Walter Hamor Piston Jr, (January 20, 1894 – November 12, 1976), was an American composer of classical music, music theorist, and professor of music at Harvard University. His students included Leroy Anderson, Leonard Bernstein and Elliott Carter.
- Life 1
- Ballet 2.1
- Orchestral 2.2
- Band and brass ensemble 2.3
- Flute 2.4.1
- Clarinet 2.4.2
- Harp 2.4.3
- Piano 2.4.4
- Violin 2.4.5
- Viola 2.4.6
- Cello 2.4.7
- Organ 2.4.8
- Other 2.4.9
- Chamber/Instrumental 2.5
- Piano 2.6
- Organ 2.7
- Choral 2.8
- Books 2.9
- Notes 3
- Sources 4
- External links 5
Piston was born in Rockland, Maine. His paternal grandfather, a sailor named Antonio Pistone, changed his name to Anthony Piston when he came to America from Genoa, Italy. In 1905 the composer's father, Walter Piston Sr, moved with his family to Boston, Massachusetts.
Walter Jr first trained as an engineer at the Mechanical Arts High School in Boston, but was artistically inclined. After graduating in 1912, he enrolled in the Massachusetts Normal Art School, where he completed a four-year program in fine art in 1916.
During the 1910s, Piston made a living playing piano and violin in dance bands and later playing violin in orchestras led by
- Art of the States: Walter Piston
- Official Publisher of Walter Piston: Bio, Works List, Discography, Events and more
- Anon. (1991). Liner notes for RCA Victor recording 60798-2-RC.
- DeVoto, Mark (1994). "Walter Piston, Practical Theorist". (Accessed 03/02/11).
- Firmino, Érico Artioli, José Lino Oliveira Bueno, and Emmanuel Bigand. 2009. "Travelling Through Pitch Space Speeds up Musical Time". Music Perception: An Interdisciplinary Journal 26, no. 3 (February): 205–209.
- Hudson, Edward (1976). "Walter Piston Dies; Composer Won Two Pulitzers". The New York Times (November 13): 21.
- Lowe, Steven (2002). Liner notes to Walter Piston: Symphony No. 4, Capriccio for Harp and String Orchestra, Three New England Sketches. Seattle Symphony Orchestra; Gerard Schwarz, conductor. Naxos CD 8.559162.
- Oja, Carol J. (2011). "Walter Piston (1894-1976)". American Symphony Orchestra Program Notes (March 29). (Accessed 03/02/11).
- , Deane Root, editor in chief. (Subscription access). Previously published in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers, 2001.
- Thomson, Virgil (1962). "'Greatest Music Teacher' at 75". Music Educators Journal 49, no. 1 (Sept.–Oct.): 43.
- DeVoto 1994.
- Pollack 2001.
- Westergaard 1968, 3.
- Hudson 1976.
- Pollack 2001; Westergaard 1968, 4.
- Oja 2011.
- Westergaard 1968, 4.
- Thomson 1962.
- Carter 1946, 374.
- Anon. 1991.
- Pollack 1982, 35, 72–73.
- Archibald 1978, 267.
- Firmino, Bueno, and Bigand 2009, 206.
- Boston Public Library website, Rare Books Department.
- Carter 1946, 375.
- Lowe 2002.
- US Marine Band, Family Album, 2006. Label: Altissimo! Reference: B000QZSTZ2.
- Finding aid for the George Trescher records related to The Metropolitan Museum of Art Centennial, 1949, 1960-1971 (bulk 1967-1970). The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
- Pollack 1982, 108; Pollack 1987.
- Stowell 1992, 189.
- Anon. 2007.
- Principles of Harmonic Analysis. Boston: E. C. Schirmer, 1933.
- Harmony. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1941. Reprint edition (as U.S. War Dept. Education Manual EM 601), Madison, Wisc.: Published for the United States Armed Forces Institute by W. Norton & Co., 1944. Revised ed, New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1948. Third ed., 1962. Fourth ed., revised and expanded by Mark DeVoto, 1978. ISBN 0-393-09034-5. 5th edition, revised and expanded by Mark DeVoto ISBN 0-393-95480-3. British editions, London: Victor Gollancz, 1949, rev. ed. 1950 (reprinted 1973), 1959, 3rd ed. 1970, 4th ed. 1982. Spanish translation, as Armonía, rev. y ampliada por Mark DeVoto. Barcelona: Idea Books, 2001. ISBN 84-8236-224-0 Chinese version of the 2nd edition, as 和声学 [He sheng xue], trans. Chenbao Feng and Dunxing Shen. 北京 : 人民音乐出版社 : 新华书店北京发行所发行 [Beijing: Ren min yin yue chu ban she : Xin hua shu dian Beijing fa xing suo fa xing], 1956. Revised, 北京 : 人民音乐出版社 [Beijing: Ren min yin yue chu ban she], 1978.
- Counterpoint. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1947.
- Orchestration. New York: Norton, 1955. Russian translation, as 'Оркестровка', translation and notes by Constantine Ivanov. Moscow: Soviet Composer, 1990, ISBN 5-85285-014-4.
- Carnival Song, for male chorus and brass (1938)
- March (1940)
- Psalm and Prayer of David, for mixed chorus and seven Instruments (1959)
- "O sing unto the Lord a new song" (Psalm 96)
- "Bow down thine ear, O Lord" (Psalm 86)
- Chromatic Study on the Name of BACH (1940)
- Piano Sonata (1926) [unpublished, withdrawn]
- Passacaglia (1943)
- Improvisation (1945)
- Variation on Happy Birthday (1970)
- String quartets
- Three Pieces, for flute, clarinet, and bassoon (1925)
- Flute Sonata (1930)
- Suite for Oboe and Piano (1931)
- Piano Trio No. 1 (1935)
- Violin Sonata (1939)
- Sonatina for Violin and Harpsichord (1945)
- Interlude, for viola and piano (1942)
- Flute Quintet (1942)
- Partita, for violin, viola, and organ (1944)
- Divertimento, for nine instruments (1946)
- Duo for Viola and Cello (1949)
- Piano Quintet (1949)
- Wind Quintet (1956)
- Piano Quartet (1964)
- String Sextet (1964)
- Piano Trio No. 2 (1966)
- Souvenirs, for flute, viola, and harp (1967)
- Duo, for cello and piano (1972)
- Three Counterpoints, for violin, viola, and cello (1973)
- Fantasy for English Horn, Harp, and Strings (1953)
- Concerto for String Quartet, Wind Instruments and Percussion (1976)
- Prelude and Allegro for Organ and Strings (1943)
- Variations for Cello and Orchestra (1966)
- Viola Concerto (1957)
- Piano Concertino (1937)
- Concerto for Two Pianos and Orchestra (1959)
- Clarinet Concerto (1967)
- Flute Concerto (1971)
- Fanfare for the Fighting French, for brass and percussion (1942)
- Tunbridge Fair, for symphonic band (1950) (Commissioned by the American Bandmasters Association)
- Ceremonial Fanfare, for brass (1969) (Commissioned by the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York to accompany its Centennial exhibition "The Year 1200")
Band and brass ensemble
- Symphony No. 1 (1937)
- Symphony No. 2 (1943)
- Symphony No. 3 (1946–47) (commissioned by the Koussevitzky Foundation)
- Symphony No. 4 (1950) (composed for the 100th anniversary of the University of Minnesota)
- Symphony No. 5 (1954)
- Symphony No. 6 (1955) (composed for the 75th anniversary of the Boston Symphony Orchestra)
- Symphony No. 7 (1960)
- Symphony No. 8 (1965)
- Symphonic Piece (1927)
- Suite, for orchestra (1929)
- Concerto for Orchestra (1934)
- Suite from The Incredible Flutist (1940) (The suite from The Incredible Flutist was transcribed for symphonic wind ensemble by MSgt Donald Patterson and recorded by Col. Michael Colburn with "The President's Own" United States Marine Band.)
- Sinfonietta (1941)
- Fugue on a Victory Tune, for orchestra (1944)
- Variation on a Tune by Eugene Goosens (1944)
- Suite No. 2, for orchestra (1947)
- Toccata, for orchestra (1948)
- Serenata, for orchestra (1956)
- Three New England Sketches (1959)
- Symphonic Prelude (1961)
- Lincoln Center Festival Overture (1962)
- Variations on a Theme by Edward Burlingame Hill (1963)
- Pine Tree Fantasy (1965)
- Ricercare for Orchestra (1967)
- Bicentennial Fanfare, for orchestra (1975)
- The Incredible Flutist (1938)
His library and desk are permanently exhibited in the Piston Room, at the Boston Public Library.
He died at his home in Belmont, Massachusetts on November 12, 1976.
Piston wrote four books on the technical aspects of music theory which are considered to be classics in their respective fields: Principles of Harmonic Analysis, Counterpoint, Orchestration, and Harmony. The last of these went through four editions in the author's lifetime, was translated into several languages, and (with changes and additions by Mark DeVoto) was still regarded as recently as 2009 as a standard harmony text.
In 1943, the Alice M. Ditson fund of Columbia University commissioned Piston's Symphony No. 2, which was premiered by the National Symphony Orchestra on March 5, 1944 and was awarded a prize by the New York Music Critics' Circle. His next symphony, the Third, earned a Pulitzer Prize, as did his Symphony No. 7. His Viola Concerto and String Quartet No. 5 also later received Critics' Circle awards.
, Fantasy for Violin and Orchestra (1970), and Flute Concerto (1971).Ricercare for Orchestra Although he employed twelve-tone elements sporadically throughout his career, these become much more pervasive in the Eighth Symphony (1965) and many of the works following it: the Variations for Cello and Orchestra (1966), Clarinet Concerto (1967),  Piston studied the
Piston's only dance work, The Incredible Flutist, was written for the Boston Pops Orchestra, which premiered it with Arthur Fiedler conducting on May 30, 1938. The dancers were Hans Weiner and his company. Soon after, Piston arranged a concert suite including "a selection of the best parts of the ballet." This version was premiered by Fritz Reiner and the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra on November 22, 1940. Leonard Slatkin and the Saint Louis Symphony Orchestra included the suite in a 1991 RCA Victor CD recording that also featured Piston's Three New England Sketches and Symphony No. 6.
In 1936, the Columbia Broadcasting System commissioned six American composers (Aaron Copland, Louis Gruenberg, Howard Hanson, Roy Harris, William Grant Still and Piston) to write works for broadcast on CBS radio. The following year, Piston wrote his Symphony No. 1 and conducted its premiere with the Boston Symphony Orchestra on April 8, 1938.
He taught at Harvard from 1926 until his retirement in 1960. His students include Samuel Adler, Leroy Anderson, Arthur Berger, Leonard Bernstein, Gordon Binkerd, Elliott Carter, John Davison, Irving Fine, John Harbison, Karl Kohn, Ellis B. Kohs, Gail Kubik, Billy Jim Layton, Noël Lee, Robert Middleton, Robert Moevs, Conlon Nancarrow, William P. Perry, Daniel Pinkham, Frederic Rzewski, Allen Sapp, Harold Shapero and Claudio Spies.
 On graduating
In 1920, Piston married artist Kathryn Nason (1892–1976), who had been a fellow student at the Normal Art School. The marriage lasted until her death in February 1976, a few months before his own.
Piston was admitted to Harvard College in 1920, where he studied counterpoint with Archibald Davison, canon and fugue with Clifford Heilman, advanced harmony with Edward Ballantine, and composition and music history with Edward Burlingame Hill. He often worked as an assistant for various music professors there, and conducted the student orchestra.
 While playing in a service band, he taught himself to play most wind instruments. "They were just lying around," he later observed, "and no one minded if you picked them up and found out what they could do". During World War I, he joined the U.S. Navy as a band musician after rapidly teaching himself to play saxophone; he later stated that, when "it became obvious that everybody had to go into the service, I wanted to go in as a musician".