332 Magazine Covers.
- Christopher, Finch (1985). Norman Rockwell's America.
- Hennessey, Maureen Hart; Larson, Judy L. (1999). Norman Rockwell: Pictures for the American People. Harry N. Abrams.
- Rockwell, Tom (2005). Best of Norman Rockwell. Courage Books.
- Schick, Ron (2009). Norman Rockwell: Behind the Camera. Little, Brown & Co.
- Claridge, Laura (December 2, 2001), Norman Rockwell: A Life (interview), Booknotes.
- Gallery of classic graphic design featuring the illustrations of Norman Rockwell.
- Art Directors Club biography, portrait and images of work
- Norman Rockwell at Find a Grave
- Footage of Norman Rockwell sketching a couple
- "America, Illustrated",
- Dossena, Tiziano Thomas (April 2011), Norman Rockwell: Once upon a time there Was the American Dream, USA: Bridge Puglia