Open back unrounded vowel
|Open back unrounded vowel|
The open back unrounded vowel, or low back unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɑ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is A. The letter ⟨ɑ⟩ is called script a because it lacks the extra hook on top of a printed letter a, which corresponds to a different vowel, the open front unrounded vowel. Script a, which has its linear stroke on the bottom right, should not be confused with turned script a, ɒ, which has its linear stroke on the top left and corresponds to a rounded version of this vowel, the open back rounded vowel.
The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".
- Features 1
- Occurrence 2
- See also 3
- References 4
- Bibliography 5
|IPA vowel chart|
|Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded|
|This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]|
• • chart • chart with audio •
- Its vowel height is open, also known as low, which means the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth – that is, as low as possible in the mouth.
- Its vowel backness is back, which means the tongue is positioned as far back as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant. Note that unrounded back vowels tend to be centralized, which means that often they are in fact near-back.
- It is unrounded, which means that the lips are not rounded.
|Afrikaans||Standard||daar||[dɑːr]||'there'||See Afrikaans phonology|
|Arabic||Standard||طويل||[tˤɑˈwiːl]||'tall'||Allophone of long and short /a/ near emphatic consonants, depending on the speaker's accent. See Arabic phonology|
|Assyrian Neo-Aramaic||Tyari dialects||baba||[bɑːba]||'father'||Corresponds to [a ~ ä] in other varieties.|
|Danish||Conservative||barn||[ˈb̥ɑːˀn]||'child'||Described variously as open near-back and near-open back. Realized as open central [ä] in contemporary Standard Danish. See Danish phonology|
|Dutch||Amsterdam||aap||[ɑːp]||'monkey'||Corresponds to [aː ~ äː] in standard Dutch.|
|Southern Randstad||bad||[bɑt]||'bath'||Backness varies among dialects; in the southern Randstad and standard Netherlandic Dutch it is fully back. In addition to being fully back, it is raised to [ɑ̝] in Leiden and Rotterdam, sometimes with lip rounding [ɒ̝]. In standard Belgian Dutch it is raised and fronted to [ɑ̝̈]. See Dutch phonology|
|The Hague||nauw||[nɑː]||'narrow'||Corresponds to [ʌu] in standard Dutch.|
|English||Cardiff||hot||[hɑ̝̈t]||'hot'||Somewhat raised and fronted.|
|General American||[hɑt]||May be more front [ɑ̟ ~ ä], especially in accents without the cot-caught merger. See English phonology|
|Cockney||bath||[bɑːθ]||'bath'||Fully back. It can be more front [ɑ̟ː] instead.|
|Fully back. Broad varieties usually produce a rounded vowel [ɒː ~ ɔː] instead, while Cultivated SAE prefers a more front vowel [ɑ̟ː ~ äː].|
|[bɑ̟ːθ]||Typically more front than cardinal [ɑ]. It may be as front as [äː] in some Cultivated South African and southern English speakers. See English phonology|
|Non-local Dublin||back||[bɑq]||'back'||Allophone of /æ/ before velars for some speakers.|
|Estonian||vale||[ˈvɑ̝lɛˑ]||'wrong'||Near-open. See Estonian phonology|
|Finnish||kana||[ˈkɑ̝nɑ̝]||'hen'||Near-open, also described as open central [ä]. See Finnish phonology|
|French||Conservative Parisian||pas||[pɑ]||'not'||Contrasts with [a], but many speakers have only one open vowel [ä]. See French phonology|
|Quebec||pâte||[pɑːt]||'paste'||See Quebec French phonology|
|German||Some dialects||Tag||[tʰɑːk]||'day'||In other dialects it is more front. See German phonology.|
|Zurich dialect||mane||[ˈmɑːnə]||'remind'||Allophone of /ɒ/, in free variation with [ɒ].|
|Inuit||West Greenlandic||Allophone of /a/ before and especially between uvulars. See Inuit phonology|
|Kaingang||[ˈᵑɡɑ]||'terra'||Varies between back [ɑ] and central [ɐ].|
|Limburgish||bats||[bɑts]||'buttock'||Backness varies from fully back [ɑ] to almost central [ɑ̟], depending on the dialect. The example word is from the Maastrichtian dialect.|
|Luxembourgish||Kapp||[kʰɑ̝pʰ]||'head'||Fully back and raised. See Luxembourgish phonology|
|Malay||Kedah dialect||mata||[matɑ]||'eye'||See Malay phonology|
|Navajo||ashkii||[ɑʃkɪː]||'boy'||See Navajo phonology|
|Norwegian||Fredrikstad||hat||[hɑːt]||'hate'||See Norwegian phonology|
|Russian||палка||[ˈpɑɫkə]||'stick'||Occurs only both before /ɫ/ and after an unpalatalized consonant. See Russian phonology|
|Swedish||Some dialects||jаg||[jɑːɡ]||'I'||Weakly rounded [ɒ̜ː] in Central Standard Swedish. See Swedish phonology|
|Ukrainian||мати||[ˈmɑtɪ]||'mother'||See Ukrainian phonology|
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