Temporal range: Eocene–Recent
|A Black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) at the Saint Louis Zoo.|
Members of the rhinoceros family are characterized by their large size (they are some of the largest remaining megafauna, with all of the species able to reach one tonne or more in weight); as well as by an herbivorous diet; a thick protective skin, 1.5–5 cm thick, formed from layers of collagen positioned in a lattice structure; relatively small brains for mammals this size (400–600 g); and a large horn. They generally eat leafy material, although their ability to ferment food in their hindgut allows them to subsist on more fibrous plant matter, if necessary. Unlike other perissodactyls, the two African species of rhinoceros lack teeth at the front of their mouths, relying instead on their lips to pluck food.
Rhinoceros are killed by humans for their horns, which are bought and sold on the black market, and which are used by some cultures for ornamental or traditional medicinal purposes. East Asia, specifically Vietnam, is the largest market for rhino horns. By weight, rhino horns cost as much as gold on the black market. People grind up the horns and then consume them believing the dust has therapeutic properties. The horns are made of keratin, the same type of protein that makes up hair and fingernails. Both African species and the Sumatran rhinoceros have two horns, while the Indian and Javan rhinoceros have a single horn.
- Taxonomy and naming 1
- White rhinoceros 2.1
- Black rhinoceros 2.2
- Indian rhinoceros 2.3
- Javan rhinoceros 2.4
- Sumatran rhinoceros 2.5
- Hyracodontidae 3.1
- Amynodontidae 3.2
- Rhinocerotidae 3.3
- Predators, poaching and hunting 4
- Horn trade and use 5
- Historical representations 6
See also 7
- Conservation 7.1
- Individual rhinoceroses 7.2
- Other 7.3
- References 8
- Further reading 9
- External links 10
Taxonomy and naming
|Cladogram following a phylogenetic study.|
The word rhinoceros is derived through Latin from the Ancient Greek: ῥῑνόκερως, which is composed of ῥῑνο- (rhino-, "nose") and κέρας (keras, "horn"). The plural in English is rhinoceros or rhinoceroses. The collective noun for a group of rhinoceroses is crash or herd. The name has been in use since the 14th century.
The family Rhinocerotidae consists of only four extant genera: Ceratotherium (White rhinoceros), Dicerorhinus (Sumatran rhinoceros), Diceros (Black rhinoceros) and Rhinoceros (Indian and Javan rhinoceros). The living species fall into three categories. The two African species, the white rhinoceros and the black rhinoceros, belong to the tribe Dicerotini, which originated in the middle Miocene, about 14.2 million years ago. The species diverged during the early Pliocene (about 5 million years ago). The main difference between black and white rhinos is the shape of their mouths – white rhinos have broad flat lips for grazing, whereas black rhinos have long pointed lips for eating foliage. There are two living Rhinocerotini species, the Indian rhinoceros and the Javan rhinoceros, which diverged from one another about 10 million years ago. The Sumatran rhinoceros is the only surviving representative of the most primitive group, the Dicerorhinini, which emerged in the Miocene (about 20 million years ago). A subspecific hybrid white rhino (Ceratotherium s. simum × C. s. cottoni) was bred at the Dvůr Králové Zoo (Zoological Garden Dvur Kralove nad Labem) in the Czech Republic in 1977. Interspecific hybridisation of black and white rhinoceros has also been confirmed.
While the black rhinoceros has 84 chromosomes (diploid number, 2N, per cell), all other rhinoceros species have 82 chromosomes. However, chromosomal polymorphism might lead to varying chromosome counts. For instance, in a study there were three northern white rhinoceroses with 81 chromosomes.
There are two subspecies of white rhinoceros: the southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) and the northern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum cottoni). As of 2013, the southern subspecies has a wild population of 20,405 – making them the most abundant rhino subspecies in the world. However, the northern subspecies was critically endangered, with as few as four individuals in the wild; the possibility of complete extinction in the wild having been noted since June 2008. Five are known to be held in captivity, one of which resides at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park. Four born in a zoo in the Czech Republic were transferred to a wildlife refuge in Kenya in December 2009, in an effort to have the animals reproduce and save the subspecies.
There is no conclusive explanation of the name white rhinoceros. A popular theory that "white" is a distortion of either the Afrikaans word wyd or the Dutch word wijd (or its other possible spellings whyde, weit, etc.,) meaning wide and referring to the rhino's square lips is not supported by linguistic studies.
The white rhino has an immense body and large head, a short neck and broad chest. Females weigh 1,600 kg (4,000 lb) and males 2,400 kg (5,000 lb). the head-and-body length is 3.5–4.6 m (11–15 ft) and a shoulder height of 1.8–2 m (5.9–6.6 ft). On its snout it has two horns. The front horn is larger than the other horn and averages 90 cm (35 in) in length and can reach 150 cm (59 in). The white rhinoceros also has a prominent muscular hump that supports its relatively large head. The colour of this animal can range from yellowish brown to slate grey. Most of its body hair is found on the ear fringes and tail bristles, with the rest distributed rather sparsely over the rest of the body. White rhinos have the distinctive flat broad mouth that is used for grazing.
The name black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) was chosen to distinguish this species from the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum). This can be confusing, as the two species are not truly distinguishable by color. There are four subspecies of black rhino: South-central (Diceros bicornis minor), the most numerous, which once ranged from central Tanzania south through Zambia, Zimbabwe and Mozambique to northern and eastern South Africa; South-western (Diceros bicornis occidentalis) which are better adapted to the arid and semi-arid savannas of Namibia, southern Angola, western Botswana and western South Africa; East African (Diceros bicornis michaeli), primarily in Tanzania; and West African (Diceros bicornis longipes) which was declared extinct in November 2011. The native Tswanan name keitloa describes a South African variation of the black rhino in which the posterior horn is equal to or longer than the anterior horn.
An adult black rhinoceros stands 1.50–1.75 m (59–69 in) high at the shoulder and is 3.5–3.9 m (11–13 ft) in length. An adult weighs from 850 to 1,600 kg (1,870 to 3,530 lb), exceptionally to 1,800 kg (4,000 lb), with the females being smaller than the males. Two horns on the skull are made of keratin with the larger front horn typically 50 cm long, exceptionally up to 140 cm. Sometimes, a third smaller horn may develop. The black rhino is much smaller than the white rhino, and has a pointed mouth, which it uses to grasp leaves and twigs when feeding.
During the latter half of the 20th century, their numbers were severely reduced from an estimated 70,000 in the late 1960s to a record low of 2,410 in 1995. Since then, numbers have been steadily increasing at a continental level with numbers doubling to 4,880 by the end of 2010. Current numbers are however still 90% lower than three generations ago.
The Indian rhinoceros, or greater one-horned rhinoceros, (Rhinoceros unicornis) has a single horn 20 to 100 cm long. It is nearly as large as the African white rhino. Its thick, silver-brown skin forms huge folds all over its body. Its upper legs and shoulders are covered in wart-like bumps, and it has very little body hair. Grown males are larger than females in the wild, weighing from 2,500–3,200 kg (5,500–7,100 lb). Shoulder height is 1.75–2.0 m (5.7–6.6 ft). Females weigh about 1,900 kg and are 3–4 m long. The record-sized specimen was approximately 3,800 kg.
Indian rhinos once inhabited many areas ranging from Pakistan to Burma and maybe even parts of China. However, because of human influence, they now only exist in several protected areas of India (in Assam, West Bengal, and a few pairs in Uttar Pradesh) and Nepal, plus a few pairs in Lal Suhanra National Park in Pakistan. It is confined to the tall grasslands and forests in the foothills of the Himalayas. Two-thirds of the world's Indian rhinoceroses are now confined to the Kaziranga National Park situated in the Golaghat district of Assam, India.
The Javan rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus) is one of the most endangered large mammals in the world. According to 2002 estimates, only about 60 remain, in Java (Indonesia) and Vietnam. It is also the least known rhino species. Like the closely related, and larger, Indian rhinoceros, the Javan rhino has a single horn. Its hairless, hazy gray skin falls into folds into the shoulder, back, and rump, giving it an armored appearance. Its length reaches 3.1–3.2 m (10–10 ft) including the head, and its height 1.5–1.7 m (4 ft 11 in–5 ft 7 in). Adults are variously reported to weigh 900–1,400 kg or 1,360–2,000 kg. Male horns can reach 26 cm in length, while in females they are knobs or altogether absent. These animals prefer dense lowland rain forest, tall grass and reed beds that are plentiful with large floodplains and mud wallows.
Though once widespread throughout Asia, by the 1930s they were nearly hunted to extinction in Nepal, India, Burma, Peninsular Malaysia, and Sumatra for the supposed medical powers of their horns and blood. As of 2013, only 58-61 individuals remain in Ujung Kulon Conservation, Java, Indonesia. The last rhino in Vietnam was reportedly killed in 2010.
The Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) is the smallest extant rhinoceros species, as well as the one with the most hair. It can be found at very high altitudes in Borneo and Sumatra. Due to habitat loss and poaching, their numbers have declined and it has become the most threatened rhinoceros. About 275 Sumatran rhinos are believed to remain. There are three subspecies of Sumatran rhinoceros: the Western Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis sumatrensis), Eastern Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis harrissoni) and the extinct Northern Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis lasiotis).
A mature rhino typically stands about 1.3 m (4 ft 3 in) high at the shoulder, has a length of 2.4–3.2 m (7 ft 10 in–10 ft 6 in) and weighs around 700 kg (1,500 lb), though the largest individuals have been known to weigh as much as 1,000 kilograms. Like the African species, it has two horns; the larger is the front (25–79 cm), with the smaller usually less than 10 cm long. Males have much larger horns than the females. Hair can range from dense (the densest hair in young calves) to sparse. The color of these rhinos is reddish brown. The body is short and has stubby legs. The lip is prehensile.
Sumatran rhinoceros are on the verge of extinction due to loss of habitat and illegal hunting. Once they were spread across South-east Asia, but now they are confined to several parts of Indonesia and Malaysia due to reproductive isolation. There were 320 of D. sumatrensis in 1995, which by 2011 have dwindled to 216. It has been found through DNA comparison that the Sumatran rhinoceros is the most ancient extant rhinoceros, and related to the extinct Woolly Rhinoceros, Coelodonta. In 1994 Alan Rabinowitz publicly denounced that governments, NGOs and other institutions were lacking in attempts to conserve the Sumatran rhinoceros. In order to conserve it, they would have to be relocated from small forests to breeding programs where their breeding success could be monitored. In order to boost reproduction, the Malaysian and Indonesian governments could also agree on exchanging the gametes of the Sumatran and (smaller) Bornean subspecies. There has also been a proposal by the Indonesian and Malaysian governments for a single management unit for these two ancient subspecies.
Rhinocerotoids diverged from other perissodactyls by the early Eocene. Fossils of Hyrachyus eximus found in North America date to this period. This small hornless ancestor resembled a tapir or small horse more than a rhino. Three families, sometimes grouped together as the superfamily Rhinocerotoidea, evolved in the late Eocene, namely the Hyracodontidae, Amynodontidae and Rhinocerotidae.
Hyracodontidae, also known as 'running rhinos', showed adaptations for speed, and would have looked more like horses than modern rhinos. The smallest hyracodontids were dog-sized; the largest was Indricotherium, believed to be one of the largest land mammals that ever existed. The hornless Indricotherium was almost seven metres high, ten metres long, and weighed as much as 15 tons. Like a giraffe, it ate leaves from trees. The hyracodontids spread across Eurasia from the mid-Eocene to early Miocene.
The Amynodontidae, also known as "aquatic rhinos", dispersed across North America and Eurasia, from the late Eocene to early Oligocene. The amynodontids were hippopotamus-like in their ecology and appearance, inhabiting rivers and lakes, and sharing many of the same adaptations to aquatic life as hippos.
The family of all modern rhinoceros, the Rhinocerotidae, first appeared in the Late Eocene in Eurasia. The earliest members of Rhinocerotidae were small and numerous; at least 26 genera lived in Eurasia and North America until a wave of extinctions in the middle Oligocene wiped out most of the smaller species. However, several independent lineages survived. Menoceras, a pig-sized rhinoceros, had two horns side-by-side. The North American Teleoceras had short legs, a barrel chest and lived until about 5 million years ago. The last rhinos in the Americas became extinct during the Pliocene.
Modern rhinos are thought to have begun dispersal from Asia during the Miocene. Two species survived the most recent period of glaciation and inhabited Europe as recently as 10,000 years ago: the woolly rhinoceros and Elasmotherium. The woolly rhinoceros appeared in China around 1 million years ago and first arrived in Europe around 600,000 years ago. It reappeared 200,000 years ago, alongside the woolly mammoth, and became numerous. Eventually it was hunted to extinction by early humans. Elasmotherium, also known as the giant rhinoceros, survived through the middle Pleistocene: it was two meters tall, five meters long and weighed around five tons, with a single enormous horn, hypsodont teeth and long legs for running.
Of the extant rhinoceros species, the Sumatran rhino is the most archaic, first emerging more than 15 million years ago. The Sumatran rhino was closely related to the woolly rhinoceros, but not to the other modern species. The Indian rhino and Javan rhino are closely related and form a more recent lineage of Asian rhino. The ancestors of early Indian and Javan rhino diverged 2–4 million years ago.
The origin of the two living African rhinos can be traced to the late Miocene () species Ceratotherium neumayri. The lineages containing the living species diverged by the early Pliocene (), when Diceros praecox, the likely ancestor of the black rhinoceros, appears in the fossil record. The black and white rhinoceros remain so closely related that they can still mate and successfully produce offspring.
- †Aceratherium lived from 33.9—3.4 Ma
- †Acerorhinus 13.6—7.0 Ma
- †Alicornops 13.7—5.33 Ma
- †Aphelops 20.430—5.330 Ma
- †Chilotheridium 23.03—11.610 Ma
- †Chilotherium 13.7—3.4 Ma
- †Dromoceratherium 15.97—7.25 Ma
- †Floridaceras 20.43—16.3 Ma
- †Hoploaceratherium 16.9—16.0 Ma
- †Peraceras 20.6—10.3 Ma
- †Plesiaceratherium 20.0—11.6 Ma
- †Proaceratherium 16.9—16.0 Ma
- Tribe Teleoceratini
- Tribe Rhinocerotini 40.4—11.1 Ma—Present
- Tribe Dicerorhinini
- Tribe Dicerotini 23.03—Present
- Tribe Aceratheriini
†Gulfoceras 23.030—20.430 Ma
- †Victoriaceros 15 Ma
- Tribe Diceratheriini
Tribe Elasmotheriini 20.0—0.126 Ma
- †Bugtirhinus 20.0—16.9 Ma
- †Elasmotherium – Giant rhinoceros 3.6—0.126 Ma
- †Hispanotherium synonymized with Huaqingtherium 16.0—7.250 Ma
- †Menoceras 23.03—16.3 Ma
- †Ougandatherium 20.0—16.9 Ma
- †Sinotherium 9.0—5.3 Ma
- †Gulfoceras 23.030—20.430 Ma
- Subfamily Rhinocerotinae
Predators, poaching and hunting
Although rhinos are large and have a reputation for being tough, they are very easily poached; they visit water holes daily and can be easily killed while they drink. As of December 2009, poaching increased globally while efforts to protect the rhino are considered increasingly ineffective. The most serious estimate, that only 3% of poachers are successfully countered, is reported of Zimbabwe, while Nepal has largely avoided the crisis. Poachers have become more sophisticated. South African officials have called for urgent action against poaching after poachers killed the last female rhino in the Krugersdorp Game Reserve near Johannesburg. Statistics from South African National Parks show that 333 rhinoceros were killed in South Africa in 2010, increasing to 668 by 2012, and over 1,004 in 2013. In some cases rhinos are drugged and their horns removed, while in other instances more than the horn is taken.
The Namibian government and Save the Rhino International have been positive about the benefits that rhino trophy hunting may hold for conservation. Hunting licenses for five Namibian Black rhinos are auctioned annually. Additionally, support for a legal trade of rhino horn to combat poaching has been growing. Some conservationists and members of the public however oppose or question this practice.
Horn trade and use
Rhinoceros horns, unlike those of other horned mammals (which have a bony core), only consist of keratin. Rhinoceros horns are used in traditional Asian medicine, and for dagger handles in Yemen and Oman. Esmond Bradley Martin has reported on the trade for dagger handles in Yemen. The market for rhino horn is however largely driven by practitioners of traditional Chinese medicine who consider the horn an effective and even life-saving medicine.
It is a common misconception that rhinoceros horn in powdered form is used as an aphrodisiac in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) as Cornu Rhinoceri Asiatici (犀角, xījiǎo, "rhinoceros horn"). Western media has falsely propagated the idea that rhino horn is proscribed as an aphrodisiac in Chinese medicine. Traditional Chinese Medicine believes rhino horn to cure illness and does not proscribe rhino horn as an aphrodisiac, and in fact it is the false western stereotype that was spread for so long that rhino horn was used as an aphrodisiac in Asian medicine, which has spread from western media to Vietnam where the Vietnamese now believe rhino horn to act as an aphrodisiac after acquiring that idea from the false stereotype found in western media. It is in fact prescribed for fevers and convulsions, a treatment not supported by evidence-based medicine. Discussions with TCM practitioners to reduce its use have met with mixed results because some TCM doctors consider rhino horn a life-saving medicine of better quality than its substitutes. China has signed the CITES treaty and removed rhinoceros horn from the Chinese medicine pharmacopeia, administered by the Ministry of Health, in 1993. In 2011, in the United Kingdom, the Register of Chinese Herbal Medicine issued a formal statement condemning the use of rhinoceros horn. A growing number of TCM educators have also spoken out against the practice. Rhino-horn shavings boiled in water are said to cool and cure headaches in traditional Chinese medicine; however, the brew has instead been compared to consuming fingernail clippings in water.
To prevent poaching, in certain areas, rhinos have been tranquilized and their horns removed. Armed park rangers, particularly in South Africa, are also working on the front lines to combat poaching, sometimes killing poachers who are caught in the act. A recent spike in rhino killings has made conservationists concerned about the future of the species. An average sized horn can bring in as much as a quarter of a million dollars in Vietnam and many rhino range states have stockpiles of rhino horn.
In 2011 the Rhino Rescue Project, organized by Ed and Lorinda Hern of the Rhino & Lion Nature Reserve in Krugersdorp South Africa, began a horn-trade control method consisting of infusing the horns (while on the animal) with a mixture of a pink dye and an RFID identification chips and taking DNA samples.
Because of the fibrous nature of rhino horn, the pressurized dye infuses the interior of the horn but does not color the surface or affect rhino behavior. The acaricide is expected to cause nausea, stomach-ache and diarrhea, or convulsions for anyone consuming the horn in Traditional Chinese Medicine, depending on the quantity, but would not be fatal; the primary deterrent being the knowledge that the treatment has been applied, communicated by signs posted at the refuges. The original idea grew out of research looking into using the horn as a reservoir for one-time tick treatments, and the acaricide is selected to be safe for the rhino, oxpeckers, vultures, and other animals in the preserve's ecosystem. It was claimed that the dye can not be successfully removed from horns, and would remain visible on x-ray scanners even when the horn is ground to a fine powder.
The UK charity organization
- Rhino Species & Rhino Images page on the Rhino Resource Center
- Rhinoceros entry on World Wide Fund for Nature website.
- International Anti Poaching Foundation
- Rhinoceros Resources & Photos on African Wildlife Foundation website
- Cerdeño, Esperanza (1995). "Cladistic Analysis of the Family Rhinocerotidae (Perissodactyla)" (PDF). Novitates (
- Chapman, January 1999. The Art of Rhinoceros Horn Carving in China. Christies Books, London. ISBN 0-903432-57-9.
- Emslie, R. and Brooks, M. (1999). African Rhino. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC African Rhino Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
- Foose, Thomas J. and van Strien, Nico (1997). Asian Rhinos – Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, and Cambridge, UK.
- Hieronymus, Tobin L.; Lawrence M. Witmer; Ryan C. Ridgely (2006). "Structure of White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) Horn Investigated by X-ray Computed Tomography and Histology With Implications for Growth and External Form" (PDF). Journal of Morphology 267 (10): 1172–1176.
- Laufer, Berthold. 1914. "History of the Rhinoceros". In: Chinese Clay Figures, Part I: Prolegomena on the History of Defence Armour. Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, pp. 73–173.
- White Rhinoceros, White Rhinoceros Profile, Facts, Information, Photos, Pictures, Sounds, Habitats, Reports, News – National Geographic
- Unattributed. "White Rhino (Ceratotherum simum)". Rhinos. The International Rhino Foundation. Retrieved 7 July 2009.
- Owen-Smith, Norman (1984). Macdonald, D., ed. The Encyclopedia of Mammals. New York: Facts on File. pp. 490–495.
- Vietnam's Appetite For Rhino Horn Drives Poaching In Africa, by Frank Langfitt, 13 May 2013
- "What is a rhinoceros horn made of?". Yesmag.bc.ca. 9 October 2003. Retrieved 23 September 2010.
- Tougard, C. et al. (2001) Phylogenetic relationships of the five extant Rhinoceros species (Rhinocerotidae, Perissodactyla) based on mitochondrial cytochrome b and 12S rRNA genes.
- Merriam-Webster Dictionary 
- Rabinowitz, Alan (1995). Sumatran Rhino in Borneo"<33 six."Helping a Species Go Extinct: The (PDF). Conservation Biology 9 (3): 482–488.
- Robinson, Terry J.; V. Trifonov; I. Espie; E.H. Harley (January 2005). "Interspecific hybridization in rhinoceroses: Confirmation of a Black × White rhinoceros hybrid by karyotype, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and microsatellite analysis". Conservation Genetics 6 (1): 141–145.
- Houck, ML; Ryder, OA; Váhala, J; Kock, RA; Oosterhuis, JE (January–February 1994). "Diploid chromosome number and chromosomal variation in the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum)". The Journal of Heredity 85 (1): 30–4.
- News | Environment | Poachers kill last four wild northern white rhinos. Times Online (30 March 2010). Retrieved on 21 February 2012.
- Rare white rhino dies at safari park
- Straziuso, Jason (20 December 2009) 4 rare northern white rhinos relocated to Kenya. Associated Press.
- Skinner, John D. and Chimimba, Christian T. (2005). The Mammals Of The Southern African Subregion. Cambridge University Press. p. 527.
- Rookmaaker, Kees (2003). "Why the name of the white rhinoceros is not appropriate". Pachyderm 34: 88–93.
- "Western black rhino declared extinct".
- Keitloa | Define Keitloa at Dictionary.com. Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved on 21 February 2012.
- Dollinger, Peter and Silvia Geser. "Black Rhinoceros".
- "About the Black Rhino". Retrieved 25 February 2014.
- "WWF Factsheet; Black Rhinoceros Diceros Bicornis" (PDF).
- IUCN SSC African Rhino Specialist Group (2008). Diceros bicornis. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 28 November 2008.
- Bhaumik, Subir (17 April 2007). "'"Assam rhino poaching 'spirals. BBC News. Retrieved 23 August 2008.
- Derr, Mark (11 July 2006). "Racing to Know the Rarest of Rhinos, Before It’s Too Late".
- Species extinct: Javan Rhinoceros
- Rhino Guide: Javan Rhinoceros
- Kinver, Mark (25 October 2011). "'"Javan rhino 'now extinct in Vietnam.
- Ahmad Zafir, A. W.; Payne, J., Mohamed, A., Lau, C. F., Sharma, D. S. K., Alfred, R., ... Clements, G. R. (2011). "Now or never: What will it take to save the sumatran rhinoceros dicerorhinus sumatrensis from extinction?". Oryx 45 (2): 225–233.
- Benoît, Goossens; Milena Salgado-Lynn; Jeffrine J. Rovie-Ryan; Abdul H. Ahmad; Junaidi Payne; Zainal Z. Zainuddin; Senthilvel K. S. S. Nathan; Laurentius N. Ambu (2013). "Genetics and the last stand of the Sumatran rhinoceros Dicerorhinus sumatrensis". Oryx 47: 340–344.
- Hieronymus, Tobin L. (March 2009). "Osteological Correlates of Cephalic Skin Structures in Amniota: Documenting the Evolution of Display and Feeding Structures with Fossil Data" (PDF). p. 3.
- Lacombat, Frédéric (2005). "The evolution of the rhinoceros". In Fulconis, R. Save the rhinos: EAZA Rhino Campaign 2005/6. London:
- Geraads, Denis (2005). "Pliocene Rhinocerotidae (Mammalia) from Hadar and Dikika (Lower Awash, Ethiopia), and a revision of the origin of modern African rhinos". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 25 (2): 451–460.
- Haraamo, Mikko (15 November 2005). """Mikko's Phylogeny Archive entry on "Rhinoceratidae. Retrieved 7 January 2008.
- Geraads, Denis (2010). "Chapter 34: Rhinocerotidae". In Werdelin, L.; Sanders, W.J. Cenozoic Mammals of Africa. University of California Press. pp. 675–689.
- Geraads, Denis; McCrossin, Monte and Benefit, Brenda (2012). "A New Rhinoceros, Victoriaceros kenyensis gen. et sp. nov., and Other Perissodactyla from the Middle Miocene of Maboko, Kenya". Journal of Mammalian Evolution 19: 57.
- Deng, Tao (2008). "A new elasmothere (Perissodactyla, Rhinocerotidae) from the late Miocene of the Linxia Basin in Gansu, China" (PDF). Geobios 41 (6): 719.
- 'Global surge' in rhino poaching BBC. 1 December 2009
- "Poachers kill last female rhino in South African park for prized horn". National Ledger (London). 20 July 2010. Retrieved 25 July 2010.
- "Rhino poachers bring death toll in South Africa to record high". The Guardian. 4 November 2011.
- "Update on rhino poaching statistics".
- Lucero, Louis II (17 January 2014). "South Africa: Rhino Killings Increase". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
- "Rhino poaching update" (Press release). Department of Environmental Affairs. 19 December 2013. Retrieved 25 December 2013.
- "946 rhino killed in 2013". Eyewitness News. 19 December 2013. Retrieved 25 December 2013.
- Mngoma, Nosipho (19 December 2013). "R100 000 reward for rhino poachers". Crime & Courts. iol news. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
- Department of Environmental Affairs, 2013. Minister Edna Molewa briefs the media on Cabinet approval of the rhino trade proposal for consideration at CITES CoP17 in 2016 [WWW document]. [Online] Available at: https://www.environment.gov.za/ednamolewa_briefsmedia_onrhinotradeproposal
- Welz, Adam (14 January 2014). "Rhino hunt controversy". Global Ideas. Deutsche Welle (DW). Retrieved 23 January 2014.
- "GCC: Esmond Bradly Martin Reports From Yemen". Gcci.org. Retrieved 23 September 2010.
- Richard Ellis (22 February 2013). Tiger Bone & Rhino Horn: The Destruction of Wildlife for Traditional Chinese Medicine. Island Press. pp. 123–.
- Milliken, Tom; Shaw, Jo (2012). "The South Africa - Viet Nam Rhino Horn Trade Nexus" (PDF). TRAFFIC - Wildlife Trade News. Johannesburg, South Africa: TRAFFIC. p. 15.
- Bensky, Dan; Clavey, Steven; Stoger, Erich and Gamble, Andrew (2004) Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica, 3rd Edition. Eastland Press. ISBN 0-939616-42-4
- Parry-Jones, Rob and Amanda Vincent (3 January 1998). "Can we tame wild medicine? To save a rare species, Western conservationists may have to make their peace with traditional Chinese medicine.".
- Larson, Rhishja (9 September 2011). "Chinese Medicine Organization Speaks Out Against Use of Rhino Horn". RhinoConservation.org. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
- Larson, Rhishja (15 August 2011). "TCM Educators Speak Out Against Use of Rhino Horn". RhinoConservation.org. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
- The illegal trade in wild-animal products: Bitter pills, economist.com.
- "Media Release: Latest on Rhino Poaching in South Africa".
- Frank, Meghan and Hopper, Jessica (21 February 2012). "Spike in rhino poaching threatens survival of species".
- Milledge, Simon (2005). PDF (1.34 MB), TRAFFIC. Retrieved 9 January 2008.
- Martin Angler (9 May 2013). "Dye and Poison Stop Rhino Poachers".
- "About the Rhino Rescue Project".
- "Injecting Poison Into Rhinos’ Horns To Fight Poaching". George Stroumboulopoulos, Canadian Broadcasting Company. 5 April 2013.
- "Poisoning rhino horns". Save the Rhino International. 2013. Retrieved 29 October 2014.
- Biggs, D.; Courchamp, F.; Martin, R.; Possingham, H. P. (1 March 2013). "Legal Trade of Africa's Rhino Horns" (PDF). Science 339 (6123): 1038.
- Braun, Maja; et al. (15 March 2013). "Should the rhino horn trade be legalized?". Animals. Deutsche Welle (DW). Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- Michler, Ian (16 January 2014). "Horn of contention: pro-trade thinking comes in for criticism". South Africa. Daily Maverick. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- "Rhinoceros Frequently Asked Questions". Sosrhino.org. Retrieved 23 September 2010.
- The Gods Must Be Crazy, James Uys, C.A.T. Films, 1980.
- Bardiya National Park
- Chitwan National Park
- International Rhino Foundation
- Kaziranga National Park
- List of odd-toed ungulates by population
- Nicolaas Jan van Strien
- Save the Rhino
There are legends about rhinoceroses stamping out fire in Burma, India, and Malaysia. The mythical rhinoceros has a special name in Malay, badak api, wherein badak means rhinoceros, and api means fire. The animal would come when a fire was lit in the forest and stamp it out. There are no recent confirmations of this phenomenon. However, this legend has been reinforced by the film The Gods Must Be Crazy (1980), wherein an African rhinoceros is shown to be putting out two campfires.
Albrecht Dürer created a famous woodcut of a rhinoceros in 1515, based on a written description and brief sketch by an unknown artist of an Indian rhinoceros that had arrived in Lisbon earlier that year. Dürer never saw the animal itself and, as a result, Dürer's Rhinoceros is a somewhat inaccurate depiction.
Vietnamese are currently the biggest consumers of rhino horn and Vietnamese demand drives most of the poaching which has shot up to record levels. It was claimed that Hanoi was experienced a 77% drop in the usage of rhino horn by the "Vietnam CITES Management Authority" but National Geographic challenged the claims by the Vietnamese authorities, noticing that there was no rise in the numbers of criminals who were apprehended or prosecuted. In March 2013, some researchers suggested that the only way to reduce poaching would be to establish a regulated trade based on humane and renewable harvesting from live rhinos. The WWF however opposes legalization of the horn trade, as it may increase demand, while IFAW released a report by EcoLarge, suggesting that more thorough knowledge of economic factors is required in order to justify the pro-trade option. The South African government has supported the establishment of a legal trade of rhino horn stating that at the 17th Meeting of Conference of the Parties to CITES (CoP17) in 2016 they will apply for a legal trade in Rhino Horn in an attempt to reduce poaching and prevent the extinction of this species. Vietnamese are currently the biggest consumers of rhino horn and Vietnamese demand drives most of the poaching.
The only remaining Javan rhino in Vietnam was murdered to obtain its horn by Vietnamese poachers Now only Java contains the last Javan rhinos.
 It was also reported that one out of 150 rhinos treated did not survive the anesthesia. Additionally, rhino horn is increasingly purchased for decorative use, rather than for use in traditional medicine. Save the Rhino questions the feasibility of applying the technique to all African rhinos, since the acaricide would have to be reapplied every 4 years. They also claim that poisoned horns could heighten demand for non-poisoned horns among wealthier buyers or could fuel the belief in magical properties of the horn if people survive the poisoning.