Soyuz TM-16

Soyuz TM-16

Soyuz TM-16
Operator Rosaviakosmos
Mission duration 179 days, 43 minutes, 45 seconds
Orbits completed ~2,790
Spacecraft properties
Spacecraft type Soyuz-TM
Manufacturer NPO Energia
Launch mass 7,150 kilograms (15,760 lb)
Crew size 2 up
3 down
Members Gennadi Manakov
Alexander Poleshchuk
Landing Jean-Pierre Haigneré
Callsign Вулка́н (Vulkan - Volcano)
Start of mission
Launch date January 24, 1993, 05:58:05 (1993-01-24T05:58:05Z) UTC
Rocket Soyuz-U2
End of mission
Landing date Did not recognize date. Try slightly modifying the date in the first parameter. UTC
Landing site 140 kilometres (87 mi) S of Dzhezkazgan
Orbital parameters
Reference system Geocentric
Regime Low Earth
Perigee 393 kilometres (244 mi)
Apogee 394 kilometres (245 mi)
Inclination 51.6 degrees
Docking with Mir

Soyuz programme
(Manned missions)
← Soyuz TM-15 Soyuz TM-17

The Soyuz-TM crew transports (T - транспортный - Transportnyi - meaning transport, M - модифицированный - Modifitsirovannyi- meaning modified) were fourth generation (1986–2002) Soyuz spacecraft used for ferry flights to the Mir and ISS space stations. It added to the Soyuz-T new docking and rendezvous, radio communications, emergency and integrated parachute/landing engine systems. The new Kurs rendezvous and docking system permitted the Soyuz-TM to maneuver independently of the station, without the station making "mirror image" maneuvers to match unwanted translations introduced by earlier models' aft-mounted attitude control.

Soyuz TM-16 was the sixteenth expedition to the Russian Space Station Mir.[1]


Position Launching crew Landing crew
Commander  Gennadi Manakov
Second spaceflight
Flight Engineer  Alexander Poleshchuk
First spaceflight
Research Cosmonaut None  Jean-Pierre Haigneré
First spaceflight

Mission highlights

Soyuz TM-16 shown with the APAS-89 docking mechanism

16th expedition to Mir.

First Soyuz without a probe and drogue docking system since 1976. It carried an APAS-89 androgynous docking unit different from the APAS-75 unit used for ASTP in 1975, yet similar in general principles. Soyuz-TM 16 used it to dock with an androgynous docking port on the Kristall module. This was a test of the docking system in preparation for dockings by the Space Shuttles with Mir.


  1. ^ The mission report is available here: