The Baseball Network
|The Baseball Network|
The Baseball Network title card
|Also known as||Baseball Night in America|
|Theme music composer||Scott Schreer|
|Country of origin||United States|
|No. of seasons||2|
|Running time||210 minutes or until end of game|
|Production company(s)||Major League Baseball|
|Picture format||480i (SDTV)|
|Original release||July 12, 1994– October 28, 1995|
|Preceded by||Major League Baseball on CBS (1990-1993)|
|Followed by||Major League Baseball on Fox (1996-present)|
Major League Baseball on ABC
Major League Baseball on NBC
The Baseball Network was a short-lived television broadcasting joint venture between ABC, NBC and Major League Baseball. Under the arrangement, beginning in the 1994 season, the league produced its own in-house telecasts of games, which were then brokered to air on ABC and NBC. This was perhaps most evident by the copyright beds shown at the end of the telecasts, which stated "The proceeding program has been paid for by the office of The Commissioner of Baseball".
The package included coverage of games in primetime on selected nights throughout the regular season (under the branding Baseball Night in America), along with coverage of the postseason and the World Series. Unlike previous broadcasting arrangements with the league, there was no national "game of the week" during the regular season; these would be replaced by multiple weekly regional telecasts on certain nights of the week. Additionally, The Baseball Network had exclusive coverage windows; no other broadcaster could televise MLB games during the same night that The Baseball Network was televising games.
The arrangement did not last long; due to the effects of a players' strike on the remainder of the 1994 season, and poor reception from fans and critics over how the coverage was implemented, The Baseball Network would be disbanded after the 1995 season. While NBC would maintain rights to certain games, the growing Fox network became the league's new national broadcast partner beginning in 1996, with its then-parent company News Corporation eventually purchasing the Los Angeles Dodgers.
- Background 1
Baseball Night in America 2.1
- 1994 schedule 2.1.1
1995 schedule 2.1.2
- ABC scheduled games 220.127.116.11
- NBC scheduled games 18.104.22.168
- Postseason coverage 2.2
- Criticisms 2.3
- Baseball Night in America 2.1
Downfall and demise 3
- Aftermath 3.1
- Notable calls 4.1
- All-Star Game 5.1
- 1995 World Series 5.2
- See also 6
- References 7
- External links 8
After the fall-out from CBS's financial problems from their exclusive, four-year-long, US$1.2 billion television contract with Major League Baseball (a contract that ultimately cost the network approximately $500 million), Major League Baseball decided to go into the business of producing the telecasts themselves and market these to advertisers on its own. In reaction to the failed trial with CBS, Major League Baseball was desperately grasping for every available dollar. To put things into proper perspective, in 1991, the second year of the league's contract with the network, CBS reported a loss of around $169 million in the third quarter of the year. A decline in advertiser interest caused revenue from the sale of commercials during CBS' baseball telecasts to plummet. All the while, CBS was still contractually obligated to pay Major League Baseball around $260 million a year through 1993.
As part of MLB's attempt to produce and market the games in-house, it hoped to provide games of regional interests to appropriate markets. Major League Baseball in the process, hoped to offer important games for divisional races to the overall market. Owners hoped that this particular technique, combined with the additional division races created through league expansion (the Colorado Rockies and Florida Marlins had begun play the year prior) and the quest for wild card spots for the playoffs (1994 was the first year of three divisions for each league) in increasing the national broadcast revenue for Major League Baseball in the foreseeable future.
After a four-year hiatus, ABC and NBC (who last aired Thursday Night Baseball games and the Saturday afternoon Game of the Week respectively) returned to Major League Baseball under the umbrella of a revenue sharing venture called The Baseball Network. Under a six-year plan, Major League Baseball was intended to receive 85% of the first US$140 million in advertising revenue (or 87.5% of advertising revenues and corporate sponsorship from the games until sales topped a specified level), 50% of the next $30 million, and 80% of any additional money. Prior to this, Major League Baseball was projected to take a projected 55% cut in rights fees and receive a typical rights fee from the networks. When compared to the previous TV deal with CBS, The Baseball Network was supposed to bring in 50% less of the broadcasting revenue. The advertisers were reportedly excited about the arrangement with The Baseball Network because the new package included several changes intended to boost ratings, especially among younger viewers.
Arranging broadcasts through The Baseball Network seemed, on the surface, to benefit NBC and ABC (who each contributed $10 million in start-up funds) since it gave them a monopoly on broadcasting Major League Baseball games. The deal was similar to a time-buy, instead of a traditional rights fee situation. It also stood to benefit the networks because they reduced the risk associated with purchasing the broadcast rights outright (in stark contrast to CBS's disastrous contract with Major League Baseball from the 1990–1993 seasons). NBC and ABC were to create a loss-free environment for each other and keep an emerging Fox, which had recently made an aggressive and ultimately successful $1.58 billion bid for the television rights for National Football Conference games (thus, becoming a major player in the sports broadcasting game in the process), at bay. As a result of Fox's NFL gain, CBS was weakened further by affiliate changes, as a number of stations jumped to Fox from CBS (for example, in Detroit, WWJ-TV replaced WJBK).
Key figures involved in the creation and production for The Baseball Network:
- David Alworth (vice president of broadcasting and production management)
- Dan Bell (spokesman for The Baseball Network)
- Chris Bevilacqua (director of corporate sponsorships)
- Bill Canter (production manager of the 1995 World Series)
- Rick Clifford
- Ed Delaney (vice president of operations)
- Carlos DeMolina (production assistant of the 1995 World Series)
- Philip Doucet (technical director of the 1995 World Series)
- Dick Ebersol (president of NBC Sports)
- Eddie Einhorn (vice chairman of the Chicago White Sox, television producer and a member of Major League Baseball's television committee)
- John Filippelli (coordinating producer)
- Sam Flood (pre-game producer of the 1995 World Series)
- Woody Freiman (associate producer the 1995 World Series)
- Russell Gabay (coordinating production manager of the 1995 World Series)
- Bill Giles (Philadelphia Phillies president and chairman of Major League Baseball's television committee)
- John Gonzalez (coordinating producer & producer of the 1995 World Series for NBC Sports)
- Steve Hearns (production manager of the 1995 World Series)
- Steve Hirdt (director of information of the 1995 World Series)
- Jeff Kibler (associate producer the 1995 World Series)
- Steve Lawrence (replay producer of the 1995 World Series)
- Ross Levinsohn
- Jon Litner (vice president of business affairs)
- Bill Melanson (production manager of the 1995 World Series)
- Jack O'Hara (executive producer of ABC Sports)
- Peter Pascarelli (editorial consultant of the 1995 World Series)
- Jed Petrick (vice president of sales)
- Chris Pfeiffer (production assistant of the 1995 World Series)
- Andy Rosenberg (director of the 1995 World Series)
- Tom Roy (executive producer of NBC Sports)
- Ken Schanzer (president and chief operating officer)
- Bud Selig (owner of the Milwaukee Brewers and acting commissioner of Major League Baseball)
- Ray Stallone (director of marketing communications)
- Dennis Swanson (president of ABC Sports)
- Mike Trager (executive vice president, marketing and sales)
- Suzanne Turner (production manager of the 1995 World Series)
- Tom Werner (owner of the San Diego Padres and a member of Major League Baseball's television committee)
The Baseball Network kicked off its coverage on July 12, 1994 with the 1986 to 1987 on regional Game of the Week telecasts alongside Bob Carpenter and served as a pre-game analyst alongside hosts Dick Enberg and Marv Albert during NBC's coverage of 1985 and 1987 National League Championship Series respectively), and Bob Uecker calling the action and Greg Gumbel (who had just recently, left CBS Sports following their losses of the Major League Baseball and National Football League packages to ABC/NBC and Fox respectively) hosting the pre-game show. Helping with interviews were Hannah Storm and Johnny Bench. The 1994 All-Star Game reportedly sold out all its advertising slots. This was considered an impressive financial accomplishment, given that one 30-second spot cost US$300,000.
Baseball Night in America
After the All-Star Game was complete, ABC (with a reunited Al Michaels, Tim McCarver, and Jim Palmer along with CBS baseball alumnus Lesley Visser as the primary broadcasting crew) was scheduled to televise six regular season games on Saturdays or Mondays in prime time. On the subject of play-by-play announcer Al Michaels returning to baseball for the first time since the infamous Loma Prieta earthquake interrupted the 1989 World Series, Jim Palmer (who along with Michaels and Tim McCarver called the 1985, 1987 and 1989 World Series, as well as the 1986 and 1988 All-Star Games, and 1988 National League Championship Series for ABC) said, "Here Al is, having done five games since 1989, and steps right in. It's hard to comprehend how one guy could so amaze." NBC would then pick up where ABC left off by televising six more regular season Friday night games.
The networks had exclusive rights for the twelve regular season dates, in that no regional or national cable service (such as ESPN or superstations like Chicago's WGN-TV or Atlanta's WTBS) or over-the-air broadcaster was allowed to telecast a Major League Baseball game on those dates. Baseball Night in America (which premiered on July 16, 1994) usually aired up to fourteen games based on the viewers' region (affiliates chose games of local interest to carry) as opposed to a traditional coast-to-coast format. Normally, announcers who represented each of the teams playing in the respective games were paired with each other. More specifically, on regional Saturday night broadcasts and all non-"national" broadcasts, TBN let the two lead announcers from the opposing teams call the games involving their teams together.
Every Baseball Night in America game was scheduled to begin at 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time (or 8:00 p.m. Pacific Time if the game occurred on the West Coast). A single starting time gave the networks the opportunity to broadcast one game and then, simultaneously, cut to another game when there was a break in action.
Games involving the Toronto Blue Jays and Montreal Expos, were not always included in the Baseball Night in America package. Canadian rightsholders were allowed to broadcast the games. When TSN (which owned the cable rights to the Blue Jays and Expos) covered the game in Canada, they re-broadcast the BNA feed across their network. Typically, if the Blue Jays were idle for the day, the Expos would be featured on TSN. Also, CBET (the CBC affiliate in Windsor, Ontario) would air Blue Jays games if the Detroit Tigers were not playing at home that night or if the Blue Jays scheduled to play in Detroit. Whether or not the game would air in the opposing team's market would depend on which time zone they were from, or if they shared a market with another team.
Ratings for both seasons of the Baseball Night in America regular season coverage were substantially higher than CBS' final season in 1993 (3.8) or any subsequent season on Fox. Baseball Night in America earned a 6.2 during the strike-shortened 1994 season and a 5.8 in 1995.
All of these games aired on ABC; due to the strike NBC was unable to air its slate of games, which were supposed to begin on August 26.
ABC scheduled games
NBC scheduled games
In even-numbered years, NBC would have the rights to the All-Star Game and both League Championship Series while ABC would have the World Series and newly created Division Series. In odd-numbered years, the postseason and All-Star Game television rights were supposed to alternate. When ABC and NBC last covered baseball together from 1976 to 1989, ABC had the rights to the World Series in odd-numbered years while NBC would cover the All-Star Game and both League Championship Series in said years. Likewise, this process would alternate in even numbered years, with ABC getting the All-Star Game and both LCS in years that NBC had the World Series.
The networks also promised not to begin any World Series weekend broadcasts after 7:20 p.m. Eastern Time. When CBS held the television rights, postseason games routinely aired on the East Coast at 8:30 p.m. at the earliest. This meant that Joe Carter's dramatic World Series clinching home run in 1993 occurred after midnight in the East. As CBS' baseball coverage progressed, the network dropped the 8:00 p.m. pregame coverage (in favor of airing sitcoms such as Evening Shade) before finally starting its coverage at 8:30 p.m. Eastern Time. The first pitch would generally arrive at approximately 8:45 p.m.
ABC won the rights to the first dibs at the World Series in August 1993 after ABC Sports president Dennis Swanson won a coin toss by calling "heads." Ken Schanzer, who was the CEO of The Baseball Network, handled the coin toss. Schanzer agreed to the coin toss by ABC and NBC at the outset as the means of determining the order in which they would divide up the playoffs.
What separated The Baseball Network from previous television deals with Major League Baseball, and was by far the most controversial part of the deal, was that not all postseason games (aside from the World Series) were guaranteed to be shown nationally. To increase viewership by preventing games from being played in the afternoon (the league was the only professional sports league in the country to play postseason games during the afternoon), the National League and American League's division and championship series games were instead played simultaneously in primetime, and affiliates could only air one game each night, which were again determined regionally. If one playoff series had already concluded, the remaining games would be aired nationally. Despite the frustration of not being able to see both League Championship Series on a national level, the 1995 LCS averaged a 13.1 rating.
Besides the 1994 All-Star Game and Game 6 of the 1995 World Series, arguably, the most famous Baseball Network broadcast was Game 5 of the 1995 American League Division Series between the New York Yankees and the Seattle Mariners, broadcast on ABC. It ended with the Mariners winning in 11 innings (via Edgar Martínez's game winning double), to clinch their first ever trip to the American League Championship Series.
A major problem with Baseball Night in America was the idea that viewers could not watch "important" games. Marty Noble put it in perspective by saying "With the Network determining when games will begin and which games are made available to which TV markets, Major League Baseball can conduct parts of its pennant races in relative secrecy." What added to the troubles of The Baseball Network was the fact that Baseball Night in America held exclusivity over every market. This most severely impacted markets with two teams, specifically New York City (Mets and Yankees), the Greater Los Angeles Area (Dodgers and Angels), Chicago (Cubs and White Sox), the San Francisco Bay Area (Giants and A's), and even Texas (Astros and Rangers). For example, if Baseball Night in America showed a Yankees game, this meant that nobody in New York could see that night's Mets game and vice versa.
Things got so bad for The Baseball Network that even local broadcasters objected to its operations. KSMO-TV in Kansas City, the primary over-the-air station for the Kansas City Royals, went as far as to sue the Royals for breach of contract resulting from their broadcasts being "overexposed" and violating its territorial exclusivity. Worse yet, even if a market had only one team, the ABC or NBC affiliate could still not broadcast that team's game if the start time was not appropriate for the time zone. For example, if the Detroit Tigers (the only team in their market) played a road game in Seattle, Oakland or Anaheim beginning at 8:00 p.m. Pacific Time (a late game), Detroit's Baseball Network affiliate (either WXYZ-TV or WDIV, depending on the network which held the rights to the game) could not air the game because the start time was too late for the Detroit area (11:00 p.m. Eastern Time). Detroit viewers only had the option of viewing the early game of the night.
Sports Illustrated columnist Tom Verducci for one, was very harsh on The Baseball Network, dubbing it both "America's regional pastime" and an "abomination." ABC Sports president Dennis Swanson, in announcing the dissolution of The Baseball Network, said "The fact of the matter is, Major League Baseball seems incapable at this point in time, of living with any long term relationships, whether it's with fans, with players, with the political community in Washington, with the advertising community here in Manhattan, or with its TV partners."
Shortly after the start of the strike, Stanford University's Roger Noll argued that the Baseball Network deal (and the bargain-basement ESPN cable renewal, which went from $100 million to $42 million because of their losses) reflected "poor business judgment on the part of management about the long-run attractiveness of their product to national broadcasters." He added that the $140 million that owners expected to share for the 1994 season (before the strike) from TBN was underestimated by "one-third to one-half" and fell below the annual average of $165 million needed to renew the TBN deal after two years. Meanwhile, Andy Zimbalist, author of Baseball and Billions, and a players' union consulting economist, insisted that baseball could have done better than the TBN deal with some combination of CBS (which offered $120 million last-ditch bid for renewal), Fox and TBS. Baseball shut out CBS and could have waited longer before closing them out."
Five years after The Baseball Network dissolved, NBC Sports play-by-play announcer Bob Costas wrote in his book Fair Ball: A Fan's Case for Baseball that The Baseball Network was "stupid and an abomination." Costas further wrote that the agreement involving the World Series being the only instance of The Baseball Network broadcasting a nationally televised game was an unprecedented surrender of prestige, as well as a slap to all serious fans. He believed that The Baseball Network fundamentally corrupted the game and acknowledged that the most impassioned fans in baseball were now prevented from watching many of the playoff games that they wanted to see, as all playoff games had been broadcast nationally for decades. Costas added that both the divisional series and the League Championship Series now merited scarcely higher priority than regional coverage provided for a Big Ten football game between Wisconsin and Michigan.
According to Curt Smith's book, The Voice - Mel Allen's Untold Story, the longtime New York Yankees broadcaster and This Week in Baseball host was quoted as saying "You wonder how anything would be worse [than CBS]. What kind of show cancels a twenty-six-week-season's first fourteen weeks?" (in response to TBN's tagline, "Welcome to the Show").
During the 1995 Division Series, the fan frustration with The Baseball Network was so bad that the mere mention of it during the Mariners–Yankees ALDS from public address announcer Tom Hutyler at Seattle's Kingdome brought boos from most of the crowd.
Downfall and demise
The long-term plans for The Baseball Network began to crumble after players and owners went on strike on August 12, 1994. In addition to the cancellation of that year's World Series, ABC was denied its remaining Baseball Night in America telecasts and NBC was shut out of its game broadcast slate altogether. Both networks elected to dissolve the partnership with Major League Baseball on June 22, 1995. Both networks figured that as the delayed 1995 baseball season opened without a labor agreement, there was no guarantee against another strike.
The Baseball Network's contract stipulated that negotiations could only take place with NBC and ABC for 45 days, starting on August 15, 1995. But with NBC and ABC's refusal to continue after the 1995 season, baseball had to look at its future options. In October 1995, when it was a known fact that ABC and NBC were going to end their television deal/joint venture with Major League Baseball, preliminary talks rose about CBS returning. It was rumored that CBS would show Thursday night games (more specifically, a package of West Coast interleague games scheduled for the 11:30 Eastern/8:30 Pacific Time slot) while Fox would show Saturday afternoon games. CBS and Fox were also rumored to share rights to the postseason. In the end however, CBS' involvement did not come to pass and NBC became Fox's over-the-air national television partner. Whereas each team earned about $14 million in 1990 under CBS the later TV agreement with NBC and Fox beginning in 1996 earned each team about $6.8 million.
To salvage the remains of the partnership, ABC and NBC elected to share coverage of the 1995 postseason including the World Series. ABC wound up broadcasting Games 1, 4, and 5 of 1995 World Series and NBC broadcasting Games 2, 3, and 6 (which turned out to be the decisive game). Had the 1995 World Series gone to a seventh game, it would have then been broadcast by ABC. As it stands, Game 5 of the 1995 World Series is to date, the final Major League Baseball game to be broadcast on ABC.
Others would argue that a primary reason for its failure was its abandoning of localized markets in favor of more lucrative and stable advertising contracts afforded by turning to a national model of broadcasting, similar to the National Football League's television package, which focuses on localized games, with one or two "national" games.
In the end, the venture would lose US$95 million in advertising and nearly $500 million in national and local spending. The Baseball Network generated only about $5.5 million per team in revenue for each of the two years that it operated. To put things into proper perspective, in 1993 alone, CBS generated about $14.7 million per team. Much of this could possibly be traced back to the strike causing a huge drop in revenue, which in return caused baseball salaries to decrease by approximately $140,000 on average in 1995.
Both ABC and NBC soon publicly vowed to cut all ties with Major League Baseball for the remainder of the 20th century, and Fox signed on to be the exclusive network carrier of Major League Baseball regular season games in 1996. However, NBC kept a postseason-only (with the exception of even-numbered years when NBC had the rights to the All-Star Game) deal in the end, signing a deal to carry three Division Series games, one half of the League Championship Series (the ALCS in even numbered years and the NLCS in odd numbered years; Fox would televise the other LCS in said years), and the 1997 and 1999 World Series respectively (Fox had exclusive rights to the 1996, 1998 and 2000 World Series).
Fox's end of the new contract (which the network paid US$575 million for the initial five-year contract) restored the Saturday afternoon Game of the Week broadcasts during the regular season (approximately 16 weekly telecasts annually that normally began on Memorial Day weekend), although it continued to offer a selection of games based on region, with usually three regionalized telecasts airing each week.
With ABC being sold to The Walt Disney Company in 1996, ESPN would pick up daytime and late-evening Division Series games with a provision similar to its National Football League games, in which the games would only air on network affiliates in the local markets of the two participating teams. ESPN's Major League Baseball contract was not affected then, but would take a hit in 1998 with the new National Football League contract.
In 2012, Fox would revive the Baseball Night in America title (previously used for The Baseball Network's games) for a series of Saturday night games. Unlike The Baseball Network, Fox did not carry every game that was scheduled for a given Saturday, only choosing five to six games to distribute to its affiliates.
As previously mentioned announcers who represented each of the teams playing in the respective games were typically National League Championship Series) behind Bob Costas. Dick Enberg was supposed to be the secondary play-by-play announcer in 1994 for NBC, but by the following season, his other commitments for NBC such as golf and football rendered him unavailable to broadcast baseball.
|Event||Network||Teams||Play-by-play||Color commentators||Field reporters||Pregame host|
|1994 Major League Baseball All-Star Game||NBC||Pittsburgh Pirates (host)||Bob Costas||Bob Uecker||Hannah Storm and Johnny Bench||Greg Gumbel|
|1995 Major League Baseball All-Star Game||ABC||Texas Rangers (host)||Al Michaels||Jim Palmer and Tim McCarver||Lesley Visser and Rick Dempsey||John Saunders|
|1995 American League Division Series||
NBC (Games 1-2)
ABC (Games 3-5)
|Seattle Mariners/New York Yankees||
Gary Thorne (Games 1-2)
Brent Musburger (Games 3-5)
Tommy Hutton (Games 1-2)
Jim Kaat (Games 3-5)
NBC (Games 1- 2)
ABC (Game 3)
|Cleveland Indians/Boston Red Sox||
Bob Costas (Games 1-2)
Steve Zabriskie (Game 3)
Bob Uecker (Games 1-2)
Tommy Hutton (Game 3)
|1995 National League Division Series||
NBC (Games 1–2)
ABC (Games 3–4)
|Atlanta Braves/Colorado Rockies||
Pete Van Wieren (Games 1–3)
Al Michaels (Game 4)
Larry Dierker (Games 1–3)
Jim Palmer and Tim McCarver (Game 4)
NBC (Games 1-2)
ABC (Game 3)
|Cincinnati Reds/Los Angeles Dodgers||
Greg Gumbel (Games 1–2)
Joe Morgan (Games 1–2)
Jim Palmer and Tim McCarver (Game 3)
|1995 American League Championship Series||
ABC (Games 1–2)
NBC (Games 3–6)
|Cleveland Indians/Seattle Mariners||
Brent Musburger (Games 1–2)
Bob Costas (Games 3–6)
Jim Kaat (Games 1–2)
Bob Uecker (Games 3–6)
Jack Arute (Games 1–2)
Jim Gray (Games 3–6)
|1995 National League Championship Series||
ABC (Games 1–2)
NBC (Games 3–4)
|Atlanta Braves/Cincinnati Reds||
Al Michaels (Games 1–2)
Greg Gumbel (Games 3–4)
Jim Palmer and Tim McCarver (Games 1–2)
Joe Morgan (Games 3–4)
|Lesley Visser (Games 1–2)|
|1995 World Series||
ABC (Games 1, 4–5)
NBC (Games 2–3 and 6)
|Atlanta Braves/Cleveland Indians||
Al Michaels (ABC)
Bob Costas (NBC)
Jim Palmer and Tim McCarver (ABC)
Joe Morgan and Bob Uecker (NBC)
Lesley Visser (ABC)
Jim Gray (NBC)
John Saunders (ABC)
Hannah Storm (NBC)
Oh man, oh man, Tony Peña on 3 and 0! Sends everybody home! Tony Peña spells good night! And this team that won 27 games in its final at-bat, that had 48 come-from-behind wins, that was 13–0 in extra inning games...did all those things...when Tony Peña connected.
(before the pitch) The fans want a dinger out of him...This one by Mattingly, OH HANG ON TO THE ROOF...GOODBYE, HOME RUN! DON MATTINGLY!!!
Oh yeah, tie game, Paul O'Neill, GOODBYE into the night of New York!!!!
Line drive, we are tied! Griffey is coming around! In the corner is Bernie! He's going to try and score! Here's the division championship! Mariners win it, Mariners win it!!!
The Braves a strike away from advancing..a half swing and they'll go to Cincinnati for the National League Championship Series.
The Cleveland Indians, after a 41 year wait, are in the World Series.— Bob Costas
Wohlers looks...and the strike two pitch to Sanders...a swing and a miss! And the Atlanta Braves have won the 1995 National League pennant! And as you can imagine the celebration begins, down on the natural surface of this ballpark...
Back to Georgia!— Al Michaels calling the final out of Game 5 as the Cleveland Indians took it.
Dave Justice, all is forgiven in Atlanta.— Bob Costas after Justice's Game 6 home run which would prove the deciding run.
Left-center field...Grissom, on the run...the team of the '90s has its World Championship!— Bob Costas calling the final out in Game 6.
1995 World Series
- 1994 Major League Baseball All-Star Game
- 1994–95 Major League Baseball strike
- 1995 Major League Baseball All-Star Game
- 1995 American League Division Series
- 1995 National League Division Series
- 1995 American League Championship Series
- 1995 National League Championship Series
- 1995 World Series
- Baseball Network Theme 1994 1995 (Various Cuts) on YouTube
- John Nelson (May 9, 1993). "Major League Baseball Strikes Unique Deal with NBC, ABC".
- "Sports Graphics Packages, Historically: MLB on ABC, 1994-1995". SportsLogos.net. November 10, 2013.
- MLB World Series 28.10.1995 Cleveland Indians VS Atlanta Braves (Game 5) on YouTube
- James Robert Walker; Robert Bellamy, Jr. Center Field Shot: A History of Baseball on Television. p. 155.
- Martzke, Rudy (17 July 1995). "THE GOOD AND BAD OF BASEBALL NIGHT IN AMERICA". Sports Business Daily.
- Robert Silverman (February 15, 1994). "Primetime baseball hits NBC, ABC weak nights".
- Kent, Milton (17 July 1995). "Void grows on Saturday afternoon". The Baltimore Sun.
- Michael Martinez (April 3, 1994). "No More Baseball On Afternoon TV -- `Baseball Night' Will Start In July".
- John Nelson (July 17, 1994). Baseball Night in America' will focus on regionalized fan appeal"'".
- Jerry Trecker (October 26, 1995). "The Baseball Network Adds Up To Bad Reception". Hartford Courant (Times Mirror Company). Retrieved July 2, 2012.
- "Nitwits Running Baseball Network". San Francisco Chronicle (
- Kevin Gorman (October 5, 1995). "Baseball Network ruining hardball's comeback".
- Doug Pappas. "The Baseball Network: R.I.P. (And Don't Come Back!)". roadsidephotos.sabr.org.
- Sean O'Leary (July 12, 2011). "Baseball Night In America: The Worst Idea Ever". Scribblings.
- Bob Sherwin (March 27, 1996). "Baseball On TV -- FOX Bid Helps Put Baseball Back On Track". The Seattle Times.
- Richard Sandomir (August 26, 1994). "TV SPORTS; The Baseball Network Says the Players' Analyst Struck Out". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved July 2, 2012.
- "Baseball Network Plans to Bring on the Night New TV Deal Makes Saturday Afternoon Games a Thing of the Past".
- Stee-Rike Four!: What's Wrong With the Business of Baseball?. p. 57.
- Wise and Meyer, Aaron N. and Bruce S. International Sports Law and Business, Volume 3. p. 1701.
- Steve Nidetz (July 11, 1994). "With Baseball Back, Nbc Pulls Out Its Own All-star Lineup".
- Rick Rupprecht (August 5, 1995). "Mulholland Ought to Grow Up, Graf Pay Up".
- "Name chosen for baseball's joint TV venture".
- William Oscar Johnson (May 17, 1993). "For Sale: The National Pastime".
- Steve Zipay (June 17, 1994). "MEDIA NHL Steals The Show And Ratings".
- Chad Rubel (September 11, 1995). "Baseball tries for comeback, but it swings and misses.". Marketing News. Retrieved July 2, 2012.
- Shelley Donald Coolidge (March 7, 1995). "Firms May Take a Walk On Baseball Promotions".
- Joe Mandese (February 28, 1994). "Baseball Network Fails to Wow Advertisers".
- Shaprio, Leonard (September 18, 1993). "Untangling Baseball Network's Intricacies". Sarasota Herald-Tribune.
- Jack Craig (August 5, 1995). "Baseball on Disney? It's fantasy land".
- "The Baseball Network's firing of executive adds to confusion". Houston Chronicle (Hearst Corporation). July 7, 2012. Retrieved July 2, 2012.
- Richard Sandomir (September 2, 1994). "TV SPORTS; Account Running Dry For Baseball Network". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved July 2, 2012.
- Bill Fleischman (April 4, 1994). "The Baseball Network Gears Up For First Year".
- Simpson, Gabrielle (3 December 2014). "Jon Litner". NBC Universal.
- Baseball Night in America' hopes to be a hit on Mondays"'". Gainesville Sun. July 16, 1994.
- Rudy Martzke (August 11, 1995). "Madden slips across border". USA Today (Gannett Company). Retrieved May 31, 2011.
- Leonard Shaprio (September 17, 1993). "Untangling Baseball Network's Intricacies".
- "TV Exex Say Baseball Scabs Don't Rate". Variety (Penske Media Corporation). February 12, 1995. Retrieved December 11, 2014.
- Barry Horn (July 6, 1994). "ABCs (and NBCs) of TBN's MLB plan".
- 1987-09-19 NBC GOW Intro_Cincinnati Reds at San Francisco Giants on YouTube
- Steve Nidetz (June 10, 1994). "Greg Gumbel Finds Saying Farewell Can Be Painful". Chicago Tribune (Tribune Publishing).
- John Nelson (April 3, 1994). "Opening Day a New Wrinkle TV Coverage".
- "Two stations forming new baseball network". Moscow-Pullman Daily News. March 31, 1994.
- Jim Baker (July 16, 1995). "Michaels will carry on till baseball's last inning".
- "Tyson Fight Takes a Big Wad to See".
- "ABC `Baseball Night' takes ratings beating". USA Today (Gannett Company). 19 July 1995. Retrieved May 31, 2011.
- Larry, Stewart (21 July 1995). "ABC Getting a Major Chance With British Open Coverage". Los Angeles Times.
- "Abc No. 1". Sun Sentinel. 8 September 1995.
- "List of Week's TV Ratings". Associated Press. 19 September 1995.
- "`Blockbuster' Deal Ensures ACC TV Coverage in Every Sport".
- "FORMER RAIDERS GREAT SAYS TEAM BELONGS IN OAKLAND". The Roanoke Times. July 15, 1995. Retrieved May 31, 2011.
- Jack Craig (August 11, 1995). "Sox get new player tomorrow -- Ch. 68". Boston Globe (The New York Times Company). Retrieved May 31, 2011.
- Prentis Rogers (August 25, 1995). "Baseball Network package tunes out Braves-Cubs today".
- Robert Koehler (July 10, 1994). "Networking the Ballparks : ABC and NBC Take Separate Turns at Bat to Drive Home Regular and Post-Season Play". Los Angeles Times (Times Mirror Company). Retrieved July 2, 2012.
- "The Baseball Network May Strike Out on 1st Pitch".
- Jayson Stark (April 2, 1994). "Baseball On Tv Won't Be The Baseball That You're Used To The Picture Tube Will Still Be The Same Shape (probably). Very Little Else Will Be Familiar, However.". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved July 2, 2012.
- Baseball Night in America' Means No Day Games Today"'".
- John Nelson (April 20, 1995). "Baseball's Back on TV, But Will Fans Tune In or Turn Off?".
- Terry Armour (July 15, 1994). "Abc Hopes There's No Baseball Strike, But Just In Case . . .". Chicago Tribune (Tribune Publishing). Retrieved July 2, 2012.
- "Networks bracing for baseball strike". Gainesville Sun. July 30, 1994.
- Lammer, Patrick (31 December 1994). "Simpson saga 1994 Lammys story of the year". Ocala Star-Banner.
- Larry Stewart (July 9, 1994). "Baseball gets a late start on network television".
- Felts, Jerry (July 9, 1994). "Network good news for fans". Times Daily.
- Michael Hiestand (July 7, 1994). "ABCs (and NBCs) of TBN's MLB plan". USA Today (Gannett Company). Retrieved May 31, 2011.
- Larry Stewart (July 8, 1994). "Baseball Season Gets Late Start on Network TV". Los Angeles Times (Times Mirror Company). Retrieved May 31, 2011.
- "Networks Climb Into Ballpark". Fort Wayne News Sentinel. July 8, 1994. Retrieved May 31, 2011.
- Ray Frager (July 8, 1994). "Costas hoping Baseball Night keeps grip".
- Michael Hiestand (July 7, 1994). "ABCs (and NBCs) of TBN's MLB plan". USA Today (Gannett Company). Retrieved May 31, 2011.
- Jack Craig (July 16, 1994). "Looking for the game? Don't touch that dial". Boston Globe (The New York Times Company). Retrieved May 31, 2011.
- Nelson, John (July 17, 1994). "New baseball package vows regional focus". The Spokesman-Review.
- Richard Sandomir (July 15, 1994). "13 games to 1 household: `Baseball Night In America' begins overwhelming task Saturday". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved May 31, 2011.
- "Baseball comes to ABC tonight".
- "Baseball Network Makes Its Debut with Tuesday's All-Star Game". The State. July 10, 1994. Retrieved May 31, 2011.
- Geoff Calkins (July 9, 1994). "Nen's Role as Closer is Now Permanent".
- Ray Frager (July 12, 1994). "Reds Back on TV in Lexington".
- Neff, Andrew (July 8, 1994). "Baseball Network airing fewer games". Bangor Daily News.
- "Tonight's `Baseball Night in America' on ABC". USA Today (Gannett Company). July 18, 1994. Retrieved May 31, 2011.
- Steve Nidetz (July 8, 1994). "What's So Funny About Sports? A Lot in This New Show". Chicago Tribune (Tribune Publishing). Retrieved May 31, 2011.
- Jim Baker (July 14, 1994). "Back shelves Monty". Boston Herald (The New York Times Company). Retrieved May 31, 2011.
- "Best Bet On TV".
- Steve Nidetz (July 25, 1994). "Baseball Network Evolving Slowly". Chicago Tribune (Tribune Publishing). Retrieved May 31, 2011.
- Steve Nidetz (July 29, 1994). "Lloyd Flattered WGN Tuned Him in as Road Stand-In for Harry". Chicago Tribune (Tribune Publishing). Retrieved May 31, 2011.
- Steve Nidetz (July 25, 1994). "Baseball Network Evolving Slowly". Chicago Tribune (Tribune Publishing). Retrieved 2 July 2012.
- Keith Groller (July 25, 1994). "Jackson Tops Padres for 13th Win Phillies' Lefty Sends Message in First Inning".
- "Best Bet On TV". The Vindicator. July 25, 1994. Retrieved May 31, 2011.
- Fritz Quindt (22 July 1994). "Campbell, Coleman are staging concert on ABC for the benefit of Padres faithful".
- "Williams, Bonds are Close to Best Tandems in History".
- "Travel plans set for strike eve, but . . .".
- Barry Horn (August 10, 1994). "Sports Waves". The Dallas Morning News (A.H. Belo Corporation). Retrieved May 31, 2011.
- Fritz Quindt (August 5, 1994). "An aroma of urgency is finally sensed with offers for Padres on (and in) the air". San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved May 31, 2011.
- Dan Caeser (August 5, 1994). "'"ABC Approaches Brickyard 400 with `Sense of History.
- "Standings and Games on Saturday, July 15, 1995". Baseball Reference.
- "NOTEBOOK: Baseball network ratings down". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. July 18, 1995.
- 1995 MLB All-Star Game - NL 3, AL 2, 7/11/1995, ABC-TV Part Two on YouTube
- Jackman, Phil (21 July 1995). "Baseball Night's strikeout shouldn't come as surprise". Baltimore Sun.
- Cleveland Indians Clinch 1995 American League Central! on YouTube
- Indians Clinch 1995 - Tom Hamilton on YouTube
- "Standings and Games on Friday, September 22, 1995". Baseball Reference.
- Stewart, Larry (22 September 1995). "NBC's Ryder Cup Is Only for Early Birdies". Los Angeles Times.
"More tales of The Baseball Network". SIU Daily Egyptian. July 26, 1995. Retrieved February 12, 2015.
ABC lost the 1994 World Series; this was supposed to be NBC's year. Instead, they split the spoils. Who got the better of the deal? Let's see. The networks each get 6 percent of the advertising revenues; baseball gets 88 percent. Call it a draw.
- Fritz Quindt (July 15, 1994). "Once a week, The Baseball Network will wield control over all but the inevitable". San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved May 31, 2011.
- "Baseball players unlikely to endorse new playoffs". The Daily Reporter. 24 August 1993.
- Bill Fleischman (October 29, 1993). "It's A Whole, New Ballgame". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved July 2, 2012.
- "ABC Wins Coin Toss for Game 7".
- Milton Kent (September 15, 1995). "ABC flips for Game 7 of Series". The Baltimore Sun (Times Mirror Company). Retrieved July 2, 2012.
- Peter Pascarelli (February 7, 1994). "A ride into the unknown".
- Mike Burton (October 2, 1995). "Television / Analysis -- Who's On TV? Playoff Format One Big Mess - - Baseball Network Won't Show All Games". The Seattle Times.
- Steve Nidetz (3 October 1995). "Viewers Get Playoff Coverage Bonanza". Chicago Tribune (Tribune Publishing). Retrieved 2 July 2012.
- Bruce Jenkins (July 16, 1995). "Baseball Should Listen to Berman". San Francisco Chronicle (Chronicle Publishing Company).
- "TV's Coverage of Playoffs a 'Who's On?' Routine".
- Ernest Hooper (September 29, 1994). "Baseball strikes out - again Series: TV / RADIO; FANFARE".
- "ABC, NBC Will Carry Baseball Playoff Games".
- Taylor, Chuck (October 3, 1995). "During Baseball Playoffs, No National TV Coverage". Seattle Times.
- Bill Gorman (October 2, 2008). "Major League Baseball Playoff Ratings, 1976-2007".
- MLB World Series 28.10.1995 Cleveland Indians VS Atlanta Braves (Game 6) on YouTube
- Chris Donnelly. Baseball's Greatest Series: Yankees, Mariners, and the 1995 Matchup That ... p. 101l.
- Andriesen, David (20 July 1994). "New TV deal a shame for baseball fans". Ellensburg Daily Record.
- Steve Zipay (September 29, 1995). "MEDIA More Pain for Fans". Newsday (Cablevision Systems Corporation). Retrieved May 31, 2011.
- "Swing And A Miss Baseball's Attempt To Juice Up The Game May Leave A Sour Taste Come Playoff Time". Sports Illustrated. Time Inc. August 7, 1995.
- Steve Nidetz (August 23, 1995). "Cubs Viewers Thrown a Curve by TBN Blackout". Chicago Tribune (Tribune Publishing). Retrieved May 31, 2011.
- "`Baseball Night' leaves Astros, Rangers fans on deck".
- Jack Craig (August 22, 1995). "Cashing in, hand over fist". Boston Globe (The New York Times Company). Retrieved May 31, 2011.
- Milton Kent (August 25, 1995). "Baseball Network strikes out again for Oriole fans". The Baltimore Sun (Times Mirror Company).
- "Tickets Available for Nomo's Start".
- "The Baseball Network says it'll abandon baseball". Eugene Register-Guard. 24 June 1995.
- Richard Sandomir (August 26, 1994). "TV SPORTS; The Baseball Network Says the Players' Analyst Struck Out". The New York Times (The New York Times Company).
- Bob Raissman (June 25, 1995). "Later Costas' Not-so-sad Farewell To Baseball".
- Costas, Bob (2001). Fair Ball: A Fan's Case for Baseball. Crown/Archetype. p. 28.
- Mike Bruton (October 5, 1995). "Tbn TV’s Baseball Nonsense". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved February 10, 2015.
- Nidetz, Steve (October 6, 1995). "Baseball Network's Success In Dulling-down Playoffs Causes Its Demise". Chicago Tribune.
- Smith, Curt (2007). The Voice: Mel Allen's Untold Story. Globe Pequot. p. 234.
- Skip Wollenberg (April 20, 1995). "Baseball Reminds Fans of "The Show" in New Ad Campaign". Associated Press. Retrieved February 12, 2015.
- Tracey Labovitz (July 16, 1995). "McNamara Vaults Into Festival Coverage".
- Jones, Tom (10 August 1994). "For television, a baseball strike would be no big deal". Walker County Messenger.
- Jeff Jensen (September 19, 1994). "There's Always Next Year-Maybe Baseball Advertisers Take a Hike for '94". Advertising Age.
- Jack Craig (August 20, 1995). "Fans not wild about baseball". Boston Globe (The New York Times Company). Retrieved May 31, 2011.
- "Abc And Nbc Quit Baseball Network". The Philadelphia Inquirer. June 23, 1995. Retrieved July 2, 2012.
- Jack McCallum; Christian Stone (July 3, 1995). "Scorecard". Sports Illustrated (Time Inc.).
- Richard Sandomir (June 27, 1995). "TV SPORTS; All Are to Blame for Baseball Network's Demise". The New York Times (The New York Times Company).
- "Costas dreading baseball season". Eugene Register-Guard. 11 January 1995.
- Gary Levin (July 24, 1995). "ABC blocks baseball play for deal". Variety (Penske Media Corporation).
- Richard Sandomir (June 28, 1995). "BASEBALL; Baseball Seeks a Loophole for TV Talks". The New York Times (The New York Times Company).
- "Networks set to bid on baseball Fox, CBS expected to make big play for new TV deal".
- Bruton, Mike (24 June 1995). "Baseball Up For Grabs As Abc, Nbc Dissolve Venture With Owners Cbs And Fox Are Likely Bidders. The Baseball Network Will Finish Out The 1995 Season.". Philadelphia Inquirer.
- Rudy Martzke (October 11, 1995). "Baseball, O.J. go head-to-head". USA Today (Gannett Company).
- Donald L. Deardorff. Sports: A Reference Guide and Critical Commentary, 1980-1999. p. 33.
- Ben Walker (July 21, 1995). "The World Series may come down to Kenny Lofton vs. Deion Sanders". Associated Press. Retrieved February 12, 2015.
- Steve Nidetz (July 21, 1995). "Abc, Nbc To Share World Series Coverage". Chicago Tribune (Tribune Publishing). Retrieved July 2, 2012.
- Beth Bragg (September 15, 1995). "Enjoy It While You Can; Free Boxing Won't Last".
- 1995 NBC Promo (Game 2 -- World Series).wmv on YouTube
- MLB World Series 24.10.1995 Cleveland Indians VS Atlanta Braves (Game 3) on YouTube
- 1995 WS Intro on YouTube
- Richard Sandomir (June 20, 1995). "TV SPORTS; Baseball Network Faces a Full Count". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved July 2, 2012.
- Leonard Shapiro (June 24, 1995). "Abc, Nbc Pull Plug On Baseball". The Washington Post (The Washington Post Company). Retrieved July 2, 2012.
- "Baseball Broadcasting Faces Uncertain Future".
- Steve Nidetz (June 23, 1995). "ABC, NBC Quit Baseball Network : Television: Rights probably will be offered to CBS or Fox after this season.". Associated Press. Retrieved July 2, 2012.
- Richard Sandomir (July 13, 1995). "BASEBALL; ABC Issues Warning to Turner and Fox". The New York Times (The New York Times Company).
- Gaffney, Jim (19 October 1997). "Bob Costas finally takes his World Series cuts". Boca Raton News.
- Blum, Ronald (7 November 1995). "IT'S OFFICIAL, Baseball gets lucrative TV deal". The Deseret News.
- "Baseball may return to its TV roots". Eugene Register-Guard. 18 October 1995.
- Jim McConville (November 6, 1995). "MLB sews up deal with Fox, NBC. (Major League Baseball, National Broadcasting Co., Fox Broadcasting Co.)".
- James McConville (November 13, 1995). "Baseball's new TV rights contract.(Major League Baseball contract)(Brief Article)". Broadcasting & Cable. Retrieved February 20, 2015 – via HighBeam Research.
- "BASEBALL;ABC Auditing Baseball Venture". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). December 22, 1995. Retrieved July 2, 2012.
- "FOX Hearkens Back to The Baseball Network With ‘Baseball Night in America’". Sports Media Watch. April 10, 2012. Retrieved April 9, 2012.
- Steve Zipay (June 21, 1994). "MEDIA NBC: No Cutting Layoff". Newsday. Retrieved May 31, 2011.
- "Baseball's Back on Network TV, But It's Too Late". San Jose Mercury News. July 8, 1994. Retrieved May 31, 2011.
- Steve Nidetz (May 16, 1994). "Bulls-Knicks TV Viewers Get Tasty Coverage Regardless of the Server". Chicago Tribune (Tribune Publishing). Retrieved May 31, 2011.
- Richard Sandomir (July 15, 1994). "TV SPORTS; New Age Begins: Baseball by the Shuttle System". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved May 31, 2011.
- Nelson, John (March 26, 1994). "Networks try to convince baseball fans that less is more". The Free Lance-Star.
- John Nelson (July 9, 1995). "ABC's All-Star Telecast Is Beginning Of End For Tbn -- But Baseball Wants New Pact By November 1". The Seattle Times.
- 1994 MLB All-Star Game Open on YouTube
- "Abc ‘Settles’ For All-Stars". Associated Press. May 3, 1995.
- Steve Nidetz (July 11, 1994). "With Baseball Back, NBC Pulls Out Its Own All-Star Lineup". Chicago Tribune (Tribune Publishing). p. 4.
- Tom Hopkins (July 11, 1994). "ABC Makes a Deal with America Online".
- 1995 ABC MLB All-Star Game commercial on YouTube
- Kent, Milton (12 July 1995). "No improvement, thanks to ABC". The Spokesman-Review.
- "1995 Texas Rangers All Star Game Press Pin Brooche The Baseball Network Hat". WorthPoint.
- Michael Hiestand (July 7, 1995). "McEnroe sees a plus in all the fuss". USA Today (Gannett Company). p. 2C.
- Rudy Martzke (July 11, 1995). "ABC All-Stars shrug off uncertainty of future". USA Today (Gannett Company). p. 2C.
- "1995 ALDS – Game 2". MLB.com. Retrieved October 10, 2010.
- 1995 10 06 1995 ALDS Game 3 New York Yankees at Seattle Mariners on YouTube
- "1995 ALDS – Game 5". MLB.com. Retrieved October 10, 2010.
- 1995 10 04 1995 ALDS Game 2 Seattle Mariners at New York Yankees on YouTube
- 1995 MLB on NBC Promo (Divisional Playoffs).wmv on YouTube
- "1995 NLDS Game 1". MLB.com. Retrieved October 10, 2010.
- 1995 10 04 1995 NLDS Game 2 Cincinnati Reds at Los Angeles Dodgers on YouTube
- Jim Shea (October 10, 1995). "The Pick: Indians vs. Mariners". Hartford Courant. p. C5.
- Jim Shea (October 13, 1995). "So Far, Musberger is Off His Game". Hartford Courant. p. C4.
- 1995プレーオフ キングドーム on YouTube
- "CBS' 'CPW' Getting Nowhere on Road to Nielsen Ratings". New York Daily News. October 13, 1995.
- Larry Stewart (October 5, 1995). "BASEBALL PLAYOFFS; A Network That Doesn't Work at All". Los Angeles Times (Times Mirror Company). p. 1.
- MLB World Series 21.10.1995 Cleveland Indians VS Atlanta Braves (Game 1) on YouTube
- MLB World Series 21.10.1995 Cleveland Indians VS Atlanta Braves (Game 4) on YouTube
- MLB World Series 21.10.1995 Cleveland Indians VS Atlanta Braves (Game 5) on YouTube
- 1995 MLB on NBC Promo (World Series--Game 2).wmv on YouTube
- MLB World Series 21.10.1995 Cleveland Indians VS Atlanta Braves (Game 2) on YouTube
- "1995 World Series – Game 6". MLB.com. Retrieved October 10, 2010.
- Final out in 1995 World Series (Braves vs. Indians) on YouTube
- Steve Nidetz (July 10, 1995). "ABC Pledges All-Star Effort Despite TBN Woes". Chicago Tribune (Tribune Publishing). Retrieved May 31, 2011.
- Baseball Night In America: The Worst Idea Ever
- Articles about Baseball Network - Baltimore Sun
- Searchable Network TV Broadcasts
Major League Baseball network broadcast partner
1994 – 1995
Fox & NBC