Voiced palatal fricative

Voiced palatal fricative

Voiced palatal fricative
IPA number 139
Entity (decimal) ʝ
Unicode (hex) U+029D
Kirshenbaum C
Braille ⠦ (braille pattern dots-236) ⠚ (braille pattern dots-245)

The voiced palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ʝ (crossed-tail j), or in broad transcription j, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is j\.

The voiced palatal fricative is a very rare sound, occurring in only seven of the 317 languages surveyed by the original UCLA Phonological Segment Inventory Database. In four of the languages listed below (Kabyle, Margi, Modern Greek, and Scottish Gaelic) this sound occurs phonemically along with its voiceless counterpart and in several more as a result of phonological processes.

There is also a voiced post-palatal fricative (also called pre-velar, fronted velar etc.) in some languages.


  • Features 1
  • Occurrence 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • Bibliography 5


Features of the voiced palatal fricative:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Asturian frayar [fɾäˈʝär] 'to destroy'
Berber Kabyle cceǥ [ʃʃəʝ] 'to slip'
Catalan Majorcan[1] figuera [fiˈʝeɾə] 'fig tree' Occurs in complementary distribution with [ɟ]. Corresponds to [ɣ] in other varieties. See Catalan phonology
Danish Standard[2] talg [ˈtˢælˀʝ] 'tallow' Possible word-final allophone of /j/ when it occurs after /l/.[2] See Danish phonology
Dutch Southern geld [ʝ̠ɛl̪t̪] 'money' Post-palatal; more back in other dialects. See Hard and soft G in Dutch and Dutch phonology
Greek Cypriot[3] ελιά [e̞ˈʝːɐ] 'olive' Allophone of /ʎ/
Standard Modern[4][5] ένοςγ     'gender' Post-palatal.[4][5] See Modern Greek phonology
Hungarian[6] dobj be [dobʝ bɛ] 'throw (one/some) in' An allophone of /j/. See Hungarian phonology
Irish[7] an ghrian [ənʲ ˈʝɾʲiən̪ˠ] 'the sun' See Irish phonology
Italian Southern dialects figlio [ˈfiʝːo] 'son' Corresponds to /ʎ/ in standard Italian. See Italian phonology
Limburgish Weert dialect[8] gèr [ʝ̠ɛ̈ːʀ̝̊] 'gladly' Post-palatal; allophone of /ɣ/ before and after front vowels.[8]
Norwegian Standard Eastern[9][10][11][12] gi [ʝiː] 'to give' Allophone of /j/, especially before and after close vowels and in energetic speech.[12] See Norwegian phonology
Pashto Ghilji and Wardak dialects[13] موږ [muʝ] 'we'
Ripuarian zeije [ˈt͡sɛʝə] 'to show'
Scottish Gaelic[14] dhiubh [ʝu] 'of them' See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Spanish[15] sayo [ˈsaʝo̞] 'smock' More often is an approximant. May also be represented by ll in most dialects. See Yeísmo
Swedish[16] jord     'soil' See Swedish phonology

See also


  1. ^ Wheeler (2005:22–23)
  2. ^ a b Basbøll (2005:212)
  3. ^ Arvaniti (2010:116–117)
  4. ^ a b Nicolaidis (2003:?)
  5. ^ a b Arvaniti (2007:20)
  6. ^ Gósy (2004:77 and 130)
  7. ^ Ó Sé (2000:17)
  8. ^ a b Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998:108)
  9. ^ Kristoffersen (2000:74)
  10. ^ Skaug (2003:189)
  11. ^ Strandskogen (1979:33)
  12. ^ a b Vanvik (1979:41)
  13. ^ Henderson (1983:595)
  14. ^ Oftedal (1956:?)
  15. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:255)
  16. ^ Engstrand (1999:140)


  • Arvaniti, Amalia (2007), "Greek Phonetics: The State of the Art" (PDF), Journal of Greek Linguistics 8: 97–208,  
  • Arvaniti, Amalia (2010), "A (brief) review of Cypriot Phonetics and Phonology", The Greek Language in Cyprus from Antiquity to the Present Day (PDF), University of Athens, pp. 107–124 
  • Engstrand, Olle (1999), "Swedish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 140–142,  
  • Gósy, Mária (2004), Fonetika, a beszéd tudománya (in Hungarian), Budapest: Osiris 
  • Heijmans, Linda; Gussenhoven, Carlos (1998), "The Dutch dialect of Weert" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association 28: 107–112,  
  • Henderson, Michael M. T. (1983), "Four Varieties of Pashto", Journal of the American Oriental Society (American Oriental Society) 103 (3): 595–597,  
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 255–259,  
  • Nicolaidis, Katerina (2003), "An Electropalatographic Study of Palatals in Greek", in D. Theophanopoulou-Kontou; C. Lascaratou; M. Sifianou; M. Georgiafentis; V. Spyropoulos, Current trends in Greek Linguistics (in Greek), Athens: Patakis, pp. 108–127 
  • Ó Sé, Diarmuid (2000), Gaeilge Chorca Dhuibhne (in Irish), Dublin: Institiúid Teangeolaíochta Éireann,  
  • Oftedal, M. (1956), The Gaelic of Leurbost, Oslo: Norsk Tidskrift for Sprogvidenskap 
  • Skaug, Ingebjørg (2003) [First published 1996], Norsk språklydlære med øvelser (3rd ed.), Oslo: Cappelen Akademisk Forlag AS,  
  • Strandskogen, Åse-Berit (1979), Norsk fonetikk for utlendinger, Oslo: Gyldendal,  
  • Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetikk, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo,  
  • Wheeler, Max W (2005), The Phonology Of Catalan, Oxford: Oxford University Press,