Northwest Greek

Northwest Greek

For the modern Doric dialect of Scotland, see Doric dialect (Scotland).
Doric Greek
Region Peloponnese, Crete, Rhodes
Era ca. 800–100 BC; evolved into Tsakonian
Language family
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Linguist List
 
 
 
 
 

Doric or Dorian was a dialect of Ancient Greek. Its variants were spoken in the southern and eastern Peloponnese, Crete, Rhodes, some islands in the southern Aegean Sea, some cities on the coasts of Asia Minor, Southern Italy, Sicily, Epirus and Macedon. Together with Northwest Greek, it forms the "Western group" of classical Greek dialects. By Hellenistic times, under the Achaean League, the Achaean Doric Koine appeared exhibiting many peculiarities common to all Doric dialects and which delayed the spread of the Attic-based Koine to the Peloponnese until the 2nd century BC.[1]

It is widely accepted that Doric originated in the mountains of Epirus and Macedonia, northwestern Greece, the original seat of the Dorians. It was expanded to all other regions during the Dorian invasion (c. 1150 BC) and the colonisations that followed. The presence of a Doric state (Doris) in central Greece, north of the Gulf of Corinth, led to the theory that Doric had originated in northwest Greece or maybe beyond in the Balkans. The dialect's distribution towards the north extends to the Megarian colony of Byzantium and the Corinthian colonies of Potidaea, Epidamnos, Apollonia and Ambracia; there it further added words to what would become the Albanian language,[2][3] probably via traders from a now-extinct Illyrian intermediary.[4] Local epigraphical evidence is restricted to the decrees of the Epirote League and the Pella curse tablet (both in early 4th century BC), as well to the Doric eponym Machatas first attested in Macedonia (early 5th century BC).[5]

Variants

Doric proper

Where the Doric dialect group fits in the overall classification of ancient Greek dialects depends to some extent on the classification. Several views are stated under Greek dialects. The prevalent theme of most views listed there is that Doric is a subgroup of West Greek. Some use the terms Northern Greek or Northwest Greek instead. The geographic distinction is only verbal and ostensibly is misnamed: all of Doric was spoken south of "Southern Greek" or "Southeastern Greek."

Be that as it may, "Northern Greek" is based on a presumption that Dorians came from the north and on the fact that Doric is closely related to Northwest Greek. When the distinction began is not known. All the "northerners" might have spoken one dialect at the time of the Dorian invasion; certainly, Doric could only have further differentiated into its classical dialects when the Dorians were in place in the south. Thus West Greek is the most accurate name for the classical dialects.

Tsakonian, a descendant of Laconian Doric (Spartan), is still spoken on the southern Argolid coast of the Peloponnese, in the modern prefectures of Arcadia and Laconia. Today it is a source of considerable interest to linguists, and an endangered dialect.

The dialects of the Doric Group are as follows.

Laconian, Heraclean

Laconian was spoken by the population of Laconia in the southern Peloponnesus and also by its colonies, Tarentum and Heraclea, in southern Italy. Sparta was the seat of ancient Laconia.

Laconian is attested in inscriptions on pottery and stone from the 7th century BC. A dedication to Helen dates from the 2nd quarter of the 7th. Tarentum was founded in 706 BC. The founders must already have spoken Laconic.

Many documents from the state of Sparta survive, whose citizens called themselves Lacedaemonians after the name of the valley in which they lived. Homer calls it "hollow Lacedaemon", though he refers to a pre-Dorian period. The 7th century BC, Spartan poet, Alcman, used a dialect that some consider to be predominantly Laconian. Philoxenus of Alexandria wrote a treatise On the Laconian dialect.

Argolic

Argolic was spoken in the thickly settled northeast Peloponnesus at, for example, Argos, Mycenae, Hermione, Troezen, Epidaurus, and as close to Athens as the island of Aegina. As Mycenaean Greek had been spoken in this dialect region in the Bronze Age, it is clear that the Dorians overran it but were unable to take Attica. The Dorians went on from Argos to Crete and Rhodes.

Ample inscriptional material of a legal, political and religious content exists from at least the 6th century BC.

Corinthian

Corinthian was spoken first in the isthmus region between the Peloponnesus and mainland Attic Greek.)

Corinth contradicts the prejudice that Dorians were rustic militarists, as some consider the speakers of Laconian to be. Positioned on an international trade route, Corinth played a leading part in the recivilizing of Greece after the centuries of disorder and isolation following the collapse of Mycenaean Greece.

Northwest Greek

The Northwest Greek group is closely related to the Doric Group, while sometimes there is no distinction between the Doric and the Northwest Greek. Whether it is to be considered a part of the Doric Group or the latter a part of it or the two subgroups of West Greek: the dialects and their grouping remain the same. West Thessalian and Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Greek influence. The Northwest Greek dialects differ from the Doric Group dialects in the below features:[6]

  1. Dative plural of the third declension in -οις (-ois) (instead of -σι (-si)): Ἀκαρνάνοις ἱππέοις Akarnanois hippeois for Ἀκαρνᾶσιν ἱππεῦσιν Akarnasin hippeusin (to the Acarnanian knights).
  2. ἐν (en) + accusative (instead of εἰς (eis)): en Naupakton (into Naupactus).
  3. -στ (-st) for -σθ (-sth): γενέσται genestai for genesthai (to become), μίστωμα mistôma for misthôma (payment for hiring).
  4. ar for er: amara /Dor. amera/Att. hêmera (day), Elean wargon for Doric wergon and Attic ergon (work)
  5. Dative singular in -oi instead of -ôi: τοῖ Ἀσκλαπιοῖ, Doric τῶι Ἀσκλαπιῶι, Attic Ἀσκληπιῶι (to Asclepius)
  6. Middle participle in -eimenos instead of -oumenos

The dialects are as follows:

Plutarch refers that Delphians pronounce b in the place of p (βικρὸν for πικρὸν)[7]

The dialect of Elis, Olympia is, after the Aeolic dialects, one of the most difficult for the modern reader of epigraphic texts[9] (earliest c. 600 BC)[10]

  • Northwest Greek Koiné
    • hybrid dialect of Attic and certain Northwest Greek and Doric features
    • chiefly associated with the Aetolian Confederacy and dates to the 2nd and 3rd centuries BC.

Calydon sanctuary (earliest c. 600-575 BC)[11] - Aetolian League 300-262 BC[12]

A school of thought maintains that Macedonian may have been a Greek dialect, possibly of the Northwestern group in particular,[18] although would classify Macedonian as a separate marginal or "deviant" item on its own.[19]

Phonology

Vowels

Long a

Proto-Greek long ā → Doric ā ~ Attic long open ē (eta) in at least some positions.

  • Doric gā mātēr ~ Attic gē mētēr "earth mother"

Compensatory lengthening of e and o

In certain Doric dialects (Severe Doric), e and o lengthen by compensatory lengthening or contraction to eta or omega ~ Attic ei and ou (spurious diphthongs).

  • Severe Doric ~ Attic -ou (second-declension genitive singular)
  • -ōs ~ -ous (second-declension accusative plural)
  • -ēn ~ -ein (present, second aorist infinitive active)

Contraction of a and e

Contraction: Proto-Greek ae → Doric ē (eta) ~ Attic ā.

Synizesis

Proto-Greek eo, ea → some Doric dialects' io, ia.

Proto-Greek a

Proto-Greek short a → Doric short a ~ Attic e in certain words.

  • Doric hiaros, Artamis ~ Attic hieros "holy", Artemis

Consonants

Proto-Greek -ti

Proto-Greek -ti is retained (assibilated to -si in Attic).

  • Doric phāti ~ Attic phēsi "he says" (3rd sing. pres. of athematic verb)
  • legonti ~ legousi "they say" (3rd pl. pres. of thematic verb)
  • wīkati ~ eikosi "twenty"
  • triākatioi ~ triākosioi "three hundred"

Proto-Greek ss

Proto-Greek -ss- between vowels is retained (shortened to -s- in Attic).

  • Doric messos ~ Attic mesos "middle

Digamma

Initial w (ϝ) is preserved in earlier Doric (lost in Attic).

  • Doric woikos ~ Attic oikos "house" (compare Latin vīcus "village")

Literary texts in Doric and inscriptions from the Hellenistic age have no digamma.

Future tense

The aorist and future of verbs in -izō, -azō has x (versus Attic/Koine s).

  • Doric agōnixato ~ Attic agōnisato "he contended"

Similarly k before suffixes beginning with t.

Morphology

Numeral tetores ~ Attic tettares, Ionic tesseres "four".


Ordinal prātos ~ Attic–Ionic prōtos "first".


Demonstrative pronoun tēnos "this" ~ Attic–Ionic (e)keinos


t for h (from Proto-Indo-European s) in article and demonstrative pronoun.

  • Doric toi, tai; toutoi, tautai
  • ~ Attic-Ionic hoi, hai; houtoi, hautai.

Third person plural, athematic or root aorist -n ~ Attic -san.

  • Doric edon ~ Attic–Ionic edosan

First person plural active -mes ~ Attic–Ionic -men.


Future -se-ō ~ Attic -s-ō.

  • prāxētai (prāk-se-etai) ~ Attic–Ionic prāxetai

Modal particle ka ~ Attic–Ionic an.

  • Doric ai ka, ai de ka, ai tis ka ~ ean, ean de, ean tis

Temporal adverbs in -ka ~ Attic–Ionic -te.

  • hoka, toka

Locative adverbs in -ei ~ Attic/Koine -ou.

  • teide, pei.

Glossary

Common

  • αἰγάδες aigades (Attic αἶγες aiges) "goats"
  • αἶγες aiges (Attic κύματα kymata) "waves"
  • ἁλία Hêliaia)
  • βρύκαιναι brykainai (Attic ἱέρειαι hiereiai) "priestesses"
  • βρυκετός bryketos (Attic βρυγμός brygmos, βρυκηθμός brykēthmos) "chewing, grinding, gnashing with the teeth" ὁμοίως Δωριεῖς
  • δαμιοργοί Elean.
  • Ἐλωός Hephaestus Ἥφαιστος παρὰ Δωριεῦσιν
  • κάρρων karrōn (Attic κρείττων kreittōn) "stronger" (Ionic kreissōn, Cretan kartōn )
  • κορύγης korygēs (Attic κῆρυξ kēryx) "herald, messenger" (Aeolic karoux)
  • λαιός laevus
  • λαία laia (Attic, Modern Greek λεία leia) "prey"
  • λέω (λείω) le(i)ō (Attic ἐθέλω ethelō) "will"
  • οἴνωτρος oinōtros "vine pole" (: Greek οἶνος oinos "wine"). Cf. Oenotrus
  • μογίοντι mogionti (Ionic πυρέσσουσι pyressousi) "they are on fire, have fever" (= Attic μογοῦσι mogousi "they suffer, take pains to")
  • μυρμηδόνες Myrmidons
  • ὄπτιλλος Optics)
  • πάομαι paomai (Attic κτάομαι ktaomai) "acquire"
  • ῥαπιδοποιός rhaphis)
  • σκανά skana (Attic skênê) tent,stage, scene) (Homeric klisiê) (Doric skanama encampment)
  • τανθαλύζειν tanthalyzein (Attic τρέμειν tremein) "to tremble"
  • τύνη tunē or tounē 'you nominative' (Attic sy) dative τέειν teein (Attic σοί soi)
  • χανάκτιον chanaktion (Attic μωρόν mōron)(chan goose)

Argive

  • Βαλλακράδες Ballacrades title of Argive athletes on a feast-day (Cf.achras wild pear-tree)[20]
  • Δαυλὶς daulon fire log)
  • δροόν droon strong (Attic ischyron,dynaton)
  • κέστερ kester youngman (Attic neanias)
  • κυλλάραβις gymnasium at Argos
  • σεμαλία semalia ragged, tattered garments Attic rhakē, cf. himatia clothes)
  • ὤβεα ôbea eggs (Attic ὠά ôa )

Cretan

  • ἀγέλα agela "group of boys in the apagelos not yet received in agelê,boy under 17)
  • ἀδνός Ariadne)
  • ἀϝτὸς aWtos (Attic autos) Hsch. aus <αὐς - >· αὐτός. Κρῆτες καὶ Λάκωνες
  • ἄκαρα skelê)
  • ἁμάκις hamakis once (Attic hapax)
  • ἄργετος juniper,cedar (Attic arkeuthos)
  • αὐκά auka power (Attic alkê)
  • ἀφραττίας aphrattias strong
  • βαλικιώται balikiôtai Koine synepheboi (Attic hêlikiotai 'age-peers' of the same age hêlikia)
  • βριτύ britu sweet (Attic glyku)
  • δαμιόω Boeotian. for Attic zêmioô to damage,punish,harm
  • δαμπόν dampon first milk curdled by heating over embers (Attic puriephthon,puriatê)
  • δῶλα ata)
  • Ϝέλχανος Cnossian month)
  • ϝεργάδδομαι wergaddomai I work (Attic ergazomai)
  • ϝῆμα Wêma garment (Attic heima) (Aeolic emma) (Koine (h)immation)(Cf.Attic amphi-ennumi I dress, amph-iesis clothing)
  • ἰβῆν ibên wine (Dialectal Ϝοἶνος Woînos Attic oinos) (accusative ἰβῆνα ibêna)
  • ἴττον itton one (Attic hen ἕν)
  • καρανώ karanô goat
  • ϟόσμος archontes in Crete, body of kosmoi (Attic κόσμος order,ornament, honour,world - kormos trunk of a tree)
  • κύφερον , κυφή kypheron , kuphê head (Attic kephalê)
  • λάκος Aeolic brakos long robe, lacks the sense 'ragged')
  • μαλκενίς malkenis (Attic parthenos) Hsch: malakinnês.
  • ὄθρυν Othrys)
  • ῥυστόν rhyston spear
  • σεῖφα seipha darkness (Attic zophos,skotia) (Aeolic dnophos)
  • σπεῦσδος speusdos title of Cretan officer (Cf.speudô speus- rush)
  • τάγανα tagana (Attic tauta) these things
  • τίρος tiros summer (Homeric,Attic theros)
  • τρέ tre you, accusative ( Attic se )

Laconian

  • ἀβήρ abêr storeroom οἴκημα στοὰς ἔχον, ταμεῖον Λάκωνες
  • ἀβώρ abôr dawn (Attic ἠώς êôs) (Latin aurora)
  • ἄδδα adda need,deficiency (Attic Aristophanes of Byzantium(fr. 33)
  • ἀδδαυόν addauon dry (i.e. azauon) or addanon (Attic xêron)
  • αἴκουδα aikouda (Attic aischunē) αἰσχύνη. Λάκωνες
  • αἵματία Black soup) (haima haimatos blood)
  • ἀΐτας aïtas (Attic ἐρώμενος erōmenos) "beloved boy (in a pederastic relationship)"
  • ἀκκόρ akkor tube,bag (Attic askos)
  • ἀκχαλίβαρ Koine krabbatos)
  • ἀμβροτίξας ambrotixas having begun, past participle(amphi or ana..+ ?) (Attic aparxamenos, aparchomai) (Doric -ixas for Attic -isas)
  • ἀμπέσσαι ampesai (Attic amphiesai) to dress
  • ἀπαβοίδωρ apaboidôr out of tune (Attic ekmelôs) (Cf.Homeric singer Aoidos) / emmelôs,aboidôr in tune
  • Ἀπέλλα apella (Attic ἐκκλησία ekklēsia) "assembly in Sparta" (verb apellazein)
  • ἀρβυλίς arbylis (Attic ἀρύβαλλος aryballos) (Hesychius <ἀρβυλίδα>· λήκυθον. Λάκωνες)
  • ἄττασι attasi wake up,get up (Attic anastêthi)
  • βάβαλον imperative of cry aloud, shout (Attic kraugason)
  • βάγαρον Laconian word)
  • βαφά dyeing)
  • βείκατι beikati twenty (Attic εἴκοσι eikosi)
  • βέλα abelios)
  • βερνώμεθα Moirai)
  • βέσκερος beskeros bread (Attic artos)
  • βήλημα bêlêma hindrance, river dam (Laconian)
  • βηρίχαλκον bêrichalkon fennel (Attic marathos) (chalkos bronze)
  • βίβασις bibasis Spartan dance for boys and girls
  • βίδυοι Sparta"
  • βίὡρ biôr almost,maybe (Attic ἴσως isôs, σχεδόν schedon) wihôr
  • βλαγίς blagis spot (Attic kêlis)
  • βοῦα agōgē"
  • βο(υ)αγός bo(u)agos "leader of a boua at Sparta"
  • βυλλίχης bullichês Laconian dancer (Attic orchêstês)
  • βώνημα eireo) (Cf.Attic phônêma sound, speech)
  • γαβεργόρ gabergor labourer (ga earth wergon work) (Cf.geôrgos farmer)
  • γαιάδας gaiadas citizens,people (Attic dêmos)
  • γονάρ gonar mother Laconian (gonades children Eur. Med. 717)
  • δαβελός daelos, dawelos)(Modern Greek davlos) (Laconian δαβῇ dabêi (Attic kauthêi) it should be burnt)
  • δίζα diza goat (Attic aix) and Hera aigophagos Goat-eater in Sparta
  • εἴρην eirēn (Attic ἔφηβος ephēbos) "Spartan youth who has completed his 12th year"
  • εἰσπνήλας eispneô inhale,breathe)
  • ἐξωβάδια exôbadia (Attic enôtia ; ôta ears)
  • ἔφοροι ephoroi (Attic ἔφοροι ἄρχοντες archontes) "high officials at Sparta". Cf. Attic ἔφορος ephoros "overseer, guardian"
  • Θοράτης thoraios containing the semen, god of growth and increase
  • θρῶναξ drone (Attic kêphên)
  • κάφα skaphê basin,bowl)
  • κελοῖα Sparta"
  • κίρα kirafox (Attic alôpêx) (Hsch kiraphos).
  • μεσόδμα anthrôpô (Attic gunê)
  • μυρταλίς Olympias)
  • πάσορ pasor passion (Attic pathos)
  • πόρ por leg,foot (Attic pous)
  • πούρδαιν pyre)
  • σαλαβάρ salabar cook (Common Doric/Attic mageiros)
  • σίκα grôna female pig.
  • σιρία siria safeness (Attic asphaleia)
  • ψιθωμίας psithômias ill,sick (Attic asthenês) Λάκωνες τὸν ἀσθενῆ
  • ψιλάκερ psilaker first dancer
  • ὠβά ôba (Attic κώμη kōmē) "village; one of five quarters of the city of Sparta"

Magna Graecian

  • ἀστύξενοι astyxenoi Metics, Tarentine
  • βάννας
  • βειλαρμοσταὶ harmost-)
  • δόστορε dostore 'you make' Tarentine (Attic ποιεῖτε)
  • Θαύλια Thaulia "festival of Tarentum", θαυλακίζειν thaulakizein 'to demand sth with uproar' Tarentine, θαυλίζειν thaulizein "to celebrate like Dorians", Θαῦλος Thaulos "Macedonian Ares", Thessalian Ζεὺς Θαύλιος Zeus Thaulios, Athenian Ζεὺς Θαύλων Zeus Thaulon, Athenian family Θαυλωνίδαι Thaulonidai
  • ῥάγανον Thuriian (Attic rhaidion) (Aeolic braidion)
  • σκύτας skytas 'back-side of neck' (Attic trachēlos)
  • τήνης tênês till Tarentine (Attic ἕως heôs)
  • τρυφώματα tryphômata whatever are fed or nursed, children, cattle (Attic thremmata)
  • ὑετίς huetis jug, huetos rain)

North-West

Aetolian-Acarnanian

  • ἀγρίδιον agridion 'village' agros countryside,field)
  • ἀερία aeria fog Aetolian (Attic omichlê, aêr air)(Hsch.<ἀερία>· ὀμίχλη, παρὰ Αἰτωλοῖς.)
  • κίββα Suid. cites kibos)
  • πλήτομον palaion,palaiotaton very old)

Delphic-Locrian

  • δείλομαι Coan dêlomai) (Doric bôlomai) (Thessalian belloumai)
  • ϝαργάνα Wargon
  • ϝέρρω berrês fugitive, berreuô escape)
  • Ϝεσπάριοι Λοϟροὶ Wesparioi Lokroi Epizephyrian (Western) Locrians (Attic hesperios of evening,western, Doric wesperios) (cf. Latin Vesper)
  • ὀπλίαι Locrians counted their cattle

Elean

  • ἀϝλανέο̄ς alanes true)(Tarentinian alaneôs absolutely)
  • ἀμίλλυξ Boeotian amillakas wine)
  • ἀττάμιος attamios unpunished (Attic azêmios) from an earliest addamios (cf.Cretan,Boeotian damioô punish)
  • βάβακοι Pontus babakoi frogs)
  • βαίδειος baideios ready (Attic hetoimos) (heteos fitness)
  • βενέοι beneoi Elean[23]
  • βορσός borsos cross (Attic stauros)
  • βρα phratra)
  • βρατάνα Aeolic bradanizô brandish,shake off)
  • δειρῆται Macedonian δρῆες drêes or δρῆγες drêges) (Attic strouthoi) (Hsc. trikkos small bird and king by Eleans)
  • ϝράτρα Wratra law,contract (Attic rhetra)
  • σερός seros yesterday (Attic chthes)
  • στερχανά sterchana funeral feast (Attic perideipnon)
  • φίλαξ philax young oak (Macedonian ilax, Latin ilex (Laconian dilax ariocarpus, sorbus)(Modern Cretan azilakas Holm Oak, Quercus ilex)
  • φόρβυτα gums (Attic oula) (Homeric pherbô feed,eat)

Epirotic

  • ἀγχωρίξαντας anchôrixantasanchôreô Attic ana-chôreô go back,withdraw.
  • ἀκαθαρτία akathartia impurity (Attic/Doric akatharsia) (Lamelles Oraculaires 14)
  • ἀποτράχω apotrachô run away (Attic/Doric
  • ἄσπαλοι hals sea)
  • Ἄσπετος Aspetos divine epithet of
  • γνώσκω gnôskô know (Attic gignôskô) (Ionic/Koine ginôskô) (Latin nōsco)(Attic gnôsis, Latin notio knowledge) (ref.Orion p. 42.17)
  • διαιτός diaitos (Hshc. judge kritês) (Attic diaitêtês arbitrator) Lamelles Oraculaires 16
  • ἐσκιχρέμεν ἀργύρροι (Lamelles Oraculaires 8 of Eubandros) (Attic eis + inf. kichranai from chraomai use)
  • Ϝεῖδυς Weidus knowing (Doric Ϝειδώς) weidôs) (Elean ϝειζός weizos) (Attic εἰδώς) eidôs) (PIE *weid- "to know, to see", Sanskrit veda I know) Cabanes, L'Épire 577,50
  • κάστον kauston sth that can be burnt, kausimon fuel)
  • λῃτῆρες lêïtêres Athamanian priests with garlands Hes.text ἱεροὶ στεφανοφόροι. Ἀθαμᾶνες(LSJ: Leitourgia
  • μανύ Thphr.HP7.6.2-6.3)
  • Νάϊος Naios or Naos epithet of PIE *sna-)
  • παγάομαι Dodona) (Doric paga Attic pêgê running water,fountain)
  • παμπασία pampasia (to ask peri pampasias cliché phrase in the oracle) (Attic pampêsia full property) (Doric paomai obtain)
  • Πελιγᾶνες Peliganes or Peligones (Epirotan, Macedonian senators)
  • πρᾶμι prami do optative(Attic πράττοιμι prattoimi) Syncope (Lamelles Oraculaires 22)
  • τίνε tine (Attic/Doric tini) to whom (Lamelles Oraculaires 7)
  • τριθυτικόν trithutikon triple sacrifice tri + thuo(Lamelles Oraculaires 138)

See also

References

External links

  • Cambridge University Press
  • Encyclopædia Britannica
  • Grammar of the Greek Language (Doric by Benjamin Franklin Fisk (1844)
  • The Elements of Greek Grammar Doric by Richard Valpy, Charles Anthon (1834)
  • New Pauly Online

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