|ATC code||J07 J07 J07|
There are two effective types:
- Ty21a, which is a live vaccine given orally
- Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine, which is an injectable subunit vaccine
Ty21a is licensed for use from age six years and older. Boosters are recommended every 5 years. The Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine is licensed for use from age two years and older, and boosters are required every three years.
Almroth Edward Wright developed an effective inactivated whole-cell typhoid vaccine that was introduced in 1896. Due to side-effects its usage was eventually discontinued.
An experimental vaccine called Vi-rEPA has showed promising results in trials so far, indicating higher effectiveness and longer immunity. However, it has yet to be licensed for use. It is on the health system.
- Vi polysaccharide vaccine: Typhim Vi® (Sanofi Pasteur); Typherix® (GSK)
- Combined hepatitis A/Vi polysaccharide vaccine: ViATIM® (Sanofi Pasteur); Hepatyrix® (GSK)
- Ty21a oral vaccine: Vivotif® (Crucell)
- Fraser A, Goldberg E, Acosta CJ, Paul M, Leibovici L (2007). "Vaccines for preventing typhoid fever". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (3): CD001261.
- Salisbury, D; Ramsay, M; Noakes, K. ""Chapter 33: Typhoid"". Immunisation against infectious disease. Department of Health. p. 418.
- "WHO Model List of EssentialMedicines". World Health Organization. October 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2014.