Voiced palatal fricative
|Voiced palatal fricative|
The voiced palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʝ⟩ (crossed-tail j), or in broad transcription ⟨j⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is j\.
The voiced palatal fricative is a very rare sound, occurring in only seven of the 317 languages surveyed by the original UCLA Phonological Segment Inventory Database. In four of the languages listed below (Kabyle, Margi, Modern Greek, and Scottish Gaelic) this sound occurs phonemically along with its voiceless counterpart and in several more as a result of phonological processes.
There is also a voiced post-palatal fricative (also called pre-velar, fronted velar etc.) in some languages.
- Features 1
- Occurrence 2
- See also 3
- References 4
- Bibliography 5
Features of the voiced palatal fricative:
- Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
- Its place of articulation is palatal, which means it is articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised to the hard palate.
- Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
|Catalan||Majorcan||figuera||[fiˈʝeɾə]||'fig tree'||Occurs in complementary distribution with [ɟ]. Corresponds to [ɣ] in other varieties. See Catalan phonology|
|Danish||Standard||talg||[ˈtˢælˀʝ]||'tallow'||Possible word-final allophone of /j/ when it occurs after /l/. See Danish phonology|
|Dutch||Southern||geld||[ʝ̠ɛl̪t̪]||'money'||Post-palatal; more back in other dialects. See Hard and soft G in Dutch and Dutch phonology|
|Greek||Cypriot||ελιά||[e̞ˈʝːɐ]||'olive'||Allophone of /ʎ/|
|Standard Modern||ένοςγ||'gender'||Post-palatal. See Modern Greek phonology|
|Hungarian||dobj be||[dobʝ bɛ]||'throw (one/some) in'||An allophone of /j/. See Hungarian phonology|
|Irish||an ghrian||[ənʲ ˈʝɾʲiən̪ˠ]||'the sun'||See Irish phonology|
|Italian||Southern dialects||figlio||[ˈfiʝːo]||'son'||Corresponds to /ʎ/ in standard Italian. See Italian phonology|
|Limburgish||Weert dialect||gèr||[ʝ̠ɛ̈ːʀ̝̊]||'gladly'||Post-palatal; allophone of /ɣ/ before and after front vowels.|
|Norwegian||Standard Eastern||gi||[ʝiː]||'to give'||Allophone of /j/, especially before and after close vowels and in energetic speech. See Norwegian phonology|
|Pashto||Ghilji and Wardak dialects||موږ||[muʝ]||'we'|
|Scottish Gaelic||dhiubh||[ʝu]||'of them'||See Scottish Gaelic phonology|
|Spanish||sayo||[ˈsaʝo̞]||'smock'||More often is an approximant. May also be represented by ⟨ll⟩ in most dialects. See Yeísmo|
|Swedish||jord||'soil'||See Swedish phonology|
- Wheeler (2005:22–23)
- Basbøll (2005:212)
- Arvaniti (2010:116–117)
- Nicolaidis (2003:?)
- Arvaniti (2007:20)
- Gósy (2004:77 and 130)
- Ó Sé (2000:17)
- Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998:108)
- Kristoffersen (2000:74)
- Skaug (2003:189)
- Strandskogen (1979:33)
- Vanvik (1979:41)
- Henderson (1983:595)
- Oftedal (1956:?)
- Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:255)
- Engstrand (1999:140)
- Arvaniti, Amalia (2007), "Greek Phonetics: The State of the Art" (PDF), Journal of Greek Linguistics 8: 97–208,
- Arvaniti, Amalia (2010), "A (brief) review of Cypriot Phonetics and Phonology", The Greek Language in Cyprus from Antiquity to the Present Day (PDF), University of Athens, pp. 107–124
- Engstrand, Olle (1999), "Swedish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 140–142,
- Gósy, Mária (2004), Fonetika, a beszéd tudománya (in Hungarian), Budapest: Osiris
- Heijmans, Linda; Gussenhoven, Carlos (1998), "The Dutch dialect of Weert" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association 28: 107–112,
- Henderson, Michael M. T. (1983), "Four Varieties of Pashto", Journal of the American Oriental Society (American Oriental Society) 103 (3): 595–597,
- Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 255–259,
- Nicolaidis, Katerina (2003), "An Electropalatographic Study of Palatals in Greek", in D. Theophanopoulou-Kontou; C. Lascaratou; M. Sifianou; M. Georgiafentis; V. Spyropoulos, Current trends in Greek Linguistics (in Greek), Athens: Patakis, pp. 108–127
- Ó Sé, Diarmuid (2000), Gaeilge Chorca Dhuibhne (in Irish), Dublin: Institiúid Teangeolaíochta Éireann,
- Oftedal, M. (1956), The Gaelic of Leurbost, Oslo: Norsk Tidskrift for Sprogvidenskap
- Skaug, Ingebjørg (2003) [First published 1996], Norsk språklydlære med øvelser (3rd ed.), Oslo: Cappelen Akademisk Forlag AS,
- Strandskogen, Åse-Berit (1979), Norsk fonetikk for utlendinger, Oslo: Gyldendal,
- Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetikk, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo,
- Wheeler, Max W (2005), The Phonology Of Catalan, Oxford: Oxford University Press,