Warren County, New Jersey
|Warren County, New Jersey|
Location in the state of New Jersey
New Jersey's location in the U.S.
|Founded||November 20, 1824|
|Named for||Joseph Warren|
Hardwick Township (area)
|• Total||362.86 sq mi (940 km2)|
|• Land||356.92 sq mi (924 km2)|
|• Water||5.94 sq mi (15 km2), 1.64%|
|• Density||303/sq mi (117/km²)|
|Congressional districts||5th, 7th|
Warren County is a county located in the U.S. state of New Jersey. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 108,692, having increased by 6,255 (+6.1%) from 102,437 counted at the 2000 Census, retaining its position as the 19th-most populous county in the state. Its county seat is Belvidere. It is part of the Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA-NJ metropolitan area and is generally considered the eastern border of the Lehigh Valley, and also shares its western border with the New York City Metropolitan Area, with its northwestern section bordering The Poconos. The most populous place was Phillipsburg, with 14,950 residents at the time of the 2010 Census, while Hardwick Township, covered 37.92 square miles (98.2 km2), the largest total area of any municipality.
Warren County was incorporated by an Act of the New Jersey Legislature on November 20, 1824, from portions of Sussex County. At its creation, the county consisted of the townships of Greenwich, Independence, Knowlton, Mansfield, Oxford, and Pahaquarry (now defunct). The county was named for Joseph Warren, an American hero of the Battle of Bunker Hill.
Geology and geography 1
- Climate and weather 1.1
- Adjacent counties 1.2
- National protected areas 1.3
- Paleo Indians and Native Americans 2.1
- 17th-, 18th-, and 19th-century settlement 2.2
- Hunting and fishing 3.1
- Census 2010 4.1
- Census 2000 4.2
- Municipalities 5
- Freeholders 6.1
- Political outlook and elections 6.2
- Roads and highways 7.1
- Public transportation 7.2
- Colleges 8.1
- Private secondary schools 8.2
- Public education 8.3
- Wineries 9
- See also 10
- References 11
- External links 12
Geology and geography
According to the 2010 Census, the county had a total area of 362.86 square miles (939.8 km2), including 356.92 square miles (924.4 km2) of land (98.4%) and 5.94 square miles (15.4 km2) of land (1.6%).
Warren County is mountainous, with the Kittatinny Ridge providing a hard backbone to the county in the west. Allamuchy Mountain and Jenny Jump Mountain are part of the New York – New Jersey Highlands, also known as the Reading Prong. Around 450 million years ago, a chain of volcanic islands collided with proto North America. The chain of islands went over the North American plate, thus the Highlands were created from the island rock and so was the Great Appalachian Valley. The Highlands is Allamuchy Mountains and the Jenny Jump Mountains. Thus, Warren County was born.
Around 400 million years ago a small continent that was long and thin collided with proto North America. This created the Kittatinny Mountains, as the land was compressed from the collision. The quartzite that was lying in a shallow sea over top of the Martinsburg shale, folded and faulted due to pressure and heat. The quartzite lifted, thus the Kittatinny Mountain was born.
The final collision was when the African plate collided with the North American plate. This was the final episode of the building of the Appalachian Mountains. Then the African plate tore away from North America.
Then the Wisconsin Glacier covered the northern part of the county from 21,000 to 13,000 BC. This glacier covered the top of Kittatinny Mountain and carved the terrain in the northern part of the county. The terminal moraine runs from north of Belvidere to south of Great Meadows to north of Hackettstown, to north of Budd Lake. Blairstown Township, Hope Township, half of Independence Township, part of White Township, and all of Allamuchy Township was covered by the Glacier. When the glacier melted, a lake was formed at Great Meadows. Slowly the lake drained leaving a large flat area filled with organic material.
The county is drained by three rivers. All three rivers are shallow and narrow. They are fresh water rivers that are excellent for fishing. The Paulins Kill drains the western portion of the county. The river flows from Newton to Blairstown Township, and then through Knowlton Township where it drains into the Delaware River. The Pequest River drains the middle of the county flowing from Andover Township through Allamuchy, then to Independence Township where it turns west and flows through White Township and then empties into the Delaware River at Belvidere. The third river is the Musconetcong. Starting at Lake Musconetcong, the river divides the county from Morris and Hunterdon. This river drains the southern portion of the county and empties into the Delaware River near Warren Glen.
Warren County is located in two valleys of the Great Appalachian Valley. The first is the Kittatinny Valley, which is in the northern part of the county, and the Lehigh Valley, which is in the southern part of the county.
The Lehigh Valley starts at the terminal moraine of the Wisconsin Glacier slightly north of Belvidere. It extends from the Delaware River south to where the Musconetcong River goes into the Delaware River, northeast to the Jenny Jump Mountains and then along Route 80 to the Allamuchy Mountains to the terminal moraine near Hackettstown.
The Kittatinny Valley is north of the terminal moraine; it runs north of Belvidere, to south of Great Meadows, then east to the north of Hackettstown. Towns such as Blairstown, Johnsonburg, Hope and Allamuchy are in the Kittatinny Valley
The highest elevation is 1,600 feet (490 m) above sea level on the Kittatinny Ridge, at two areas just south of Upper Yards Creek Reservoir, west of Blairstown. The lowest point is the confluence of the Delaware and Musconetcong rivers at the county's southern tip, at 160 feet (49 m) of elevation.
The highest elevation on Allamuchy Mountain is 1,240 feet (380 m) on the ridge northeast of Allamuchy. On Jenny Jump Mountain the highest point is 1,134 feet (346 m) east of the Shiloh area or south of Interstate 80. Sunfish Pond has an elevation of 1,379 feet (420 m) and upper Yards Creek Reservoir is at 1,555 feet (474 m).
Climate and weather
|Belvidere, New Jersey|
|Climate chart ()|
In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Belvidere have ranged from a low of 19 °F (−7 °C) in January to a high of 85 °F (29 °C) in July, although a record low of −17 °F (−27 °C) was recorded in January 1994 and a record high of 101 °F (38 °C) was recorded in July 1999. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.77 inches (70 mm) in February to 4.65 inches (118 mm) in July.
- Sussex County, New Jersey – northeast
- Morris County, New Jersey – east
- Bucks County, Pennsylvania – south
- Hunterdon County, New Jersey – south
- Northampton County, Pennsylvania – west
- Monroe County, Pennsylvania – northwest
National protected areas
Paleo Indians and Native Americans
After the Wisconsin Glacier melted around 13,000 B.C., the area slowly warmed. At first the area was Tundra, and later changed to Taiga/Boreal Forests. Water was everywhere in the northern part of the county due to the glacier melt. The water drained slowly and grasses grew. There was a big lake at Great Meadows. The area was still cold, so coniferous forests and grasslands grew. Big game such as mastodons came into the area. This is when Paleo Indians moved into the area. Paleo Indians lived in small groups and traveled in search of game and plants to eat. They were hunter-gathers. They made spear points of jasper and black chert. They lived near water and moved after game became scarce in the area. Their camp sites are many feet below the present ground surface, making them difficult to locate.
Native Americans moved into the area but their time of arrival is unknown. Eventually ancestors of the Algonquian-speaking Lenape moved into the area, perhaps as early as 1000 AD Clay pottery and the bow and arrow was being invented around 1000 AD Agriculture also started around that time, with the cultivation of varieties of corn, beans and squash. Settlements of family groups became more stable, as they could store food, as well as procure more game with the bow and arrow. Agriculture contributed to the rise of population density in areas where crops could be grown. The Lenape would tend their oval gardens during the spring and summer months. They fished with nets or by hand in the shallow rivers. The Lenape trapped game with deadfalls and snares.
Problems developed in the early 17th century when the Little Ice Age came to North America. With late frost in May and June and frosts in early August or September, made the growing of crops difficult. Cold weather also made game more difficult to find. Also nut crops from oak, hickory, beech, walnut, chestnut, failed at times making the supply of food scarce. All these factors along with diseases contacted from Europeans made the Native populations decline dramatically.
17th-, 18th-, and 19th-century settlement
After the Dutch started to settle the Hudson River valley in the early 17th century, the settlers established small communities (trading posts) into Western New Jersey. Due to differing interpretations of land uses and vastly different cultures, the Dutch and Native Americans had increasing misunderstandings and hostility. In the middle century, there were three wars between the Dutch and Native Americans, notably the Lenae Lenape. Due to the conflicts, rival European powers did not move into the interior of New Jersey for settlement for decades. By this time, the English had taken control of the area which the Dutch called New Netherland by the mid-1600s. Relations between the British and Native American improved for a while but gradually declined.
In the present-day Phillipsburg area, European settlement occurred in the late 17th century. Surveyors from Philadelphia went north along the Delaware River to survey land. Settlers from Philadelphia moved north into present-day Warren County after colonists purchased land from the Native Americans. Their population had declined after epidemics of infectious diseases, for which they had no acquired immunity, as these were endemic among European settlers and new to North America. Many Native American populations were weakened from starvation due to the Little Ice Age, which was coldest during the 17th century. Their important corn, bean and squash crops failed. Big and small game became scarce due to the cold weather. Rivers froze early and prevented fishing. As the Native American population declined, more land was available for European settlement.
By the late 1700s/early 1800s, Phillipsburg, Hackettstown, Belvidere, and Washington emerged as small settlements and served as the cornerstone communities in lower Sussex County. In 1824, Warren County was established and Belvidere was named as its county seat.
Hunting and fishing
Warren County has many areas for hunting and fishing. The five major rivers or creeks for fishing in Warren County are the Paulinskill, the Pequest, the Musconetcong, Pohatcong Creek, and the Delaware River and are the premier fishing streams of the county. They are stocked with trout and other types of fish. Merrill Creek Reservoir, located in Harmony Township, is also stocked with fish and has game in the surrounding woods. Pohatcong Creek is also popular for trout fishing in the spring.
The New Jersey Department of Wildlife houses its Pequest Fish Hatchery, which produces trout and other fish, in Warren County about five miles northeast of Oxford, along U.S. Route 46. Thousands of trout are raised in this hatchery and also serves as an educational center for other outdoor activity. There are a couple notable Wildlife Management areas for hunting, White Lake, Oxford Lake, and the Pequest River W.M.A.
The Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area is also for hunting and fishing.
At the 2010 United States Census, there were 108,692 people, 41,480 households, and 28,870 families residing in the county. The population density was 304.5 per square mile (117.6/km2). There were 44,925 housing units at an average density of 125.9 per square mile (48.6/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 90.29% (98,137) White, 3.51% (3,818) Black or African American, 0.14% (155) Native American, 2.46% (2,673) Asian, 0.03% (30) Pacific Islander, 1.81% (1,964) from other races, and 1.76% (1,915) from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 7.05% (7,659) of the population.
There were 41,480 households, of which 31.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.1% were married couples living together, 10.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.4% were non-families. 25% of all households were made up of individuals, and 10.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.1.
In the county, 23.6% of the population were under the age of 18, 7.9% from 18 to 24, 24.1% from 25 to 44, 30.4% from 45 to 64, and 14.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41.5 years. For every 100 females there were 94.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.5 males.
As of the 2000 United States Census there were 102,437 people, 38,660 households, and 27,487 families residing in the county. The population density was 286 people per square mile (111/km²). There were 41,157 housing units at an average density of 115 per square mile (44/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 94.54% White, 1.87% Black or African American, 0.11% Native American, 1.21% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.01% from other races, and 1.24% from two or more races. 3.66% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Among those residents listing their ancestry, 24.1% were of German, 19.7% Irish, 18.7% Italian, 9.8% English, 8.9% Polish and 4.4% American ancestry according to Census 2000.
There were 38,660 households out of which 34.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.20% were married couples living together, 9.20% had a female householder with no husband present, and 28.90% were non-families. 24.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.00% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.12.
In the county the population was spread out with 26.10% under the age of 18, 6.30% from 18 to 24, 31.30% from 25 to 44, 23.50% from 45 to 64, and 12.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 94.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.10 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $56,100, and the median income for a family was $66,223. Males had a median income of $47,331 versus $31,790 for females. The per capita income for the county was $25,728. About 3.6% of families and 5.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.9% of those under age 18 and 6.7% of those age 65 or over.
Municipalities in Warren County, with Census-designated places (CDPs) and other communities listed, are:
- Allamuchy Township
- Blairstown Township
- Franklin Township
- Frelinghuysen Township
- Greenwich Township
- Hardwick Township
- Harmony Township
- Hope Township
- Independence Township
- Knowlton Township
- Liberty Township
- Lopatcong Township
- Mansfield Township
- Oxford Township
- Pohatcong Township
- Washington Township
- White Township
Warren County is governed by a three-member Board of Chosen Freeholders. The members are elected at large to serve three-year terms. One Freeholder seat comes up for election each year. The Freeholder Board is the center of legislative and administrative responsibility and, as such, performs a dual role. As legislators they draw up and adopt a budget, and in the role of administrators they are responsible for spending the funds they have appropriated.
As of 2013, Warren County's Freeholders are Freeholder Director Jason J. Sarnoski (Lopatcong Township; term ends December 31, 2013), Freeholder Deputy Director Edward J. Smith (Asbury; 2015) and Richard D. Gardner (Asbury, 2014).
Constitutional officers of Warren County are County Clerk Patricia J. Kolb (Blairstown Township), Sheriff David Gallant (Blairstown Township) and Surrogate Kevin O'Neill (Hackettstown). Prosecutor Richard T. Burke (Hackettstown) was appointed by the Governor.
The Superior Court of Warren County is located in Belvidere, the county seat. Law enforcement at the county level is provided by the Warren County Sheriff's Office and the Warren County Prosecutor's Office.
Two federal Congressional Districts, including portions of the 5th District and 7th District. New Jersey's Fifth Congressional District is represented by Scott Garrett (R, Wantage Township). New Jersey's Seventh Congressional District is represented by Leonard Lance (R, Clinton Township).
- 2013-15 - Edward Smith (R)
- 2011-16 - Jason Sarnoski (R)
- 2003-17 - Richard Gardner (R)
- 2004-12 - Everett Chamberlain (R)
- 2010 - Angelo Accetturo (R)
- 2001-03 - Michael J. Doherty (R)
- 2001-09 - John DiMaio (R)
- 2000-02 - James DeBosh (D)
- 1997-99 - Stephen Lance (R)
- 1996-00 - Ann Stone (D)
- 1993-01 - Susan Dickey (R)
- 1989-94 - Jacob Matthenius (R)
- 1988-96 - Kenneth Miller (R)
- 1986-88 - Anthony Fowler (R)
- 1984-87 - Charles Lee (R)
- 1981-83 - George Thompson (R)
- 1980-82 - Kenneth Keyes (R)
- 1979-81 - Chuck Haytaian (R)
- 1977-79 - Christopher Maier (D)
- 1976-78 - Irene Smith (D)
- 1975-77 - Benjamin Bosco (D)
- 1974-76 - Raymond Stem (D)
- 1973-75 - Frank Seney (R)
- 1968-73 - Herman Shotwell (D)
Political outlook and elections
Warren County has been a consistently conservative county in local, state, and national elections, with a 3 to 1 ratio of Republican:Democratic voters. The county is also home to a large non-partisan (independent) factor. This stems from its earliest days.
In the John Kerry, the second-highest margin for Bush in the state behind Sussex County. In the 2008 U.S. Presidential election, John McCain carried Warren County by a 14% margin over Barack Obama, with Obama winning statewide by 15.5% over McCain.
In the state's 2005 gubernatorial election, Warren County voted for Doug Forrester by 21 points over statewide winner Jon Corzine. In the 2009 Gubernatorial Election, Republican Chris Christie received 61% of the vote, defeating Democrat Jon Corzine, who received around 26%.
Roads and highways
As of 2010, the county had a total of 1,055.07 miles (1,697.97 km) of roadways, of which 690.53 miles (1,111.30 km) were maintained by the local municipality, 256.15 miles (412.23 km) by Warren County and 103.20 miles (166.08 km) by the New Jersey Department of Transportation and 5.19 miles (8.35 km) by the Delaware River Joint Toll Bridge Commission.
The county has a few notable state and federal roads. The chief state routes are Route 31,a north-south road that runs from Buttzville in White Township to Trenton, and Route 57 that runs between Lopatcong Township to Hackettstown. Route 94 in the northern part runs through Blairstown into New York via Newton and the rest of Sussex County. Route 173 runs near Bloomsbury into Hunterdon County, terminating at Clinton/Annandale, and Route 182 serves as one of the commercial areas of Hackettstown. The US Routes are U.S. Route 22 in the Phillipsburg area and U.S. Route 46 runs from Columbia to Hackettstown in the northern section. The two interstates are the Phillipsburg-Newark Expressway (Interstate 78), and the Bergen-Passaic Expressway (Interstate 80).
Warren County also contracts with Easton Coach to provide demand-responsive service, as well as limited fixed-route service. New Jersey Transit also operates the #890 & #891 buses in the Philipsburg area.
- Centenary College is a private college located in Hackettstown that is affiliated with the United Methodist Church.
- Warren County Community College, in Washington Township, offers both associate and bachelor's degree programs and certificate programs. The College serves approximately 1,700 full-time and part-time students, in addition to students in non-credit programs and courses. The College is able to offer bachelor programs through partnerships with four-year colleges.
Private secondary schools
- Blair Academy is a college preparatory school located in Blairstown, founded in 1848 with a gift from John Insley Blair.
- Belvidere High School, a part of the Belvidere School District (PreK-12) with Harmony and White Township School Districts
- Hackettstown High School, a part of the Hackettstown School District (PreK-12) with Independence and Allamuchy Township School Districts
- North Warren Regional High School, which serves the northern townships surrounding Blairstown
- Phillipsburg High School, a part of the Phillipsburg School District (PreK-12) with the school districts of Alpha Borough and the Townships of Lopatcong, Pohatcong, and Greenwich.
- Warren Hills Regional High School, a part of the Warren Hills Regional School District that serves the Borough of Washington, and the Townships of Washington, Mansfield, Franklin and Oxford (9-12 only)
Most of Warren County is part of the Warren Hills Viticultural Area, and the county has 5 active wineries:
- National Register of Historic Places listings in Warren County, New Jersey
- Media in the Lehigh Valley
- Musconetcong County, New Jersey, a proposed county in the 19th Century from parts of Warren and Hunterdon Counties
- Snyder, John P. The Story of New Jersey's Civil Boundaries: 1606-1968, Bureau of Geology and Topography; Trenton, New Jersey; 1969. p. 245. Accessed January 21, 2013.
- Warren County, NJ, National Association of Counties. Accessed January 21, 2013.
- DP1 - Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2,010 Demographic Profile Data for Warren County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 30, 2,013.
- DP-1 - Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000; Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data for Warren County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 30, 2013.
- NJ Labor Market Views, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development, March 15, 2011. Accessed October 7, 2013.
- New Jersey: 2010 - Population and Housing Unit Counts; 2010 Census of Population and Housing, p. 6, CPH-2-32. United States Census Bureau, August 2012, backed up by the Internet Archive as of July 31, 2013. Accessed June 28, 2015.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- May 2012 Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Area Definitions, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Accessed October 7, 2013.
- Revised Delineations of Metropolitan Statistical Areas, Micropolitan Statistical Areas, and Combined Statistical Areas, and Guidance on Uses of the Delineations of These Areas, Office of Management and Budget, February 28, 2013. Accessed October 7, 2013.
- About Warren County...Past and Present, Warren County, New Jersey. Accessed October 7, 2013. "The county was named in honor of Dr. Joseph Warren who, although he had no known association with the area, earned a heroic reputation throughout the original 13 states for his devotion to the revolutionary cause, which led to his death in the battle of Bunker Hill."
- Census 2010 U.S. Gazetteer Files: New Jersey Counties, United States Census Bureau, Backed up by the Internet Archive as of June 11, 2012. Accessed October 7, 2013.
- New Jersey County High Points, Peakbagger.com. Accessed October 2, 2013.
- "Monthly Averages for Belvidere, New Jersey". The Weather Channel. Retrieved October 13, 2012.
- PEPANNRES: Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014 - 2014 Population Estimates for New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed August 29, 2015.
- State & County QuickFacts for Warren County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed August 29, 2015.
- Forstall, Richard L. Population of states and counties of the United States: 1790 to 1990 from the Twenty-one Decennial Censuses, pp. 108-109. United States Census Bureau, March 1996. ISBN 9780934213486. Accessed October 7, 2013.
- U.S. Census Bureau Delivers New Jersey's 2010 Census Population Totals, United States Census Bureau, February 3, 2011. Accessed February 5, 2011.
- American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 4, 2014.
- Tables DP-1 to DP-4 from Census 2000 for Warren County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau, backed up by the Internet Archive as of May 18, 2011. Accessed October 1, 2013.
- DP-2 - Profile of Selected Social Characteristics: 2000 from the Census 2000 Summary File 3 (SF 3) - Sample Data for Warren County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 30, 2013.
- DP-3 - Profile of Selected Economic Characteristics: 2000 from Census 2000 Summary File 3 (SF 3) - Sample Data for Warren County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 30, 2013.
- Board of Chosen Freeholders, Warren County, New Jersey. Accessed September 30, 2013.
- Constitutional Officers, Warren County, New Jersey. Accessed September 30, 2013.
- 2012 Congressional Districts by County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections. Accessed October 7, 2013.
- Plan Components Report, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 23, 2011. Accessed October 7, 2013.
- Directory of Representatives: New Jersey, United States House of Representatives. Accessed January 5, 2012.
- Directory of Representatives: New Jersey, United States House of Representatives. Accessed January 5, 2012.
- 2011 Legislative Districts by County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections. Accessed October 7, 2013.
- New Jersey Presidential Election Returns by County 2004, Eagleton Institute of Politics at Rutgers University. Accessed August 28, 2008.
- U.S. Election Atlas
- 2005 Gubernatorial General Election Results – Warren County, NJ, Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Accessed August 28, 2008.
- Warren County Mileage by Municipality and Jurisdiction, New Jersey Department of Transportation, May 2010. Accessed July 18, 2014.
- Montclair-Boonton Line, New Jersey Transit. Accessed October 7, 2013.
- History, Centenary College of New Jersey. Accessed October 7, 2013.
- College History, Warren County Community College. Accessed October 7, 2013.
- Blair at a Glance, Blair Academy. Accessed October 7, 2013.
- Official County Website
- The Allentown Morning Call"Living in the Greater Lehigh Valley," by
- Warren County news at Lehigh Valley Live
||Monroe County, Pennsylvania||Sussex County, New Jersey|
|Northampton County, Pennsylvania||Morris County, New Jersey|
|Bucks County, Pennsylvania and Hunterdon County, New Jersey|